February 2002, Volume 44 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Characterization of a Cyclophilin cDNA from Soybean Cells
Author: KAN Yun-Chao, LIU Shi-Wang, GUO Ze-Jian and LI De-Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 173-176
      
    

A cDNA clone encoded for cyclophilin (GmCyp1 ) was isolated by RT-PCR method from suspension cultured soybean (Glycine max L.) cells. The deduced amino acid sequence was 91% identical to a kidney bean cyclophilin in the open reading frame of the gene. Results from Southern blotting analysis suggests that the GmCyp1 belong to a small gene family in soybean cells. The time course of GmCyp1 mRNA accumulation upon treatment of elicitor from yeast extract did not show significant change in the time period examined. The data suggest that the GmCyp1 was not regulated much by biotic factors. A possible role of the cyclophilin in the plant pathogen interaction was discussed.

大豆亲环蛋白基因的克隆与分析

阚云超  刘士旺  郭泽建*  李德葆

(浙江大学生物技术研究所,杭州 310029)

摘要:亲环蛋白(cyclophilin)基因广泛地存在于动植物中.在植物中,该基因受许多非生物(abiotic)因子和化合物的调节.利用RT-PCR的方法克隆了一个大豆(Glycine max L.)亲环蛋白基因(GmCyp1).该基因的氨基酸与一个菜豆亲环蛋白蛋白质序列的同源性达91%.Southern杂交结果表明GmCyp1以一小家族存在.用来源于酵母细胞壁成分的激发子处理大豆悬浮细胞,发现GmCyp1的表达在所观察的时间范围内没有明显的变化,表明GmCyp1的表达受生物因子的影响较小.

关键词 亲环蛋白基因 激发 大豆细胞

*通讯作者 Email: zjguo@mail.hz.zj.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2150)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of 6VS Telocentric Lines of Haynaldia villosa Resistant to Powdery Mildew Induced by Immature Embryo Culture
Author: LI Hui, CHEN Xiao, XIN Zhi-Yong, XU Hui-Jun, DU Li-Pu and MA You-Zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 127-131
      
    

The line of T240 6 was selected from 32 SC2 lines of immature embryo culture of T240 (common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)× Wheat Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur. 6D/6V substitution line)through powdery mildew characterization, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) enzyme and gliadin (Gli) analyses and in situ hybridization. All of the individual plants resistant to powdery mildew lacked the locus of GOT at 6V L arm (GOT V2) and had gliadin locus at 6VS arm (Gli-V2) of Haynaldia villosa. All the plants resistant to powdery mildew had one or two telocentric chromosomes that did not pair with wheat chromosomes but paired between themselves. T240-6 was identified as a telocentric line through in situ hybridization. 

幼胚培养创造抗白粉病簇毛麦6VS端体

李辉1,2  陈孝1  辛志勇1  徐惠1  杜丽璞1  马有志1

(1.中国农业科学院作物育种栽培研究所农业部作物遗传育种重点实验室,北京 100081; 2.河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所,石家庄 050031)

通过白粉病抗性鉴定、生化标记及分子原位杂交相结合的方法,从小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)幼胚培养组合T240 (普通小麦×小麦-簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa Lam.) 6D/6V异代换系)32SC2代株系中,筛选出T240-6株系,其所有的抗白粉病单株均缺失簇毛麦6V染色体长臂上的谷草转氨酶位点GOT-V2,而具有短臂上的醇溶蛋白位点Gli-V2.细胞学染色体观察表明,该株系的所有抗病单株均具有12个端体,这些端体不能与小麦染色体配对,双端体之间可以配对.经原位杂交分析,端体杂交呈阳性,表明它们均为簇毛麦6V染色体短臂(6VS).

关键词 簇毛麦 幼胚培养 端体 谷草转氨酶 醇溶蛋白 原位杂交

 

Abstract (Browse 2108)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Spore Morphology of the Chinese Liverworts
Author: JIA Yu, WU Peng-Cheng, WANG Mei-Zhi and Elena N. ANDREJEVA
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 132-138
      
    

The spore morphology of 9 species of 3 genera of Chinese liverworts was studied by scanning electron microscopic observation. They are Riccia huebeneriana Lindenb., R.hantamensis Perold.,R.cavernosa Hoffm.,R.warnstorfii Limpr. ex Warnst.,R.frostii Aust.,R.chinensis Herz., Asterella yoshinagana (Horik.) Horik., A.sanguinia L. et L., and Preissia quadrata (Scop.) Nees. There were evident morphological differences in spores among the above three genera. Difference of species morphology in the same genus was also observed. Therefore in the above genera and species the spore wall ornamentation can be regarded as a criterion for taxonomic specificity. Meanwhile, slight difference in morphological characters of the same species collected from different sites was observed and reckoned to be an ecological adaptation.

中国苔类孢子形态的研究

贾渝1 吴鹏程1 汪楣芝1 Elena N.ANDREJEVA2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京,1000932. Komalov Botanical Institute,Russian Academy of Sciences,St .Petersburg,197376 Russia)

 

摘要:通过电镜扫描方法,研究了3个属9种的中国叶状体苔类植物:稀枝钱苔(Riccia huebeneriana Lindb.)、宽翅钱苔(R. hantamensis Perold.)、曲脊钱苔(R. cavernosa Hoffm.)R. warnstorfii Limpr. ex Warnst.、小孢钱苔(R. frostii Aust.)、中华钱苔(R. chinensis Herz.)、东亚花萼苔(Asterella yoshinagana (Horik.) Horik.)、矮网花萼苔(A. sanguinia L. et L.)、背托苔(Preissia quadrata) (Scop.) Nees.).对上述种类的孢子形态特征进行了描述.研究发现,上述3属的孢子形态特征具有明显差异.而且同一属的孢子形态特征也存在差异,甚至可以作为种类划分的依据之一.同时采自不同地点的同一种类其孢子形态有时具微小的差别.这可能是由于生态环境差异所造成的.

 

关键词 孢子形态 中国苔类 电镜扫描 系统学

 

Abstract (Browse 2281)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photochemical Efficiency of PSⅡand Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Leaves of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa) Under Chilling Temperature and Strong Light Stress Conditions
Author: JI Ben-Hua, ZHU Su-Qin and JIAO De-Mao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 120-123
      
    

Relationships between fluorescence parameters and membrane lipid peroxidation in leaves of indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) during later growth stage were studied under chilling temperature and strong light stress conditions. Results showed that D1 protein contents of PSⅡ in photosynthetic app aratus dropped, the generation of antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z)of xanthophyll cycle were inhibited partly, PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm)and non photochemical quenching (qN) were also decreased obviously. In addition, endogenous active oxygen scavenger—superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced, superoxide anion radical (O[SX(B-*3)-[]·[SX]]2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated, as a result, photooxidation of leaves occurred under chilling temperature and strong light stress conditions. Obvious differences in the changes of the above mentioned physiological parameters between indica and japonica rice were observed. Experiments in leaves treated with inhibitors under chilling temperature and strong light conditions showed that indica rice was more sensitive to chilling temperature with strong light and subjected to photooxidation more than japonica rice. Notable positive correlation between D1 protein contents and Fv/Fm or (A+Z)/(A+Z+V), and a marked negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA contents were obtained by regression analysis in indica and japonica rice during chilling temperature and strong light conditions. According to the facts mentioned above, it was inferred that PSⅡ photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm) was the key index to forecast for the prediction of photooxidation under stress circumstances and the physiological basis were the synthetic capacity of D1 protein and the protection of xanthophyll cycle.

低温强光胁迫下籼粳稻的PSⅡ光化学效率和膜脂过氧化表现

季本华1,2  朱素琴2  焦德茂1*

(1. 江苏农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所,南京 210014; 2. 南通师范学院生命科学与技术系,南通 226007)

摘要:研究了温光胁迫下籼(Oryza sativa L. spp. indica)粳稻(O. sativa L. spp. japonica)生育后期叶片荧光参数和膜脂过氧化的关系.结果表明,低温强光下水稻光合机构中PSⅡ的D1蛋白量下降,叶黄素循环组分中环氧玉米黄质(A)和玉米黄质(Z)的形成受抑,PSⅡ光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和非光化学猝灭(qN)明显下降.加之内源活性氧清除剂超氧物歧化酶(SOD)活性降低,超氧阴离子自由基(O(-)/(*)2)和膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)积累增加,导致光氧化发生.上述过程在籼粳稻间有明显差异,低温强光结合抑制剂处理证明,籼稻较粳稻对低温强光敏感和光氧化严重.相关分析表明,D1蛋白量分别与Fv/Fm(A+Z)/(A+Z+V)呈极显著的正相关关系,Fv/FmMDA呈极显著的负相关关系.据此认为,逆境下Fv/Fm 是预测光氧化的

关键词 D1蛋白 PSⅡ光化学效率(Fv/Fm) 膜脂过氧化 叶黄素循环 水稻

*通讯作者 Email: photosyn@public1.ptt.js.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2101)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Analysis of Peptides of PSⅡ Light-harvesting Complexes in Siphonous Green Algae, Codium fragile
Author: CHEN Min, LI Ai-Fen and ZHOU Bai-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 147-151
      
    

Peptide composition and arrangement of 4 major light harvesting complexes LHCP1-3 and LHCP3′isolated from siphonous green algae (Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot.) were investigated. LHCP1 showed five main peptides, 34.4, 31.5, 29.5, 28.2 and 26.5 kD in SDS PAGE, the 34.4 and 31.5 kD peptides were never found in higher plants. LHCP3 contained the other four kinds of LHCP1 peptides except 34.4 kD, while LHCP3′consisted of only 28.2 and 26.5 kD peptides. We found that 34.4, 28.2 and 26.5 kD peptides were easy to decompose from LHCP 1 when subjected to SDS PAGE without pretreatment. They might be located at the exterior of LHCP1, while the 31.5 and 29.5 kD peptides were at the central part. The 28.2 and 26.5 kD peptides often occurred in CPa, the center complex of PSⅡ. They are possibly the LHCⅡ peptides tightly associated with CCⅡ. According to the results described above, a peptide map of LHCP1 was sketched.

管藻目绿藻刺松藻PSⅡ捕光复合物多肽结构分析

陈敏1*  李爱芬1  周百成2

(1. 烟台大学生物化学系,烟台 2640052. 中国科学院海洋研究所,青岛 266071)

摘要:对管藻目绿藻刺松藻(Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot.)4种主要的捕光复合物LHCP1-3LHCP3′的多肽组成和相互关系进行了研究.LHCP1SDS-PAGE中主要呈现34.431.529.528.226.5 kD 5种多肽,其中34.431.5 kD多肽是高等植物所没有的;LHCP3含有LHCP1中除了34.4 kD多肽以外的其他4种多肽,LHCP3′只含有28.226.5 kD两种多肽.LHCP1不经处理直接进行SDS-PAGE,发现较易从LHCP1上脱落的是34.428.226.5 kD多肽,这表明它们可能位于较外侧,31.529.5 kD多肽则靠近核心;2826 kD两种多肽常出现在刺松藻的中心复合物CPa,可能是与CCⅡ结合最为紧密的LHCⅡ多肽.根据上述结果提出了1LHCP1多肽结构关系示意图.

关键词 捕光复合物 多肽 结构 刺松藻

*通讯作者 Email: chenmclm@china.com

 

Abstract (Browse 2270)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differences of Uptake and Accumulation of Zinc in Four Species of Sedum
Author: LONG Xin-Xian, YANG Xiao-E, YE Zheng-Qian, NI Wu-Zhong and SHI Wei-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 152-157
      
    

Four species of Sedum L. were grown in nutrient solution for the comparis on of their Zn uptake and accumulation. S. alfredii Hance showed much greater tolerance to Zn than the other three species. Shoot and root yields of S. sarmentosum Bunge,S. bulbiferum Makino, and S.emarginatum Migo decreased with increasing Zn concentration in the solution, while shoot and root yields of S. alfredii increased when Zn concentration was ≤80 mg/L. At 80 mg/L Zn, Zn concentration in shoots of S. alfredii reached 19.09 mg/g.S. alfredii was also more efficient in Zn translocation from roots to shoots, while Zn concentration in shoots was much higher than in roots. However, this was not the case for the other three species. The results showed that S. alfredii is a Zn hyperaccumulator and could be useful for the phytoremediation of Zn contaminated soils.

四种景天属植物对锌吸收和累积差异的研究

龙新宪  杨肖娥  叶正钱  倪吾钟  石伟勇

(浙江大学环境与资源科学学院农业化学研究所,杭州310029

摘要:采用营养液培养试验,比较研究了4种景天属植物对Zn的吸收、积累和运输特性.结果表明,东南景天(Sedum alfredii Hance)Zn毒的能力远强于珠芽景天(S. sarmentosum Bunge)、凹叶景天(S. bulbiferum Makino)和垂盆草(S. emarginatum Migo),其地上部和根系的干物质产量随着Zn浓度的增加而逐渐减少;当浓度≤40 mg*L-1,东南景天的地上部和根系的干物质产量均随Zn浓度的增加而增加,其地上部Zn含量、积累量及其Zn运输速率均显著高于珠芽景天、凹叶景天和垂盆草;Zn浓度低于80 mg*L-1,东南景天地上部Zn含量随着营养液中Zn浓度的增加而增加,80 mg*L-1浓度,其地上部Zn含量高达19.09 mg*g-1.东南景天的地上部Zn含量/根系Zn含量的比值大于1,而株芽景天、凹叶景天和垂盆草的地上部Zn含量/根系Zn含量比值小于1.东南景天是在我国首次发现的具有生物量大、生长速率快的一种新的Zn超积累植物.

关键词 耐性 超积累 东南景天

 

Abstract (Browse 2341)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fruit Photosynthesis and Assimilate Translocation and Partitioning: Their Characteristics and Role in Sugar Accumulation in Developing Citrus unshiu Fruit
Author: CHEN Jun-Wei, ZHANG Shang-Long, ZHANG Liang-Cheng, ZHAO Zhi-Zhong and XU Jian-Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 158-163
      
    

Dynamics of dryor fresh weight of fruit, peel photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, and the characteristics of translocation and distribution of radiolabelled assimilates from leaf or fruit were examined in developing satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit from primary stage of fruit enlargement up to fruit full ripe. Change in fruit photosynthetic rate was some what related to the change in the chlorophyll content of peel. Fruit photosynthetic rate markedly declined as chlorophyll degradation occurred in the peel. Before full ripe stage of the fruit, photosynthates produced by a 14C fed leaf were mainly distributed to juice sacs even during periods when dry matter accumulation in peel was more rapid than that in juice sacs. At the full ripe stage, peel photosynthetic rate approached zero and peel became the major sink of leaf photosynthates. Most of the peel assimilates, however, remained in situ for up to 48 h after feeding 14CO2 to the fruit, only a small portion being transported to other parts of fruit. The percentage of fruit photosynthates exported decreased with fruit development and ripening, but the peak rate of export to juice sacs amount to as high as 12%. The sugar content and dry weights of peel and juice sacs in shaded fruit were lower than that in the control fruit. These results show that peel assimilate was mainly consumed in peel respiration and growth and thus the dependence on leaf photosynthates decreased. Part of this assimiate was used in sugar accumulation in juice sacs of fruit.

柑橘果实的光合特性、产物运输及分配在糖分积累中的作用

陈俊伟1,2  张上隆1  张良诚1  赵智中1  徐建国3

(1. 浙江大学农业与生物技术学院园艺系,杭州,310029; 2. 浙江省农业科学院园艺研究所,杭州,3100213. 浙江省农业科学院柑橘研究所,黄岩,318020)

摘要:测定了温州蜜柑(Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase)果实发育进程中干鲜重、果皮光合速率和叶绿素含量的变化,并用14CO2示踪技术研究了果皮和叶同化生成的光合产物在果实内的运输分配特性.结果表明:果皮光合速率与叶绿素含量有关,随着叶绿素含量的下降,果实光合速率也快速下降.在果实完熟之前,即使是当果皮积累的干重超过汁囊时,叶同化产物仍主要分配到汁囊中;而在完熟阶段,果皮光合速率接近零,果皮成了叶同化产物的主要库.果皮的同化产物,主要保留在果皮中,输入到汁囊的比率随果实发育而下降,但高峰时也有12%输入汁囊.与对照相比,果实遮光处理后降低了果皮与汁囊的干重和含糖量.上述结果表明果皮光合产物主要用于果皮自身的发育并能减少对叶光合产物的依赖,同时也能部分增加汁囊糖的积累.

 

关键词 温州蜜柑 果实光合作用 光合产物 运输 分配 糖积累

 

Abstract (Browse 2401)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Localized Scorch on the Transport and Distribution of Exogenous Jasmonic Acid in Vicia faba
Author: LIU Xin, ZHANG Shu-Qiu, LOU Cheng-Hou and YU Feng-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 164-167
      
    

Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) has been showed to be able to induce stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. in previous investigations. The transport and distribution of 3H JA affected by localized scorch on V. faba seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that 3H JA could be transported up or down at the rate of 4-5 cm/min following feeding into root or shoot tip. The transport of 3H JA in shoot reached a relative stable rate at 30 min after being fed through root. Wounding by scorch in the youngest leaf caused an increase in the transport of 3H JA from root to shoot and enhanced the distribution of 3H JA in the wounded leaf. However, distribution of 3H JA in unwounded leaves increased after 5 h being fed through the youngest leaf. It was noticed that wounding improved accumulation of 3H JA in abaxial epidermis. Consistent results were obtained: wounding prevented transport of 3H JA out from the youngest leaf to root; These observations suggest that JA plays an important role as a defense signal and might be involved in the regulation of the stomatal movement in response to wounding stress.

局部灼伤对茉莉酸在蚕豆幼苗中运输和分配的影响

刘新1  张蜀秋2*  娄成后2  于风义3

(1. 莱阳农学院基础部,莱阳,2652002. 中国农业大学生物学院,植物生理学与生物化学国家重点实验室,北京,1000943. 中国农业科学院原子能利用研究所,北京,100094)

摘要:用示踪技术研究了3H-JA (jasmonic acid)在双子叶植物蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)中的运输和分配规律以及局部灼伤对其运输与分配的影响.外源3H-JA 能够以高于45 cm*min-1的速率在蚕豆幼苗体内向上和向下运输.幼叶局部灼伤能提高3H-JA的向上运输能力,促进3H-JA向受伤部位的调运;增加3H-JA向成熟叶片下表皮的运输分配比率;阻止3H-JA从受伤部位的向外输出.据此推测,伤胁迫下JA的运输与分配的改变可能与植物体防御伤反应密切相关,并有可能参与了对气孔运动的调控.

 

关键词 茉莉酸 运输 分配 伤胁迫 伤信号 蚕豆

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 2186)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Litchi Embryo Abortion and Phenolic Inhibitors
Author: CHEN Wei and L|B Liu-Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 168-172
      
    

Phenolic inhibitors were preliminarily isolated from the normal and abortive litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)ovules with a series of solvents, and then separated and purified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), further isolated and identified with GC MS, and finally checked with standards. p Hydroxybenzoic acid (p HBA) was isolated and identified from litchi ovules in this experiment for the first time. Determination of its biological activity showed that p HBA was a very strong growth inhibitory substance. In abortive ovules, p HBA content and IAA oxidase activity were much higher; IAA content was much lower than those in normal ovules (P<0.01). It is suggested that p HBA may be involved in the regulation of litchi embryo development; high content of p HBA may accelerate IAA oxidation and affect the balance of growth promoting and inhibitory substances, causing embryo abortion.

荔枝胚胎败育与酚类抑制物质的关系

陈伟1  吕柳新2

(1. 福建农林大学生命科学学院,福州 3500022. 福建农林大学园艺学院,福州 350002)

摘要:在荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)胚胎败育发生期,以系统溶剂法从正常或败育胚珠中初步提取酚类抑制物质,通过TLC分离与纯化,GC-MS联用仪进一步分离鉴定,并以标准品核对.试验首次从荔枝胚珠中分离鉴定出酚类抑制物质对羟基苯甲酸(p-HBA).生物活性测定表明,p-HBA是一种很强的生长抑制物质.在败育胚珠中其含量及IAA氧化酶活性均显著高于正常胚珠,IAA水平则明显低于正常胚珠(P<0.01).因此认为,p-HBA参与了荔枝胚胎发育的调节,高含量的p-HBA是通过促进IAA侧链的氧化并影响促进和抑制生长的物质之间的平衡而导致荔枝胚胎的败育.

 

关键词 荔枝 胚胎 败育 酚类抑制物质

 

Abstract (Browse 2260)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Tagging of a New Resistance Gene to Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus Using Microsatellite Markers
Author: WU Jian-Yu, TANG Ji-Hua, XIA Zong-Liang and CHEN Wei-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 177-180
      
    

With joint analysis based on the parents, F1, F2 and backcrosses, the authors found that the resistance of the maize inbred line Huangzaosi to the maize dwarf mosaic virus strain B was conditioned by a major gene and polygene, and identified a new major gene. Bulked segregate and microsatellite analysis of a F2 progeny from the combination of Huangzaosi×Mo17 were used to identify the resistance gene, mdm1 (t), on the long arm of chromosome 6. This new resistance gene is tightly linked to and located between the microsatellite markers loci, phi077 and bnlg391. The linkage distances between phi077 mdm1(t) and mdm1(t) bnlg391 are 4.74 centiMorgan (cM) and 6.72 cM respectively.

一个新的抗玉米矮花叶病基因位点的微卫星标记

吴建宇  汤继华  夏宗良  陈伟程

(河南农业大学农学院,郑州 450002)

摘要:通过混合遗传模型P1P2B1B2F1F2 6世代联合分析发现, 玉米(Zea mays L.)自交系黄早四对玉米矮花叶病B株系的抗性是由一对主基因和多基因共同控制,从而鉴别出一对主效基因的存在;利用位于第六染色体上的27对微卫星标记,对黄早四×Mo17 F2群体进一步分析,筛选出两个与主效抗病基因(mdm1(t))紧密连锁的微卫星标记phi077 bnlg391,它们在分子图谱上的顺序为phi077-mdm1(t)-bnlg391,两个区间的遗传距离分别是4.74 centiMorgan (cM)6.72 cM.

关键词 玉米 玉米矮花叶病 抗病基因 微卫星 分子标记

 

Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
cDNA Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Taxadiene Synthase, a Diterpene Cyclase from Taxus chinensis
Author: WANG Wei, SHI Qing, ZHU Ping, OUYANG Tao, LI Nong and CHENG Ke-Di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 181-187
      
    

Taxadiene synthase, a diterpene cyclase, catalyzes the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to taxadiene, a key intermediate in Taxol biosynthesis in yew. A 2 151 bp cDNA fragment encoding taxadiene synthase of Taxus chinensis (Pilg.) Rehd. was cloned by homology-based PCR and cDNA library screening. The 5′-terminal 611 bp cDNA fragment of taxadiene synthase was isolated by PCR. The two fragments were ligated together and gave a 2712 bp cDNA fragment with a 2586 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 862 amino acid residues including a presumptive plastidial transit peptide. The taxadiene synthase of T. chinensis most closely resembles the one from T. brevifolia(97% identity). Heterologous overexpression of 2.5 kb cDNA fragment from T. chinensis was obtained using a fusion expression vector pET-32a and the Escherichia coli strain BL21trxB. The expressed proteins from E. coli BL21trxB were present as inclusion bodies. After the inclusion bodies were denatured, renatured and refolded, the recombinant enzyme was purified by a single step with a His binding metal affinity column. The catalytic product of taxadiene synthase of T. chinensis was detected by capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified as taxa 4(5),11(12)-diene.

中国红豆杉紫杉烯合酶cDNA的分离、表达和鉴定

王伟  石青  朱平  欧阳涛  李秾  程克棣*

(中国医学科学院、中国协和医科大学药物研究所,卫生部天然药物生物合成重点实验室,北京 100050)

摘要:紫杉烯合酶是一种二萜环化酶,催化牻牛儿基牛儿基焦磷酸形成紫杉醇生物合成过程中的中间体紫杉烯.利用PCR扩增同源探针筛选cDNA文库,克隆了一个编码中国红豆杉(Taxus chinensis (Pilg.) Rehd.)紫杉烯合酶3′端的2 151 bpcDNA片段,也通过PCR扩增得到了该基因5′端的611 bpcDNA片段,将这两个cDNA片段拼接在一起,得到长2 712 bpcDNA片段,具有一个2 586个碱基的开放阅读框架(ORF),编码包括质体转移肽在内的共862个氨基酸残基;该酶与太平洋红豆杉紫杉烯合酶有97%的同源性(identity),与其他植物萜类环化酶也有较高的同源性.利用融合表达载体pET-32a在大肠杆菌BL21trxB中表达,所表达的融合蛋白以包含体形式存在.包含体经过变性、复性和再折叠,利用His残基亲和凝胶柱层析得到融合的紫杉烯合酶.用毛细管气相色谱-质谱联用对酶促反应产物进行分析,结果表明,融合的紫杉烯合酶能催化产生4(5),11(12)-紫杉烯.

 

关键词 中国红豆杉 紫杉醇生物合成 紫杉烯合酶

*通讯作者 Email: chengkd@imm.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Rice EPSP Synthase cDNA and Its Sequence Analysis and Copy Number Determination
Author: XU Jun-Wang, WEI Xiao-Li, LI Xu-Gang, CHEN Lei, FENG De-Jiang and ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 188-192
      
    

In order to isolate the total cDNA of rice (Oryza sativa L.) epsps gene, RT-PCR was carried out with template of rice first strand cDNA and primers designed according to rice EPSP synthase genomic sequence obtained in previous study. A 1 585 bp cDNA fragment was amplified and cloned. The 1 585 bp cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) comprising of 1 533 nucleotides (nt) which encodes a 511 residue polypepetides, including 67 amino acids chloroplast transit peptide and 444 amino acids EPSP synthase mature peptide. A comparison between the EPSP synthase of diffe rent sources indicates that the mature peptide shows more than 51% identity except for the fungi EPSP synthase and the transit peptide shows considerably less sequence conservation. The copy number of rice epsps gene is estimated to be one copy per haploid rice genome using southern blot. RT-PCR indicated that rice epsps gene is expressed in rice leaves, endosperms and roots and has the highest expression level in leaves.

水稻EPSP合酶cDNA克隆、序列分析及其拷贝数测定

徐军望  魏晓丽  李旭刚  陈蕾  冯德江  朱祯*

(中国科学院遗传和发育生物学研究所,北京 100101)

摘要:根据本室分离的水稻EPSP合酶基因的基因组序列设计一对引物,利用RT-PCR方法首次从水稻(Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica)叶片的RNA中扩增获得了水稻编码EPSP合酶的全长为1 585 bpcDNA片段,它含有一个完整的开放读码框,编码511个氨基酸,包括444个氨基酸组成的成熟肽序列以及N端的67个氨基酸组成的叶绿体转运肽序列.成熟肽氨基酸序列对比表明,除真菌来源的EPSP合酶变异较大外,其他来源的EPSP合酶同源性较高,均在51%以上.而叶绿体转运肽氨基酸序列同源性较低.Southern杂交表明水稻EPSP合酶基因在水稻基因组中以单拷贝形式存在.RT-PCR分析表明,水稻EPSP合酶基因在根、未成熟种子和叶片中均有转录表达,在叶片中表达量最高.

关键词 水稻EPSP合酶 cDNA序列 序列分析 拷贝数 表达

*通讯作者 Email: zzhu@genetics.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 5247)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Diversity of Cephalotaxus mannii, a Rare and Endangered Plant
Author: DU Dao-Lin, SU Jie, FU Yong-Chuan, ZHOU Peng, MA Wen-Ru and XIANG Zhi-Qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 193-198
      
    

Using RAPD technique, the DNA diversity of Cephalotaxus mannii Hook. f., its genetic diversity pattern,the reasons for its endangered position and conservative approaches were studied. The results show that: 1. The genetic diversity of C. mannii collected from five localities in Hainan is low, and its adaptability to environmental change is weak. 2. The differences of genetic diversity between intra and inter populations are great, and the major variation distributes within the population (DNA diversity is 85.1%). 3. The excessive lumbering, man made destruction, violent typhoon, edible value of the seeds and genetic drift were the main reasons for the low level genetic diversity of C. mannii and its endangered position. 4. The difference of the micro environment and other random factors affecting the population should also be taken into full consideration in the study and in protection of such occasionally scattered plants. 5. Enforced measures should be taken to protect the present population, enlarge the population and lower the loss rate of its gene. Mt. Limulin should be chosen as a conservative spot because of its high genetic diversity and less destruction of the forest. Meanwhile, the protection of other populations should be enforced. 6. The differences within and between the populations are great based on different primers used. The change of proportions in polymorphic loci between the populations is more than that between the primers.

珍稀濒危植物海南粗榧种群遗传多样性研究

杜道林1,3*  苏洁1  付永川2  周鹏3  马文儒1  向志强2

(1.海南师范学院生物系, 海口 5711582.西南师范大学生命科学学院,重庆400715;

3.中国热带农业科学院热带作物生物技术国家重点实验室,海口 571101)

摘要:利用RAPD技术对珍稀濒危植物海南粗榧(Cephalotaxus mannii Hook . f.)遗传多样性水平、分布、濒危原因及物种保护等问题进行了探讨.结果表明:1. 海南粗榧在海南岛的5个取样地点表现出低水平的遗传多样性,对环境变化的适应能力不强; 2. 海南粗榧种群内和种群间的遗传多样性所占比例有很大差异,绝大部分变异分布于种群内(DNA多样性为85.1%);种群间仅有较低程度的分化;3. 人为砍伐、植被破坏、台风、被食及遗传漂变是海南粗榧遗传多样性低水平的主要原因,也是物种濒危的主要原因;4. 对于呈零星分布的濒危植物海南粗榧的研究与保护,应充分考虑个体小环境之间的差异,考察影响小种群的随机因素;5. 应采取有力措施,就地保护现有种群,并寻求适当的方法迅速扩展种群,降低基因丧失率;选择遗传多样性较高且破坏相对较小的黎母岭种群作为保护重点;同时应加强对其他种群的保护与管理;6. 海南粗榧种群内、种群间的遗传多样性在不同引物之间有较大差别;多态性位点百分率则是种群间的变化大于引物间的变化.

关键词 珍稀濒危植物 海南粗榧 遗传多样性 RAPD 

*通讯作者 Email: ddl@hainnu.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2501)  |  Full Text PDF       
Climatic Factors for Limiting Northward Distribution of Eight Temperate Tree Species in Eastern North America
Author: FANG Jing-Yun and LI Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 199-203
      
    

Distribution of vegetation is closely coupled with climate; the climate controls distribution of vegetation and the vegetation type reflects regional climates. To reveal vegetation climate relationships is the foundation for understanding the vegetation distribution and theoretically serving vegetation regionalization. Vegetation regionalization is a theoretical integration of vegetation studies and provides a base for physiogeographical regionalization as well as agriculture and forestry regionalization. Based on a brief historical overview on studies of vegetation climate relationships and vegetation regionalization conducted in China, we review the principles, bases and major schemes of previous vegetation regionalization and discuss on several contentious boundaries of vegetation zones in the present paper. We proposed that, under the circumstances that the primary vegetation has been destroyed in most parts of China, the division of vegetation zones/regions should be based on the distribution of primary and its secondary vegetation types and climatic indices that delimit distribution of the vegetation types. This not only reveals the closed relationship between vegetation and climate, but also is feasible practically. Although there still are divergence of views on the name and their boundaries of the several vegetation zones, it is commonly accepted that there are eight major vegetation regions in China, i.e. cold temperate needleleaf forest region, temperate needleleaf and broadleaf mixed forest region, warm temperate deciduous broadleaf forest region, subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest region, tropical monsoon forest and rain forest region, temperate steppe region, temperate desert region, and Qinghai Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau high cold vegetation region. Analyzing characteristics of vegetation and climate of major vegetation boundaries, we suggested that: 1) Qinling Mountain Huaihe River line is an important arid/humid climatic, but not a thermal climatic boundary, and thus can not also be regarded as the northern limit of the subtropical vegetation zone; 2) the northern limit of subtropical vegetation zone in China is along the northern coast of the Yangtze River, from Hangzhou Bay, via Taihu Lake, Xuancheng and Tongling in Anhui Province, through by southern slope of the Dabie Mountains, to Wuhan and its west, coinciding with a warmth index (WI) value of 130-140 ℃·month; 3) the tropical region is limited in a very small area in southeastern Hainan Island and southern edge of Taiwan Island; and 4) considering a significant difference in climates between the southern and northern parts of the warm temperate zone, we suggested that the warm temperate zone in China is divided into two vegetation regions, deciduous broadleaf woodland region and deciduous and evergreen broadleaf mixed forest region, the Qinling Mountain Huaihe River line being as their boundary. We also claimed that the zonal vegetation in North China is deciduous broadleaf woodland. Finally, we emphasized the importance of dynamic vegetation regionalization linked to climate changes. 

北美东部8种温带树种向北分布的限制气候因子

方精云  李莹

(北京大学城市与环境学系,北京大学生态学研究与教育中心,北京,100871)

摘要:利用分布于北美东部的8种温带落叶树种为研究材料,应用反映热量和降水状况的11个变量为气候指标,用标准差分析方法分析了这8个树种的分布北界与气候因子之间的关系.结果表明,在所使用的气候指标中,同一树种不同地点的温暖指数或年生物温度的标准差最小,说明积温是限制这些树种向北分布的主要气候因子;温暖指数和寒冷指数随着年降水量的增大而减小,寒冷指数随着年较差的增加而增加,温暖指数随着水热综合指数的增加表现出减小的趋势.表明,除了生长季节的积温之外,降水和大陆性等气候条件对温带树种向北分布也起着重要作用.

关键词 北美东部 分布北界 气候指数 积温 降水 标准差

 

Abstract (Browse 2586)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influence of Sulphur Fertilizer on Sulphur Cycling and Its Implications on Sulphur Fertilizer Requirement of Grazed Pasture in Warm Seasonal Rangeland of Nei Monggol Steppe of China
Author: WANG Shi-Ping, WANG Yan-Fen, CUI Xiao-Yong, CHEN Zuo-Zhong, CHI Hong-Kang, Ewald SCHNUG, Silvia HANEKLAUS and Juergen FLECKENSTEIN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 204-211
      
    

Sulphur (S) cycling and implications on S fertilizer requirement in sheep grazed pastures receiving three levels of S fertilizer at rates of 0, 30 and 60 kg S/hm2 in 1995 and 1996 were studied using a mass balance approach which accounted both for S inputs to and outputs from the soil plant animal system. Results indicated that S fertilizer increased by 50% of herbage S uptake and 15% or more of S bio cycling rate in grazing system. The total S recovery of 30 and 60 kg S/hm2 treatments from 1995 to 1996 was 74.0% and 37.6% respectively. Mineralization of organic S may be an important source of S for pasture when other S sources are low, accounted for 70% of the total S inputs without S fertilizer. The grazing sheep has an important ecological function, the feature of S cycling in grazed pastures was that 90% of herbage S ingested by grazing sheep was returned to soils as excreta. The amount of S released by sheep excreta accounted about 30% of the total released S through S bio recycling.Loss from soil S leaching beyond the major plant rooting zone was the main S output from grazing system. However, urinary and fecal S losses, including transfer and leaching losses, also affected S budgets of grazing system. It is therefore important to investigate the recycling rate of both urinary and fecal S underfield conditions.Based on the mass balance principle, at least 10 kg S/hm2 per year may be necessary for sustainable development of grazing system.

施硫肥对内蒙古典型草原放牧生态系统硫循环的影响及硫肥需要量的研究

汪诗平1  王艳芬1  崔骁勇1  陈佐忠1  池宏康1  Ewald SCHNUG2  Silvia HANEKLAUS2  Juergen FLECKENSTEIN2

(1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京,100093 2. Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Federal Agricultural Research Center, Bundesallee-50, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany)

摘要:应用总体平衡(mass-balance)法研究了施硫肥(0, 3060 kg S/hm2)对内蒙古典型草原放牧生态系统硫循环的影响及在硫肥需要量上的应用.结果表明,施硫肥使牧草硫的吸收量提高了50%,并使放牧系统硫的生物循环速率提高了15%以上.19951996年两年内两种硫肥处理30 60 kg S/hm2的硫的利用效率分别为74.0% 37.6%.当其他硫的来源较低时,土壤中有机硫的矿化是草原有效硫的主要来源,约占整个有效硫输入量的70%.放牧家畜在物质循环中具有重要的生态功能,其硫采食量的90%左右以排泄物的形式返回到土壤,经过排泄物而释放的有效硫量约占硫的生物再循环量的30%.土壤中硫的淋溶损失是放牧系统中硫的主要输出形式;同时,家畜尿和粪中硫的损失(包括转移到非生产区和淋溶损失)也影响着放牧系统硫的平衡状况.因此,应该深入研究粪尿硫的再循环速率及其影响因素.基于总体平衡原则,该地区放牧系统中至少每年应施入10 kg S/hm2才能保持有效硫的平衡状态.

关键词 硫肥 总体平衡 硫循环 放牧系统 内蒙古草原

 

 

Abstract (Browse 2250)  |  Full Text PDF       
Population Distribution and Dynamics of Quercus liaotungensis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Acer mono in Dongling Mountain, Beijing
Author: WU Xiao-Pu, ZHENG Yu and MA Ke-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 212-223
      
    

The spatial distribution and population dynamics of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz., Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance and Acer mono Maxim. were studied in three warm temperate deciduous forests in Dongling Mountain, Beijing. Clumped distributions appeared in most seedlings (≤0.4 m), short saplings (0.4-1 m) and tall saplings (1-2 m). Random distributions appeared in adults of Q. liaotungensis in Plot 1, F. rhynchophylla in Plot 3. The LSD method was used to discern the differences of different aged population. The class distribution of Q. liaotungensis was nearly a reverse J shape for Plot 1 and Plot 3, suggesting that the population regenerates continuously. The age structures of F. rhynchophylla and A. mono in Plot 1 and the test results indicated that they would increase continuously. In Plot 2, the class distribution and the test results showed that all populations would not regenerate continuously.

北京东灵山地区辽东栎、大叶白蜡和五角枫种群分布格局与动态

吴晓莆  郑豫  马克平

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京,100093)

摘要:对北京东灵山地区三块样地中的辽东栎(Quercus liaotungensis)、大叶白蜡(Fraxinus rhynchophylla)和五角枫(Acer mono)种群的分布格局和种群动态进行了考察.调查三块样地中每个树种的全部个体,按高度将它们分为4个不同龄级,用相邻格子样方法进行取样.在研究分布格局时,计算了扩散系数C、扩散型指数Iδ与IACA指数和聚块指数m/m等各项指标,测定它们的分布格局,并通过计算拟合它们的分布类型.结果表明,不同地点各种群的幼苗(<0.4 m)、小幼树(0.41 m)和大幼树(12 m)绝大多数呈聚集分布,少量呈随机分布;成林辽东栎成熟个体(2 m)是一种界于均匀分布和随机分布之间的状态,幼林辽东栎成体和灌丛大叶白蜡属于随机分布,成林大叶白蜡和五角枫、灌丛辽东栎呈聚集分布.在研究种群动态时,分别作出每个种群的龄级结构图,再对同一样地不同种群以及同一种群不同龄级个体的数量差异进行最小显著差法(LSD)检验和比较,结果表明检验结果和龄级结构图显示出来的趋势是一致的,即成林辽东栎种群具有较稳定的结构,成林大叶白蜡和五角枫表现为增长型结构,幼林辽东栎、大叶白蜡和五角枫都表现为衰退型结构,灌丛辽东栎具有稳定型结构,灌丛大叶白蜡具有增长型结构.研究表明,作为优势种的辽东栎种群个体之间的竞争很激烈,在乔木层中占有明显优势;作为伴生种的大叶白蜡的幼苗对环境的适应能力很强,在较低位层中占有明显优势.

关键词 分布格局 种群结构 辽东栎

 

Abstract (Browse 2409)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Glucoside from Rhodiola fastigiata (Crassulaceae)
Author: YANG Hui, MEI Shuang-Xi, PENG Li-Yan, LIN Zhong-Wen and SUN Han-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 224-226
      
    

A new glucoside, fastigitin A (1), namely 2-O-β-D-glucopyransyl-3-methyl methyl pinalate,together with twelve known constituents (2-13), was isolated from the root of Rhodiola fastigiata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) S. H. Fu collected from Nujiang Lisu autonomous region, Yunnan, China. Their structures were identified by spectral (including 2D-NMR techniques) and chemical methods. Compounds 2 and 5-9 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

长鞭红景天中一个新的葡萄糖甙

杨辉1,2  梅双喜1  彭丽艳1  林中文1  孙汉董1*

(1.中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放实验室,昆明,6502042. 云南大学生命科学及化学学院应用化学系,昆明,650091)

摘要:从云南怒江产的长鞭红景天(Rhodiola fastigiata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) S. H. Fu)根茎中分离得到13个化合物,它们的结构通过波谱和化学方法得到鉴定.其中,化合物1被鉴定为新的葡萄糖甙(2-O-β-D-吡喃葡糖基-3-甲基-戊酸甲酯),命名为长鞭红景天素甲,化合物2 59首次从该植物中分离得到.

关键词 长鞭红景天 景天科 葡萄糖甙 长鞭红景天素甲

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 2180)  |  Full Text PDF       
New C-glycosylflavones from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Vitaceae)
Author: LIU Dong, JU Jian-Hua, LIN Geng, XU Xu-Dong, YANG Jun-Shan and TU Guang-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 227-229
      
    

Two novel C glycosylflavones, apigenin-6-C-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-4)-α-L- rhamnopyranoside (hemsleyanoside, 1) and apigenin-8-C-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-4) –α-L-rhamno-pyranoside(isohemsleyanoside), together with a known compound (apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3), were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. Their structures were elucidated by chemical evidence and spectral analysis.

三叶崖爬藤中的新黄酮碳甙

刘东1  鞠建华1  林耕1  许旭东1  杨峻山1  涂光忠2

(1.中国协和医科大学中国医学科学院药用植物研究所,北京,100094 2.北京微量化学研究所,北京,100083)

摘要:从三叶崖爬藤(Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg.)95%乙醇提取物中分离得到3个黄酮碳甙,经化学方法和光谱分析鉴定为:5,7,4-三羟基黄酮-6-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖(1-4)-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖甙(1),5,7,4-三羟基黄酮-8-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖(1-4)-α-L-吡喃阿拉伯糖甙(2),5,7,4-三羟基黄酮-6,8--C-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖甙(3),12为新化合物,分别命名为崖爬藤甙和异崖爬藤甙.

关键词 三叶崖爬藤 黄酮碳甙 崖爬藤甙 异崖爬藤甙

 

Abstract (Browse 2210)  |  Full Text PDF       
Middle Jurassic Sporo-pollen Assemblage from the Yan'an Formation of Dongsheng, Nei Monggol, China
Author: JIANG De-Xin and WANG Yong-Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 230-238
      
    

The Middle Jurassic palynomorphs from the Yan'an Formation in Dongsheng region of Nei Monggol,consist of 63 species of fossil spores and pollen grains belonging to 34 genera, of which two species were described as new. Based on statistical analysis of 3 863 specimens identified in 10 samples from Hantaichuan, Nianpanlianggou and Liugou sections, the sporo pollen assemblage from the Yan'an Formation in Dongsheng region was established, which is generally characterized by the slight dominance of gymnospermous pollen grains (generally attaining proportion of 51%-54%), whereas the pteridophytic spores reach 46%-49% in abundance. In comparison with those of adjacent regions as well as Eurasia and North America, the present sporo pollen assemblage is regarded to early Middle Jurassic (corresponding to Bajocian Stage) in geological age. According to the climatic conditions reflected by the palynoflora, the paleoclimate in Dongsheng region is suggested to be warm temperate or subtropical warm and humid during the early Middle Jurassic.

内蒙古东胜中侏罗世延安组孢粉组合

江德昕1  王永栋2*

(1.中国科学院兰州地质研究所,兰州,730000) 2.中国科学院南京地质古生物研究所,南京,210008)

研究了内蒙古东胜罕台川、碾盘梁沟和柳沟3个剖面中侏罗世孢子花粉化石3463, 包括2个新种. 基于10个样品中发现的3 863粒孢子花粉化石的鉴定和统计, 建立东胜地区延安组孢粉组合.该组合中蕨类植物孢子有1937, 含量占46%49%, 最低为39%.裸子植物花粉略占优势, 1526,含量为51%54%, 最高达61%.与国内外相关资料对比结果表明该孢粉组合的地质时代应属中侏罗世巴柔期.孢粉植物群反映研究区在中侏罗世早期为暖温带或亚热带的暖湿气候.

关键词 孢粉组合 巴柔期 延安组 古气候 内蒙古

*通讯作者 Email: ydwang@nigpas.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 1972)  |  Full Text PDF       
Increased Storability of Haloxylon ammodendron Seeds in Ultra-drying Storage
Author: HUANG Zhen-Ying, ZHANG Xin-Shi, ZHENG Guang-Hua, JING Xin-Ming and LIN Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 239-241
      
    

超干贮藏提高梭梭种子的耐贮藏性

黄振英1*  张新时1  郑光华2  景新明2  林坚2

(1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京 1000932.中国科学院植物研究所北京植物园,北京 100093)

摘要:梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron Bge.)的种子为短命种子,在自然状态下,种子的含水量为8.5%,寿命约为10个月.将梭梭种子含水量降至2.5%1.4%,其耐贮藏力增强.经过50 5 d10 d的人工加速老化后,超干种子表现出较强的抗老化能力.与对照相比,超干种子具有较高的萌发率、活力指数及较长的根,其细胞膜具有较低的电导率和较高的脱氢酶活性.

关键词 梭梭 短命种子 超干贮藏

*通讯作者 Email: zhenying@ns.ibcas.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetative Storage Proteins in Meliaceae
Author: TIAN Wei-Min, WU Ji-Lin, HAO Bing-Zhong and HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 242-245
      
    

楝科树木营养贮藏蛋白质的研究

田维敏1,2,3*  吴继林2  郝秉中2  胡正海1

1.西北大学植物研究所,西安7100692.中国热带农业科学院橡胶栽培研究所农业部热带作物栽培生理学重点开放实验室,海南儋州5717373.华南热带农业大学农学院,海南儋州571737

摘要:采用光学和电子显微镜技术及SDS-PAGE研究了营养贮藏蛋白质(VSPs)在楝科树木中的分布和超微结构;并采用免疫印迹技术,以大叶桃花心木(Swietenia macrophylla King)21 kD VSP的抗血清检测楝科树木VSPs的免疫相关性.结果表明,在桃花心木亚科(Swietenioideae)的树木中普遍存在VSPs,但楝亚科(Melioidae)仅部分属的树木有VSPs而椿亚科(Cedreloideae)树木没有VSPs.VSPs在同一属树木中的分布是一致的.桃花心木亚科和楝亚科树木之间的VSPs几乎没有免疫相关性,但是在桃花心木亚科中,VSPs具有相对高的同源性.楝科树木VSPs的超微结构存在一定程度的差异,这可能与VSPs的种类不同有关.VSPs的分布、超微结构和免疫相关性可能是楝科树木的一个分类特征.

关键词 营养贮藏蛋白质 超微结构 免疫相关性 楝科

*通讯作者 Email: rcri@public.dzptt.hi.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2653)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Conservation Genetics of Endangered Vatica guangxiensis (Dipterocarpaceae)
Author: LI Qiao-Ming, XU Zai-Fu and HE Tian-Hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 246-249
      
    

濒危植物版纳青梅保护遗传学研究初报

李巧明1,2  许再富1  何田华3*

(1.中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,勐腊,666303;2.中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明,6502043.中国科学院北京植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要:运用2010碱基随机引物,对中国龙脑香科(Dipterocarpaceae)特有的珍稀濒危植物版纳青梅(Vatica guangxiensis X. L. Mo)进行了RAPD多态性分析.3个自然居群和1 个迁地保护居群(分布于云南和广西)共扩增出231个位点,多态位点所占比例(PPB)53.68%;观察等位基因数na=1.536*!8,有效等位基因数ne=1.287*!8,Nei基因多样性指数h0.168*!6,居群内的遗传多样性水平较低.基于AMOVAPOPGENE的结果均表明居群内的遗传变异大于居群间的遗传变异.居群内的遗传变异为55.09%,居群间的变异为44.91% (AMOVA);基因分化系数Gst0.374*!6 (POPGENE),表明居群间存在高水平的遗传分化.研究结果对该濒危植物的保护有重要意义.考虑到低水平的遗传多样性和高水平的居群分化,通过居群间种子和幼苗的交换来促进基因流是可行的保护方案.迁地保护居群(ML)不具最高的遗传多样性,表明为了保护此濒危物种的全部遗传变异,需要进一步采集更多个体补充到迁地保护居群中.

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 2176)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Conservation Genetics of Three Endangered Orchid Species
Author: LI Ang, LUO Yi-Bo, XIONG Zhi-Ting and GE Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(2): 250-252
      
    

三种兰科植物的保护遗传学研究初探

李昂1  罗毅波1  熊治廷2  葛颂1*

(1.中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京,1000932.武汉大学环境科学系,武汉,430072)

采用随机扩增多态 DNA(RAPD)分析研究了中国3种珍稀濒危兰科植物硬叶兜兰(Paphiopedilum micranthum Tang et Wang)、麻栗坡兜兰(P. malipoense S.C.Chen et Tsi)和独花兰(Changnienia amoena Chien)的遗传多样性与群体遗传结构.12RAPD引物在2种兜兰中共扩增出131条带.4个硬叶兜兰群体的检测表明其物种水平的多态条带百分率(PPB) 71.6%,Nei 的基因多样度(h) 0.217 1,Shannon多样性指数 (I) 0.330 1;4个群体的平均多样性水平为 PPB = 45.2%,h = 0.145 7,I = 0.220 4,低于远交兰花的平均水平.在总遗传变异中,群体间遗传变异占20.31%,略高于远交物种的平均水平.在物种水平上,麻栗坡兜兰的PPB49.5%,h0.117 4,I0.176 4,均大大低于硬叶兜兰.11个独花兰群体采用16RAPD引物共扩增出119条带.物种水平PPB=76.5%,h=0.194 1,I=0.305 8;在群体水平上,上述3个指标的平均值则分别为37.2%0.119 70.181 0,均低于远交兰花的平均水平.群体间的遗传变异占45.27%,遗传分化明显高于远交物种的平均水平.导致3个物种遗传多样性偏低而群体间遗传分化较高的主要原因在于人为的过度采挖和生境的片断化.研究结果为兰花保护策略和措施的制定提供了理论基础.

关键词 兜兰 独花兰 RAPDs 保护遗传学

*通讯作者 Email: gesong@ns.ibcas.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2269)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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