April 2002, Volume 44 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Xanthophyil Cycle and Its Molecular Mechanism in Photoprotection
Author: LIN Rong-Cheng, XU Chang-Cheng, LI Liang-Bi*, KUANG Ting-Yun*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 379-383
      
    

When planks absorb more light than that can be used for photosynthesis, the excessive energy can cause photooxidation and even photooxidation of photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophyll cycle-dependent photo-protection is believed to be the main mechanism for plants to deal with excessive light energy. This review focuses on molecular biological aspects and regulations of violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase involved in xanthophyll cycle. We will summarize the functions of xanthophyll cycle, especially recent advances in its thermal dissipation mechanism of photoprotection. Some interesting issues deserving further study will be discussed.

叶黄素循环及其在光保护中的分子机理研究

林荣呈  许长成  李良璧*  匡廷云

(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京,100093)

植物的生命活动离不开充足的光照,但是当光照过强时,叶片吸收的光能超过了光合电子传递所需,过剩的光能便会对光合器官产生潜在的危害,引起光合作用的光抑制或光破坏.依赖于叶黄素循环的热耗散被认为是光保护的主要途径.本文着重介绍近年来有关植物叶黄素循环在酶学方面的分子调控、它的主要功能以及依赖于叶黄素循环的热耗散在光保护中的分子机理等,并对需进一步研究的问题作了探讨.

关键词 叶黄素循环 紫黄质脱环氧化酶 热耗散 光保护

*通讯作者 Email: lbli@ns.ibcas.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 1798)  |  Full Text PDF       
Developmental Mechanism and Distribution Pattern of Stomatal Clusters in Begonia peltatifolia
Author: TANG Min, HU Yu Xi, LIN Jin Xing, JIN Xiao Bai*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 384-390
      
    

The function of stomata in plants is controlling gas exchange and modulating water balance. The distribution pattern of stomata in most vascular plants follows a certain regulation with at least one normal epidermal cell between two stomata. However, some plants restricted in several genera of vascular plants have stomatal clusters in which more than one stoma is adjacently arranged with no epidermal cells among them. The developmental process of stomatal clusters in plants, especially in non mutant (wild type) vascular plants, has rarely been documented, and very few studies concerning the distribution pattern of stomatal clusters on leaf epidermis have been carried out. We reported the developmental mechanism and distribution pattern of stomatal clusters in Begonia peltatifolia Li native to China. The results indicated that the clustered arrangement of meristemoids at the juvenile stage of the leaf development contributed greatly to the pattern of stomatal clusters. Additionally, satellite meristemoids derived from subsidiary cells around the mature stomata also had an impact on the development as well as the pattern of stomatal clusters. Regarding stomatal cluster and singly occurring stoma both as a stomatal unit, we found that the stomatal unitdensity (i.e., number of stomatal unit per area) increased gradually from the middle part to the edge and the apex of the leaf, while stomatal unit size (i.e., number of stomata per stomatal unit) decreased. The possible reason of this pattern was discussed.

盾叶秋海棠叶表皮气孔簇的发育及分布格局

唐敏  胡玉熹  林金星  靳晓白*

(中国科学院植物研究所,北京,100093)

气孔是植物控制气体交换和调节水分散失的门户.大部分高等植物气孔的分布格局是相邻气孔之间被一至多个表皮细胞所间隔.而在有限分布的几个科属的植物种中发现气孔成簇分布的现象,即由2至多个紧密相邻的气孔器组成相对独立的单元,称为气孔簇(stoma tal cluster).以中国原产的盾叶秋海棠(Begonia peltatifolia Li)为研究对象,探讨了叶表皮气孔簇的发育机制及其分布格局.结果表明:气孔发育初期,气孔拟分生组织的成簇(相邻紧密)排列可能是气孔簇形成的主要机制;气孔副卫细胞恢复分裂形成的卫星拟分生组织也对气孔簇的形成起一定的作用.把气孔簇和单个气孔视为一个气孔单元发现,盾叶秋海棠气孔单元密度(单位面积中气孔单元数)和气孔单元大小(气孔单元所包含气孔数)在叶片上呈有规律的分布:前者由叶片中部向叶尖、叶缘逐圈增多,而后者逐圈减少.对这种分布格局的成因进行了讨论.

关键词 盾叶秋海棠 发育 分布格局 气孔簇

*通讯作者 Email: xbjin@gengenp.rug.ac.becn

 

Abstract (Browse 7640)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spectrin-like Protein in the Phloem of Cucumis sativus
Author: XING Li Jing*, HUA Bao Guang, LOU Cheng Hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 391-394
      
    

Spectrin like protein has been found in a variety of plant cells. In this study,electron microscopic observation of immuno gold labelled preparations from the leaf petiole of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) shows that it also exists in the sieve element companion cell (SE-CC) complex, being widely distributed in P protein filaments and sieve element reticulum (SER), in the cytoplasm and mitochond rial membrane of companion cell (CC) and in the branched plasmodesmata between sieve element (SE) and CC as well. The results suggest that this protein could be synthesized in CC and transferred to SE through plasmodesmata. Western blotting showed that spectrin like protein existed in the protein of phloem exudate of cucumber, and its molecular weight was about 260 kD. 

黄瓜韧皮部的类血影蛋白

邢立静1*  花宝光2  娄成后1

(1.中国农业大学生物学院,北京,1000942北京农学院植物生理生化系,北京,102206)

以黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)叶柄为实验材料,应用胶体金免疫电镜技术证明类血影蛋白存在于韧皮部的筛管-伴胞复合体中,广泛分布于筛分子中的韧皮蛋白纤丝以及筛分子网络结构上,并且分布在伴胞的细胞质和线粒体膜以及筛分子与伴胞之间的分支状胞间连丝上,表明该蛋白可能由伴胞合成并经由二者之间的胞间连丝运输到筛分子中.用免疫印迹技术证明,黄瓜韧皮部汁液蛋白中存在类血影蛋白,其分子量约为260 kD,与动物细胞中血影蛋白的分子量接近.

关键词 红膜肽 筛分子 伴胞 黄瓜

*通讯作者 Email: xinglijing@263.net

 

Abstract (Browse 1966)  |  Full Text PDF       
Inorganic Carbon Utilization in Some Marine Phytoplankton Species
Author: MIAO Xiao Ling, WU Qing Yu*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 395-399
      
    

In order to learn the ways and possible utilization mechanisms of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in marine phytoplankton species under carbon replete or limited conditions, the activity of extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) was assayed in different pH, CO2 and DIC concentrations. Extracellular CA in Amphidinium carterae and Prorocentrum minimum was detected under carbon replete conditions, while in Melosira sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Emiliania huxleyi and Pleurochrysis carterae, CA activity was assayed under conditions of carbon limitation. No CA activity was found even under carbon limited conditions in Chaetoceros compressus, Glenodinium foliaceum, Coccolithus pelagicus, Gephrocapsa oceanica and Heterosigma akashiwo. In species without extracellular CA activity, the direct HCO3- uptake was investigated using a pH drift technique and the anion exchange inhibitor 4′4′diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2 disulfonic acid (DIDS) in a closed system. The result showed that direct HCO3- transport might occur by an anion exchange mechanism in species Coc. pelagicus and G. oceanica. Of the 13 species investigated, only H. akashiwo did not have the potential for direct uptake or extracellular CA catalyzed HCO3- utilization.

海洋浮游藻类无机碳利用机理的研究

缪晓玲1,2  吴庆余1*

(1.清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京,1000842.福建宁德师范高等专科学校生物系,福建宁德,352100)

为了认识海洋浮游藻类在碳充足和碳受限条件下对水体中溶解无机碳(DIC)的利用方式与可能机理,13种海洋浮游藻类在不同pHCO2浓度及不同DIC条件下细胞外碳酸酐酶(CA)的活性进行了分析测定.结果显示:13种藻中,只有Amphidinium carteraeProrocentrum minimum在碳充足条件下具细胞外CA活性.Melosira sp.Phaeodactylum tricornutumSkeletonema costatumThalassiosira rotulaEmiliania huxleyiPleurochrysis carterae则在碳受限条件下才具细胞外CA活性.Chaetoceros compressusGlenodinium foliaceumCoccolithus pelagicus Gephrocapsa oceanicaHeterosigma akashiwo即使在碳受限条件下也未检测到细胞外CA活性.应用封闭系统中pH漂移技术和阴离子交换抑制剂44-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS)等的研究表明,Coc. pelagicusG. oceanica可通过阴离子交换机制进行HCO-3的直接利用.H. akashiwo没有潜在的HCO-3直接利用或细胞外CA催化的HCO-3利用.

关键词 溶解无机碳 (DIC) 细胞外碳酸酐酶

*通讯作者 Email: qingyu@tsinghua.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2114)  |  Full Text PDF       
Crystalline Growth of Nitrogenase CrFe Protein
Author: ZHANG Hua Feng*, WANG Yao Pin, Lu Yu Bing, ZHAO Ying, DAI Xiao Hu, DONG Zhi Gang, HUANG Ju Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 400-404
      
    

Under a suitable condition of crystallization, dark brown rhombohedron crystals (the lengths of the longest two diagonals were 0.25 and 0.12 mm, respectively) could be obtained from nitrogenase CrFe protein purified from a mutant UW3 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann grown in Cr containing but NH3 free medium. The possibility of crystallization, as well as the number, size and quality of crystals obviously depended on the concentrations of PEG 8000, MgCl2, NaCl, Tris and Hepes buffer, and methods of crystallization. The optimum concentrations of the chemicals for crystallization of CrFe protein were slightly different from those for crystallization of MnFe protein from UW3 grown in Mn and ΔnifZ MoFe protein from a nifZ deleted strain of A. vinelandii. The crystal seemed to be formed from CrFe protein.

固氮酶铬铁蛋白的晶体生长

张华峰1  王耀萍2  吕玉兵1  赵颖1  代小虎2  董志刚1  黄巨富1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京,100093; 2.中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京,100101)

在合适的结晶条件下,从含Cr无氨培养基中生长的固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)突变种UW3中纯化出的CrFe蛋白可从溶液中析出深棕色斜四棱柱晶体,晶体最大的两条对角线长度分别可达0.25 mm0.12 mm.PEG 8000MgCl2NaClTris Hepes 缓冲液的浓度及结晶方法等对该蛋白的出晶率、晶核数目、晶体大小和质量都有明显影响.CrFe蛋白结晶所需的上述化合物的最适浓度与在Mn中生长的固氮菌突变种UW3MnFe蛋白和缺失nifZ固氮菌突变种的ΔnifZ MoFe蛋白结晶所需的最适浓度有所不同.结果表明,该蛋白晶体可能为CrFe蛋白的晶体.

关键词 固氮菌突变种UW3 含铬培养基 固氮酶铬铁蛋白 晶体生长

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of CO2 Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Transgenic Rice with C4 Genes
Author: HUANG Xue Qing, JIAO De Mao*, CHI Wei, Maurice S.B. KU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 405-412
      
    

The responses of photosynthesis of phosphoenopyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyrurate dikinase (PPDK), NADP malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and PPDK+PEPC transgenicrice (Oryza saltiva L.) plant to light, temperature, CO2 and the characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence under photoinhibition conditions were studied. The results were as follows: 1. The light saturated photosynthetic rates of transgenic rice plants were higher than that of wild type, in which the light saturated point of PEPC and PPDK+PEPC transgenic rice plants was 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 higher than that of untransformed rice and the light saturated photosynthetic rates were 51.6% and 58.5% respectively. The carboxylation efficiency of PEPC transgenic rice plant increased by 49.3% and the CO2 compensation point decreased by 26.2% than that of untransformed rice. Under high temperature (35 ℃), the photosynthetic rate of PEPC transgenic rice plant was higher over 17.5% than that of untransformed rice. 2. On the 8th day after photoinhibition treatment, the PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and photochemical quenching (qP) of PEPC and PPDK+PEPC transgenic rice plants decreased by about 20%-30% while the non photochemical quenching(qN)increased by approximately 30%. But Fv/Fm and qP of untransformed rice decreased by over 50% while qN increased by less than 10%. The result suggested that transgenic rice plants were more tolerant to photoinhibition.

C4光合酶基因水稻的CO2交换和荧光特性

黄雪清1  焦德茂1*  迟伟1  古森本2

(1.江苏省农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所,南京,210014 2.School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4238, USA)

用转PEPCPPDKNADP-MEPEPC+PPDK酶基因水稻(Oryza sativa L.)及原种为材料 ,研究了光合作用对光照、温度、CO2的响应和光抑制条件下的叶绿素荧光特性,结果如下: 1.C4光合酶基因水稻的饱和光合速率比原种高,其中转PEPCPEPC+PPDK双基因水稻的光饱和点比原种高200 μmol*m-2*s-1,饱和光合速率比原种分别高51.6% 58.5%;PEPC基因水稻的羧化效率比原种高49.3%,CO2补偿点降低26.2%;在高温(35 ),PEPC基因水稻的光合速率比原种高17.5%.2.经光抑制处理8 d,PEPCPEPC +PPDK酶基因水稻的PSⅡ光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和光化学猝灭(qP)下降20%- 30%,非光化学猝灭(qN)增加了约30%;但原种的Fv/FmqP下降了5 0%,qN变化不明显,表明转C4光合基因水稻耐光抑制能力增强.这些结果为用生物技术提高水稻光合效率研究提供了新的依据和途径.

关键词 转基因水稻 磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶(PEPC) 丙酮酸磷酸二激酶(PPDK) 光合作用光抑制 叶绿素荧光

*通讯作者 Email: photosyn@public1.ptt.js.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2456)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in the Flag Leaves of Different High Yield Rice Variety at Late Stage of Development Under Natural Condition
Author: LI Xia, JIAO De Mao*, LIU You Liang, HUANG Xue Qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 413-421
      
    

With indica (Oryza sativa L.) hybrid Shanyou 63 as control, the hybrid rice varieties including Peiai 64S/E32, Peiai 64S/9311,X07S/Zihui 100,Guangyou 881 and japonica 9516 were used to study changes of chlorophyll content, photosynthetic response to light intensity and temperature, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and membrane lipid peroxidation in their flag leaves at the late stage of development under natural conditions in Nanjing. The results were as follows: primary photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of linear electron transport of PSⅡ (ΦPSⅡ), electron transfer rate (ETR) in these rice varieties decreased with their decrease of chlorophyll content during this period. This kind of impediment to energy conversion induced the transfer of excessive energy to the reducing side of PSⅠ, hence the accumulation of O[SX(B-*3]-[]·[SX)]2 and peroxidation of membrane lipid, and resulting in the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), that is the destroys of photosynthetic pigments and membranes and the consequent, premature senescence. This phenomenon is variable conspicuously in different rice varieties. Under natural condition in Nanjing,Fv/Fm,ΦPSⅡ, ETR and quenching coefficient(qP) in japonica 9516 tolerant to photooxidation decreased less and the conversion capacity of light energy was stable, premature senescence was unlikely , and consequently the seed setting rate was higher. While Fv/Fm, ΦPSⅡ,ETR and photochemical qP in Shanyou 63 sensitive to photooxidation decreased more and therefore premature senescence was easy to happen, thus the seed setting rate and yield were all reduced. The tolerance to photooxidation and premature senescence in other hybrids derived from typical two line or three line crossing laid in the middle. From the rice breeding for super high yield, on the basis of the good plant type of current rice, considering both hybrid vigor and the prevention premature senescence, it would be a notable strategy to use japonica maternal line or maternal lines with some japonica genotype as the sterile lines in rice breeding. 

自然条件下不同高产稻生育后期剑叶叶绿素荧光和膜脂过氧化的表现

李霞1,2  焦德茂2*  刘友良1  黄雪清2

(1.南京农业大学农学院,南京,210095;2.江苏省农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所,南京,210014)

以籼型(Oryza sativa L.)杂交组合汕优63为对照,以中粳9516、两系亚种间杂交组合培矮64S/E32、培矮64S/9311、亚种间三系杂交稻冈优881和两系杂交组合X07S/紫恢100为材料,研究其在生育后期(抽穗-成熟)自然条件下剑叶的叶绿素衰减、CO2交换、叶绿素荧光参数和膜脂过氧化表现.结果表明: 水稻在生育后期伴随叶绿素衰减,其叶内的原初光化学效率Fv/FmPSⅡ非环式电子传递效率ΦPSⅡ、电子流传递速率ETR都有相应地下降,这种光能转化的障碍使多余的光能传递给PSⅡ的还原侧,产生O(-)/(*)2累积,发生膜脂过氧化和MDA的积累,引起光合色素及光合膜的破坏,发生光氧化早衰.这种现象在品种间有明显差异,耐光氧化的粳稻9516,其叶内的 Fv/Fm、ΦPSⅡ、ETRqP下降较少,具有较稳定的光能转化能力,不易早衰,具有较高的结实率;而对光氧化敏感的籼稻汕优63其叶内的Fv/Fm、ΦPSⅡ、ETR,光化学猝灭参数qP下降较多,易发生膜脂过氧化,导致叶片早衰,影响水稻灌浆结实和产量;而二系的和三系的杂交稻的耐光氧化特性和早衰表现居于中间.从水稻超高产育种的角度出发,在目前株型良好的基础上,兼顾杂种优势和防止早衰两方面考虑,在母本中利用粳型或带有粳型基因的不育系是育种上一个值得重视的策略.

关键词 早衰 光氧化 荧光特性 膜脂过氧化 水稻

*通讯作者 Email: photosyn@public1.js.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2381)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Ca2+ and Plant Ethylene Response
Author: ZHANG Yan Ping, ZHU Ben Zhong, LUO Yun Bo*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 422-426
      
    

The relationship between Ca2+ and ethylene response was investigated through analyzing the effect of Ca2+ on the response to ethylene in etiolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Lichun) seedling grown in darkness. When the etiolated tomato seedlings were treated with different concentrations of Ca2+, the “triple response" phenotype, ethylene production, the expression of ethylene receptor gene NEVER RIPE (NR) and the content of cytosolic CaM were determined. With the concentration of Ca2+ in the culture medium increasing from 0 mmol/L to 3.8 mmol/L, the “triple response" phenotype of etiolated tomato seedling was correspondingly strengthened; meanwhile the ethylene production, the amount of NR gene expression and the concentration of CaM increased respectively. However, when the concentration of Ca2+ was increased from 3.8 mmol/L to 10 mmol/L, the phenotype of “triple response”, ethylene production, NR gene expression, and the CaM content didn't increase further, but decreased consequently. The results indicated that the effect of Ca2+ on the ethylene triple response in etiolated tomato seedling was relevant to ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene receptor gene expression which were influenced by applied Ca2+, and these effects might be mediated through the change of CaM concentration in plant cell.

钙与植物乙烯反应的关系研究

张艳萍  朱本忠  罗云波*

(中国农业大学食品学院,北京,100094)

研究了Ca2+ 对番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Lichun)黄化幼苗乙烯反应的影响.通过测定不同Ca2+ 浓度条件下番茄黄化幼苗的"三重反应"、内源乙烯释放量、乙烯受体基因NEVER-RIPE(NR)表达量及胞内CaM含量的变化,结果发现,随着培养基中Ca2+ 浓度从0 mmol/L增加到3.8 mmol/L,番茄黄化幼苗的"三重反应"表型明显增强,内源乙烯释放量、NR基因的表达量及胞内CaM的含量都有不同程度的增加;Ca2+ 浓度由3.8 mmol/L进一步增加到10 mmol/L,番茄黄化幼苗"三重反应"表型受到抑制,内源乙烯释放量、 NR基因的表达量及胞内CaM的含量都有所下降.因此,Ca2+ 对番茄黄化幼苗"三重反应"的影响与Ca2+ 调节内源乙烯合成和乙烯受体基因的表达有关,而且Ca2+ 可能是通过CaM含量的变化来调节乙烯作用的.

关键词 Ca2+ 三重反应 乙烯信号转导 CaM

通讯作者 Email: yunbol@public3.bta.net.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2244)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Resistance-related Proteins in Rice Against Brown Planthopper by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis
Author: CHEN Rong Zhi, WENG Qing Mei, HUANG Zhen, ZHU Li Li, HE Guang Cun*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 427-432
      
    

A recombinant inbred population (RI) was constructed from a cross between B5, anintrogression line from the wild rice Oryza officinalis Wall. ex Watt, and susceptible cultivar Minghui 63(O.sativa L.). The brown planthopper (BPH) resistances of RI lines were evaluated. Based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA), two protein bulks were made by extracting proteins from equally mixed seedlings of extremely resistant and susceptible plants selected from the RI population, respectively. Two dimensional electrophoresis was used to detect the changes of polypeptide pattern. Results showed that a protein P40 (pI 6.3, Mw 40 kD) was significantly reduced or vanished after BPH infestation for 48 h in the susceptible bulk, while it remained uninfluenced in the resistant bulk. In connection with the physiological changes of the resistant and susceptible lines subjected to BPH sucking, we suppose that the protein P40 is related to the interaction responses of rice plants to BPH infestation.

水稻对褐飞虱抗性相关蛋白的双向电泳分析

陈荣智  翁清妹  黄臻  祝莉莉  何光存*

(武汉大学生命科学学院,植物发育生物学教育部重点实验室,武汉,430072)

以药用野生稻(Oryza officinalis)的转育后代B5(高抗褐飞虱(Nilaparvata lugens Stl))与感虫品种明恢63 (Oryza sativa L.)为亲本,构建了一个重组自交系群体.通过抗褐飞虱鉴定,筛选出极端抗虫株系和极端感虫株系,运用分群分析法(bulked segregant analysis,BSA)分别建成了极端抗虫集团(resistant bulk)和极端感虫集团(susceptible bulk)的蛋白质池.利用双向电泳技术,分别分析了极端抗虫集团和极端感虫集团受虫害与未受虫害的秧苗蛋白质的变化.结果发现,虫害48 h,感虫集团的一个分子量为40 kD的蛋白质P40 (pI=6.3)的表达明显减弱甚至消失,而在抗虫集团中,P40的表达未受影响.与褐飞虱为害后抗虫株系和感虫株系不同的生理反应相联系,推测P40与水稻受褐飞虱虫害后引起的应答反应相关.

关键词 水稻 重组自交系 褐飞虱抗性 双向电泳

*通讯作者 Email: gche@whu.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of K+ Nutrition on Growth and Activity of Leaf Tono plast V-H+-ATPase and V-H+-PPase of Suaeda salsa Under NaCl Stress
Author: LI Ping Hua, CHEN Min, WANG Bao Shan*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 433-440
      
    

Suaeda salsa L. seedlings grown in Hoagland nutrient solution were treated with different concentrations of NaCl combined with two levels of K+ (12 μmol/L and 6 mmol/L) to study the K+ nutrition effect on plant growth and leaf tonoplast V H+ ATPase and V H+ PPase activity. Increase of K+ supply in the culture solution markedly increased the fresh weight, dry weight and K+ content of S. salsaplants. Western blot analysis showed that the leaf V H+ ATPase of S. salsa was at least composed of A,B,C,D,E and c subunits, and their expression decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration under K+ starvation (12 μmol/L K+), but increased under normal K+ application (6 mmol/L K+). Leaf V H+ PPase molecular weight was about 72.6 kD and its expression increased as NaCl concentration increased under both high or low levels of K+ concentration in nutrient solution. There was a positive correlation between of V H+ ATPase or V H+ PPase activity and the amounts of their expression. Results in this study suggest that K+ nutrition plays an important role in the salt tolerance of S. salsa, and K+ is involved in the regulation of V H+ ATPase or V H+ PPase activity under salt stress.

K+营养对NaCl胁迫下盐地碱蓬生长及叶片液泡膜V-H+-ATPaseV-H+-PPase活性的影响

李平华  陈敏  王宝山*

(山东师范大学生命科学学院,济南,250014)

对溶液培养的盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa L.)幼苗进行不同浓度NaCl胁迫并改变培养液中K+浓度,以了解K+营养对NaCl胁迫下盐地碱蓬幼苗生长及叶片液泡膜V-H+-ATPaseV-H+-PPase活性的影响.提高培养液K+浓度可明显增加盐胁迫下碱蓬植株的鲜重、干重,促进盐地碱蓬叶片及根部组织K+积累.盐地碱蓬叶片液泡膜V-H+-ATPase至少由ABCDEc亚基组成,其表达量在缺K+处理(12 μmol/L K+)下随盐胁迫浓度的增加而减小,而在正常K+(6 mmol/L)培养下则随盐胁迫浓度的增加而增加;盐地碱蓬叶片液泡膜V-H+-PPase分子量为72 kD,在缺K+和正常K+供应情况下,V-H+-PPase均有较高表达.V-H+-ATPaseV-H+-PPase活性变化与其亚基表达量变化基本成正相关.结果表明: K+对盐生植物碱蓬的耐盐性有重要作用,盐胁迫下,K+可能参与了V-H+-ATPaseV-H+-PPase活性调控.

关键词 盐地碱蓬 生长 V-H+-ATPase V-H+-PPase K+营养

*通讯作者 Email: bswang@sdnu.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2235)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning Whole Cellulose-Synthesizing Operon (ayacs Operon) fromAcetobacter xylinumand Transforming It into Cultivated Cotton Plants
Author: LU Ying Chun, WEI Gang, ZHU Yu Xian*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 441-445
      
    

The gram negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum synthesizes an extracellular ribbon of cellulose microfibrils that possess unique structural and mechanical properties when compared to higher plant cellulose. All four genes in the cellulose synthesizing operon (ayacs operon) of A. xylinum Ay201 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers designed according to published acsoperon sequence of A. xylinum ATCC 53582. Alignmentof the two operons showed that they were highly homologous (98% similarity, 97% identity). AcsA and acsB gene were cloned in pCAMBIA 1301 vector while acsC and acsD were cloned in pCOB302 3 under the control of CaM 35S promoter. The constructs were introduced into cotton by the pollen tube pathway method and seeds obtained from putative transgenic plants were germinated on media containing hygromycin and phosphinothricin (PPT). Five seedlings out of 934 seeds were proved to contain all four foreign genes by PCR amplification. This is the first time that a whole operon encoding four different bacterial enzymes with various biological functions is transformed into cultivated cotton plants.

木醋杆菌纤维素合成操纵子的克隆及棉花转化

卢迎春  魏刚  朱玉贤*

(北京大学生命科学学院,北京,100871)

革兰氏阴性菌木醋杆菌(Acetobacter xylinum (Brown) Yamada)合成一种由纤维素微纤丝组成的胞外带状物.与高等植物纤维素相比,它具有独特的结构和机械性能.根据从木醋杆菌ATCC 53582克隆的acs纤维素合成操纵子序列设计引物, PCR的方法从木醋杆菌Ay201中克隆了ayacs纤维素合成操纵子的全部4个基因.序列比较发现,两者高度同源.将连上CaMV 35S启动子的acsAacsB克隆到植物表达载体pCAMBIA 1301,acsCacsD克隆到pCOB302-3.然后通过花粉管通道法转化棉花(Gossypium hirsutum)胚珠,收获的种子在含有卡那霉素和除草剂的双抗培养基上进行筛选.PCR检测发现934粒种子中有5棵植株含有全部4个基因.这是首次将编码4个功能蛋白的细菌操纵子成功地转入棉花.

关键词 木醋杆菌 纤维素合成操纵子 棉花转化

通讯作者 Email: zhuyx@water.pku.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2543)  |  Full Text PDF       
RAPD and ISSR Markers of Fertility Restoring Gene forAegilops kotschyiCytoplasmic Male Sterility in Wheat
Author: LIU Bao Shen, SUN Qi Xin, SUN Lan Zhen, GAO Qing Rong, XIE Chao Jie, DOU Bing De, NI Zhong Fu, WEI Yan Ling, ZHANG Yan Chu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 446-450
      
    

LK783 was found to be a good fertility restorer for K type male sterility of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). RAPD and ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism) markers were employed to map the major restoring gene in LK783. Maintainer and restorer DNA pools were established using the extreme sterile and fertile plants among KJ5418A//911289/LK783 F1 population, respectively. Four hundred and eighteen RAPD primers and 33 ISSR primers were used for screening polymorphisms between the two pools, and amplification bands using a RAPD primer of OPK18 and an ISSR primer of UBC 845 were found polymorphic between the two pools. Linkage analysis showed that OPK18 450 and UBC 845 800 were linked to the restoring gene in LK783. The distance between the restoring gene and OPK18450 was (15.07±6.28) cM (centiMorgan), with the distance between the restoring gene and UBC 845800 being (8.20±4.85) cM. The marker of UBC 845800 was located on chromosome 1B S by amplifying nulli tetrasomics and 1B ditelosomics of Chinese Spring with the primer of UBC 845, in dicating that the restoring gene in LK783 was located on 1BS. The breeding for new fertility restorer lines of K type cytoplasmic male sterility of wheat would be facilitated by using the two markers.

K型小麦细胞质雄性不育系育性恢复基因的RAPDISSR标记

刘保申1,2  孙其信2  孙兰珍1  高庆荣1  解超杰2  窦秉德2  倪中福2  魏艳玲2  张延传1

(1.山东农业大学农学系,泰安,2710182.中国农业大学植物遗传育种系,北京,100094)

利用RAPDISSR分子标记对K型小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)雄性不育恢复系LK783的主效恢复基因进行了标记定位.K5418A//911289/LK783三交F1分离群体的极端不育株和极端可育株分别建立保持池和恢复池,利用418RAPD33ISSR引物对两池间的多态性进行了研究.分析表明RAPD引物OPK18ISSR引物UBC-845在两池间扩增出稳定的多态性差异,在分离群体上的验证结果表明LK783的育性恢复基因与两个引物的扩增位点有连锁关系,在染色体上位于两个引物的扩增位点之间,OPK18450的遗传距离为(15.07±6.28)cM (centiMorgan),UBC-845800的遗传距离为(8.20±4.85)cM.这两个引物可应用于对育性恢复基因的标记辅助选择.最后,利用中国春缺体-四体系和双端体系进一步将UBC-845800定位于1BS, 表明LK783的育性恢复基因也位于1BS.

关键词 小麦 雄性不育 恢复基因 简单重复序列间多态性 RAPD 

 

Abstract (Browse 2288)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Triticum boeoticum
Author: CHEN Fan Guo, ZHANG Xue Yong*, XIA Guang Min, JIA Ji Zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 451-456
      
    

A bacterial artificial chromosome library has been constructed for Triticum boeoticum Boiss(AbAb)using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)vector pECBAC1. The library consists of about 170 000 clones. A random sampling analysis of 200 BAC clones indicates that the average insert size is 104 kb. Based on the genome size of T. boeoticum, the library is about three timesas large as T. boeoticum haploid genome (5 600 Mb). Screening the BAC library with cpDNA sequence psbA gene and mtDNA sequence atp6 gene as probe shows that contamination of the library with chloroplast and mitochondrial clones is less than 1%. The library will be a useful platform in gene clone and genomic research of wheat.

野生一粒小麦BAC文库的构建和鉴定

陈凡国1,2  张学勇1*  夏光敏2  贾继增1

(1.中国农业科学院品种资源研究所,农业部作物种质资源与生物技术重,点实验室,北京,1000812.山东大学生命学院,济南,250100)

以细菌人工染色体pECBAC1为载体,构建了野生一粒小麦(Triticum boeoticum B oiss)的基因组BAC文库.该文库共包含约17万个克隆,平均插入片段长度为104 kb,按野生一粒小麦基因组为5 600 Mb计算,文库覆盖了约3倍的该物种基因组.用大麦叶绿体psb A基因和玉米线粒体atp6基因作混合探针,检测发现该文库中含细胞器基因组同源序列的克隆数小于1% .该文库的建成,为小麦基因的克隆及基因组学研究提供了技术平台.

关键词 野生一粒小麦 BAC文库 基因组

*通讯作者 Email: xueyongz@public.bta.net.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2169)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differential Gene Expression Between Wheat Hybrids and Their Parental Inbreds in Primary Roots
Author: NI Zhong Fu, SUN Qi Xin*, WU Li Min, XIE Chao Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 457-462
      
    

To provide an insight into the molecular basis of heterosis, differential display of mRNA was used to analyze the difference of gene expression between wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) heterotic hybrid A, nonheterotic hybrid B and their parental inbreds in the primary roots. By using 5′ end random primers in combination with three one base anchored primers, it was found that 22.5% and 22.9% of 877 total displayed cDNAs were differentially expressed between hybrid A, B and their parents, respectively. Both quantitative and qualitative differences in gene expression between hybrids and their parental inbreds were obvious, indicating that the patterns of gene expression in hybrids alter significantly as compared to their corresponding parents. On the other hand, by using MADS box gene specific 5′ end primer for DDRT PCR, we found that nearly all of the displayed cDNA fragments were polymorphic between hybrids and their parents, and major difference occurred in qua litative level, in which hybrid specific expressed and silenced genes are the major two patterns, suggesting that MADS box gene may be important for manifestation of differential gene expression and wheat heterosis. In comparison with our previous results by using seedling leaves, it is indicated that differential gene expression between hybrids and parents is dependent on the tissues tested, and more differentially expressed genes were observed in the primary roots than in the seedling leaves. Therefore, it is concluded that the expressions of both randomly displayed cDNAs and transcription factor genes, such as MADS box, alter significantly between hybrids and their parents, which might be responsible for the observed heterosis.

普通小麦不同优势杂交种及其亲本苗期根系基因的差异表达

倪中福  孙其信*  吴利民  解超杰

(中国农业大学作物学院,北京,100094)

为探讨小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)杂种优势形成的分子机理,选用普通小麦品种()333865542410TD及其强优势杂种A(3338×6654)和无优势杂种B(2410TD×6554),采用mRNA差异显示技术,对生长至三叶一心的根系(初生根)基因表达差异进行了比较研究.结果发现,小麦杂种一代苗期根系基因表达较亲本明显不同,表现为数量水平和质量水平上的差异,且差异表达基因的数目远高于我们以苗期叶片为材料的研究结果,表明小麦杂交种与其亲本间的基因差异表达与所研究的组织和器官有关.比较分析发现,在强优势杂种组合A,超亲表达和偏高亲表达基因所占比例均明显高于无优势杂种组合B.以家族特异基因替代随机引物进行的差异显示结果表明,MADS-box家族基因在小麦杂交种和亲本苗期根系中存在着显著的表达差异,且差异表达类型以杂种特异表达和亲本基因在杂种一代沉默为主,说明MADS-box家族基因可能与小麦的杂种优势形成具有重要关系.对杂种和亲本基因表达差异与杂种优势的关系进行了分析和讨论.

关键词 mRNA差异显示 基因表达 杂种优势 小麦 初生根

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 2308)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mapping of S-bLocus for F1 Pollen Sterility in Cultiv ated Rice Using PCR Based Markers
Author: LI Wen Tao, ZENG Rui Zhen, ZHANG Ze Min, ZHANG Gui Quan*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 463-467
      
    

In cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), F1 pollen sterility is controlled by at least 6 loci of the F1 pollen sterility genes. To map S-b, one of loci, rice variety Taichung 65 (T65) carrying S-bj/S-bj and its near isogenic line TISL2 carrying S-bi/S-bi were used to develop the mapping population. One hundred and fifty-eight microsatellite markers were selected to survey T65 and TISL2. RM13 on chromosome 5 was found to be polymorphic between them. Cosegregation indicated that RM13 was closely linked with locus S-b. Eleven RFLP markers were selected on the corresponding region from the genetic map of Rice Genome Research Program (RGP) of Japan to convert into sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Amplicon length polymorphism (ALP) was carried out, but none of them was found to be polymorphic between T65 and TISL2. Then PCR- based RFLP (PBR) was done using six 4-nucleotide recognizing restriction endonucleases. Polymorphism was detected when PCR products of R830STS and R2213SSTS were digested with TaqⅠ. Genetic analysis indicated that the distance between locus S-b and markers R830STS, RM13 and R2213SSTS were 3.3 cM (centiMorgan), 5.2 cM and 5.5 cM, respectively. These PCR-based markers could be directly used in marker assisted selection. The technical systemcombining genetic mapping and PCR-based marker assisted selection will facilitate the development of molecular breeding.

栽培稻F1花粉不育基因座S-bPCR标记定位

李文涛  曾瑞珍  张泽民  张桂权*

(华南农业大学植物分子育种研究中心,广州,510642)

栽培稻(Oryza sativa L.)杂种F1花粉不育性至少由6个基因座位所控制.为了定位其中的一个基因座位S-b,选用了158个微卫星标记对粳型品种"台中65"及其近等基因系TISL2之间的多态性进行了分析.结果发现第5染色体短臂上的RM13在亲本间存在多态性.连锁分析表明,RM13S-b座位紧密连锁.根据微卫星标记分析的结果,RGP(Rice Genome Research Program of Japan)发表的遗传图谱的相应位置上选取了11RFLP标记,利用这些标记的末端序列设计特异PCR引物,进行ALP (amplicon length polymorphism)分析,结果11对引物均没有ALP.6种四碱基识别位点的限制性内切酶进行PBR(PCR-based RFLP)分析,发现由R2213SR830两克隆设计的STS (sequence-tagged site)标记在T65TISL2之间存在酶切多态性.R830STSRM13R2213SSTSS-b座位的遗传距离分别为3.3 cM (centiMorgan)5.2 cM5.5 cM.这些以PCR为基础的分子标记可以直接应用于分子标记辅助选择中,从而建立了基因定位与分子标记辅助选择一体化的技术体系,使S-b座位在育种中可以得到有效的利用.

关键词 F1花粉不育性 基因定位 微卫星标记 序列标志位点(STS) 水稻 

通讯作者 Email: gqzhang@scau.edu.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 2552)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intraclonal Resource Sharing and Functional Specialization of Ramets in Response to Resource Heterogeneity in Three Stoloniferous Herbs
Author: YU Fei Hai, DONG Ming*, ZHANG Cheng Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 468-473
      
    

Environments with reciprocal patchiness of resources, in which the availability of two resources such as light and soil nutrients are patchily distributed in horizontal space and negatively correlated in each patch, are common in many ecosystems. The strategies by which clonal plants adapt to this type of heterogeneous environment were examined in three stoloniferous herbs,Potentilla reptans L. var.sericophylla Franch., P. anserina L. and Halerpestes ruthenica (Jacq.) Qvcz., commonly inhabiting forest understories, grasslands and low saline meadows, respectively. As pairs of connected ramets were subjected to reciprocal patchiness of light and nutrients, stolon connection between the two ramets significantly enhanced biomass of both ramet growing in low light intensity but high soil nutrient condition (LH ramet) and ramet growing in high light intensity but low soil nutrient condition (HL ramet) as well as whole ramet pairs (consisting of LH ramets and HL ramets). Additionally, stolon connection greatly increased root/shoot ratio of LH ramet while significantly decreased that of HL ramet. The results indicate that areciprocal transportation of resources between interconnected ramets and a functional specialization of ramets in uptake of abundant resources occurred. By resource sharing and functional specialization, clonal plants can efficiently acquire locally abundant resources and buffer the stress caused by reciprocal patchiness of resources.

资源异质性环境中三种匍匐茎草本植物克隆内资源共享和分株功能特化

于飞海  董鸣*  张称意

(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京,100093)

研究了3种来自中国北方林下、草地和碱化草甸匍匐茎型克隆草本植物绢毛匍匐委陵菜 (Potentilla reptans L. var. sericophylla Franch.)、鹅绒委陵菜 (P. anserina L.) 和金戴戴 (Halerpestes ruthenica (Jacq.) Qvcz.) 对由高光照低养分斑块和低光照高养分斑块组成的资源交互斑块性生境的适应性对策.当生长于高光照低养分条件下分株 (HL分株) 与生长于低光照高养分条件下分株 (LH分株) 之间的匍匐茎连接时, 3种克隆植物HL分株、LH分株以及整个分株对系统 (HL分株 + LH分株) 的生物量均得到显著提高.同时, LH分株根冠比显著增加, HL分株根冠比显著下降.这表明, 当互连分株置于由低光照高养分斑块和高光照低养分斑块组成的异质性环境中时, 3种植物克隆分株均发生了环境诱导的功能特化.克隆内资源共享以及克隆内不同分株的功能特化有利于整个分株系统对局部丰富资源的获取, 从而能够缓解资源交互斑块性生境对克隆植物的不利影响.

关键词 金戴戴 鹅绒委陵菜 绢毛匍匐委陵菜 功能特化 光照强度 养分 资源交互斑块性 资源共享

*通讯作者 Email: dongming@95777.com

 

Abstract (Browse 3931)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Diterpenoid from Aralia fargesii
Author: ZHANG Yu Mei*, YANG Jun Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 474-476
      
    

Four diterpenoids, including a new ent kaurane diterpene (1), were isolated from the rhizome of Aralia fargesii Franch. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence (IR, EI-MS, HREI-MS,1H-NMR,13C-NMR and HMQC), the structure of compound 1 was established to be 17-acetoxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid. The other three known compounds were identified as ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (2), 16α –hydroxy-(-)-kauran-19-oic acid (3) and 16α-17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran –9-oic acid (4). The three known diterpenoids were obtained from this plant for the first time.

龙眼独活中的一个新二萜成分

张聿梅  杨峻山

(中国协和医科大学、中国医学科学院药用植物研究所,北京,100094)

从四川产楤木属(Aralia)草本植物龙眼独活(Aralia fargesii Franch.)根茎的石油醚提取部分分离得到4个二萜化合物,根据理化性质测定和各种光谱(IREI-MSHREI-MS1H-NMR13C-NMRHMQC)数据分析,它们的结构分别鉴定为17-acetoxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (2), 16α-hydroxy-(-)-kauran-19-oic acid (3) 16α-17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (4).化合物1为新化合物,3为首次从该属植物中分离得到,24为首次从龙眼独活中分离得到.

关键词 龙眼独活 二萜

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two New ent-Kauranoids fromIsodon tenuifolia
Author: NA Zhi, JIANG Bei, NIU Xue Mei, LIN Zhong Wen, LI Chao Ming, SUN Han Dong*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 477-480
      
    

Two new ent kauranoids, tenuifolin A (3β,6α,15β-trihydroxy-1α,7β-diacetoxy- 11β,16β-epoxy-ent-kaurane) (1) and tenuifolin B (1α,6α,11β-trihydroxy-3β, 7β-diacetoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one) (2), together with four known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon tenuifolia (W. W. Smith) Kudo collected from Zhongdian County, Yunnan Province, China. Their structures were determined by the spectral methods (including 2D NMR techniques).

细叶香茶菜中两个新的对映-贝壳杉烷二萜化合物

纳智  姜北  牛雪梅  林中文  李朝明  孙汉董*

(中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学开放研究实验室,昆明,650204)

从云南中甸产细叶香茶菜(Isodon tenuifolia (W. W. Smith) Kudo)的地上部分分离得到6个化合物, 它们的结构通过波谱方法得到鉴定。其中化合物12为新的对映-贝壳杉烷二萜化合物, 即细叶香茶菜甲素(3β,6α,15β-trihydroxy-1α,7β-diacetoxy-11β,16β-epoxy-ent-kaurane) (1) 和细叶香茶菜乙素(1α,6α,11β-trihydroxy-3β,7β-diacetoxy-ent-kaur-16-en-15-one) (2)

关键词 细叶香茶菜 唇形科 对映-贝壳杉烷型二萜 细叶香茶菜甲素 细叶香茶菜乙素

*通讯作者

 

Abstract (Browse 2194)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paleocene Wuyun Flora in Northeast China: Amersinia and Beringiaphyllumof Cornaceae sensu
Author: FENG Guang Ping Albert G ABLAEV WANG Yu Fei LI Cheng Sen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 481-487
      
    

Specimens of Amersinia obtrullata and Beringiaphyllum pseudoantiquum in Paleocene Wuyun flora, Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, were described and assigned to Cornaceae sensu. Infructescences formally allocated in Trochodendron sp. were reviewed and assigned to Amersinia obtrullata. Leaves described as Populus carneosa, Celastrophyllum subprotophyllum, Viburnum antiquum, V.asperum, Viburniphyllum finale, Protophyllum wuyunense, P. cf. haydenii, P. ovatifolium, Credneria inordinate were also restudied and assigned to Beringiaphyllum pseudoantiquum.

中国东北古新世植物群:广义山茱萸科美中果和白令叶

冯广平1  Albert G ABLAEV2  王宇飞1  李承森1*

(1.中国科学院植物研究所,北京,100093 2.Pacific Oceanological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 43 Baltyiskaya Street, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia)

描述并厘定了黑龙江省嘉荫县古新世乌云植物群中的广义山茱萸科绝灭类型镘形美中果(Amersinia obtrullata Manchester, Crane et Golovneva)和假古老白令叶(Beringiaphyllum pseudoantiquum (Golovneva) Manchester, Crane et Golovneva).将前人鉴定为昆栏树属(未定种)(Trochodendron sp.)的果序化石归入镘形美中果;将前人确定为鲜艳杨(Populus carneosa)、假原始叶南蛇藤(Celastrophyllum subprotophyllum)、古老荚(Viburnum antiquum)、粗糙荚(V. asperum)、疏齿荚叶(Viburniphyllum finale)、乌云原始叶(Potophyllum wuyunense)、海丹原始叶(近似种)(P. cf. haydenii)、卵圆原始叶(P. ovatifolium)和不规则克里木(Credneria inordinata)等归入假古老白令叶.

关键词 美中果属 白令叶属 山茱萸科 古新世

通讯作者 Email: lics@95777.com

 

Abstract (Browse 2142)  |  Full Text PDF       
Middle Jurassic Sporo-pollen Assemblages in Northern Turpan Depression, Xinjiang, Northwest China
Author: YIN Feng Juan ZHANG Zi Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 488-495
      
    

Eighty one species of fossil spores and pollen assigned to 52 genera are found from the Middle Jurassic Xishanyao,Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formations of boreholes Le 1, Mi 1, Shan 1 and Dun 1 in the northern Turpan Depression, Xinjiang, northwest China. Three assemblages have been proposed as:Cyathidites Psophosphaera Cycadopites assemblage, Cyathidites Quadraeculina Classopollis assemblage and Cyathidites Callialasporites Classopollis assemblage obtained from the Xishanyao Formation, the Sanjianfang Formation and Qiketai Formation respectively. Based on the sporopollen assemblage features and correlation,their geological ages are regarded as of Middle Jurassic,probably Aalenian to Bathonian.The results of the study indicate that the vegetation of early Middle Jurassic in this region consisted mainly of Gymnospermae of Ginkgoaceae of Cycadales, Podocarpaceae, Pinaceae and Pteridophyta of Cyatheaceae, Osmundaceae, Lycopodiaceae and Dicksoniaceae, etc. They reflect a warm moist subtropic climate.To the middle late Middle Jurassic, Cheirolepidaceae was dominant in the vegetation, which indicates that the climate was in the trend of becoming dry.

吐鲁番拗陷北部中侏罗世孢粉植物群

尹凤娟1  张子福2

(1.西北大学地质系,西安,710069 2中国地质科学院西安地质矿产研究所,西安,710054)

报道了新疆吐鲁番拗陷北部勒1、米1 、山1和墩1井中侏罗世孢粉化石5281.建立了本区中侏罗世孢粉组合: Cyathidites-Psophosphaera-Cycadopite 组合、 Cyathidites-Quadraeculina-Classopollis 组合和 Cyathidites-Callialasporites-Classopollis 组合.它们分别产自西山窑组、三间房组和七克台组.根据孢粉组合特征及其对比, 认为3个组合的地质时代属阿林-巴通期.经研究表明, 中侏罗世早期的植被是以银杏、苏铁类和松柏类等乔木为主体, 并伴有桫椤科树蕨及紫萁科和卷柏科等草本植物.古气候应属温暖潮湿的亚热带气候.至中侏罗世中晚期, 掌鳞杉科植物在植被中占主导地位, 指示当时的气候趋于干旱.

关键词 孢子花粉 气候 中侏罗世 中国西北

 

 

Abstract (Browse 2110)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Type of Embryo Sac in Cardiopteris and Its Systematic Implication
Author: KONG Dong Rui, PENG Hua*, LIANG Han Xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 496-498
      
    

心翼果一新的胚囊类型及其系统学意义

孔冬瑞  彭华*  梁汉兴

(中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明,650204)

报道心翼果属 (Cardiopteris Wall. ex Royle)一种新的胚囊类型:胚珠无珠被、直生、薄珠心.成熟胚囊中,卵器位于合点端,反足细胞位于珠孔端.这样的胚囊在所有进行过胚胎学研究的被子植物中系首次发现.合子和胚胎也位于合点端.心翼果属的这一新特征无疑是特异性的,据此可认为单型科心翼果科在一定程度上是十分孤立的.

关键词 类群的系统学与地理学研究

通讯作者 Email: hpeng@mail.kib.ac.cn

 

Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Chromosomal Mapping of a Corn B Chromosome Specific RAPDs
Author: QI Zhong Xia, LI Xiu Lan, CHEN Cheng Bin, SONG Wen Qin, CHEN Rui Yang*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 499-501
      
    

玉米B染色体特异RAPD分子标记的染色体定位

祁仲夏  李秀兰  陈成彬  宋文芹  陈瑞阳*

(南开大学生命科学学院,天津,300071)

B染色体存在于多种动植物中,具有很多独特的性状.B染色体与正常染色体在DNA组成方面十分相似,寻找B染色体特异序列一直是B染色体研究的难点和热点.通过对含有和不含有B染色体的两种玉米(Zea mays L.)基因组进行了RAPD分析,筛选到一个B染色体特异性分子标记B480.该标记与玉米的自主复制起始序列ARS1ARS2同源,特别是该序列中的25 bp出现在多种模式生物基因组中.FISH的结果显示,B480集中分布于B染色体着丝粒部位.

关键词 玉米B染色体 RAPD 荧光原位杂交(FISH) 自主复制起始序列(ARS)

*通讯作者 Email: chenry@eyou.com

 

Abstract (Browse 2216)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Jasmonic Acid on Lateral Root Formation in Rice Seedling
Author: WANG Shu Cai, Masahiko ICHII, Shin TAKETA, XU Lang Lai, XIA Kai, ZHOU Xie*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(4): 502-504
      
    

茉莉酸对水稻侧根发生的影响

王树才1,2,3  Masahiko ICHII2  Shin TAKETA2  徐朗莱3  夏凯1  周燮1*

(1.南京农业大学农学院,南京,2100952. Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University,Kagawa 761-0795, Japan 3.南京农业大学理学院,南京,210095)

实验材料为水稻(Oryza sativa L.)栽培品种"IR8"(国际水稻所8)及其少侧根突变体MT10.2 d水稻幼苗种子根全部浸入0.01650 μmol/L 茉莉酸(JA)溶液处理2 d,结果表明JA显著抑制种子根的伸长,其抑制程度与JA浓度成正比.不高于2 μmol/LJA显著促进侧根的发生,cm的侧根数目随浓度的增加而增加,最多可增加到原来的168%("IR8")285%(MT10).10 μmol/LJA仍促进处理过程中和处理后生成根区段的侧根数目的增加,但明显抑制处理前生成根区段侧根的发生,cm的侧根数目有所下降.

关键词 茉莉酸 侧根发生 突变体 水稻 种子根

*通讯作者 Email: zhish@jlonline.com

 

Abstract (Browse 2360)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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