June 2002, Volume 44 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Stress Treatments and DNA Methylation Affected the Somatic Embryogenesis of Citrus Callus
Author: HAO Yu-Jin and DENG Xiu Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 673-677
      
    

The evaluation on the callus embryogenesis capacity of 15 genotypes of citrus showed that stress treatments were conducive to somatic embryogenesis and could enhance the recovery of the missed capacity of embryogenesis for some genotypes. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis indicated that there existed significant differences in DNA methylation status between the callus capable of producing somatic embryoids and that which missed the embryogenesis capacity of the same genotype Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. cv. Newhall). The DNA methylation level of the former was lower than that of the latter. However, RAPD profiles did not show any difference between these two kinds of callus. 

逆境处理和DNA 甲基化影响柑橘体细胞胚发生
郝玉金* 邓秀新**

(华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室,武汉430070)

摘要: 对15种柑橘胚性愈伤组织进行体细胞胚诱导,发现逆境处理有利于体细胞胚发生,并可以恢复部分品种的体细胞胚发生能力。对具有和失去体细胞胚发生能力的两种纽荷尔脐橙(Citrus sinensis Osb.)愈伤组织进行随机扩增多态性-DNA(RAPD)分析没有检测到带型的差异,而对它们的甲基化敏感扩增多态性(MSAP)进行分析则发现两种愈伤组织间具有明显的DNA甲基化差异,具体细胞胚发生能力的愈伤组织的甲基化水平较失去体细胞胚发生能力的低。
关键词: 干燥处理;低温处理;DNA 甲基化;体细胞胚发生;RAPD; MSAP

通讯作者.E-mail:<dxxwwlj @ public.wh.hb.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2278)  |  Full Text PDF       
Exo-glycosidases Activities in Artemisia sphaerocephalaMucilaginous Achene Germination Process
Author: HUANG Zhen Ying*, Daphne J. OSBORNE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 753-756
      
    

白沙蒿粘液瘦果萌发中聚糖内切水解酶的活动特性
黄振英4*  Daphne  J.OSBORNE 2

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093;
2.Oxford Research Unit, Foxcombe Hall,Boars Hill,Oxford,OX1,5HR,UK)

摘要: 对白沙蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephaha Krasch.)种子萌发不同阶段的种胚提取物中几种可能降解果皮外层粘液物质的多糖内切酶进行了检测。研究结果表明:多聚半乳糖醛酸酶在干燥胚中已存在并具较高的活性,但其活性随着种子吸涨及萌发而降低。此酶并不释放到种胚外。β-甘露聚糖内切酶随着种子的吸涨而增加并被萌发的种胚释放到种子外。纤维素酶在种子萌发的过程中不表现出活性。提取物中的所有多糖内切酶都无法降解果皮外层的粘液物质。

关键词: 白沙蒿;粘液瘦果;多聚半乳糖醛酸酶;β-甘露聚糖内切酶

通讯作者。E-mail:<zhenying @ ns,ibcas.ac.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2098)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Proteomics in the Post-genomic Era
Author: GUO Yi Ming, SHEN Shi Hua, JING Yu Xiang*, KUANG Ting Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 631-641
      
    

Proteomics is one of the most active research fields in the post genomic era. Here we briefly introduce the scientific background of the origination of proteomics and its content, research method. The new developments of proteomics at the levels of individual plants, tissues, organs and organells, as well as its applications in the area of plant genetic diversity, mutant characterization, and plant physiology, etc are reviewed. At last, the challenge and prospect of proteomics are discussed.

后基因组时代的植物蛋白质组学
郭奕明 沈世华 荆玉祥*  匡廷云
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要: 蛋白质组学是后基因组时代功能基因组学研究的新兴学科和热点领域。简要介绍了蛋白质组学产生的科学背景、研究内容和研究方法。重点综述了植物个体水平、组织、器官和亚细胞水平蛋白组研究,植物蛋白质组学在植物遗传多样性、遗传突变体、植物的逆境生理等方面的研究进展。最后展望了今后的发展前景。
关键词: 基因组;后基因组;蛋白质组;植物蛋白质组学;基质辅助激光解吸] 电离飞行时间质谱法(MALDI-TOF/MS); ;二维聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(2D-PAGE)

通讯作者。E-mauk: <yxjing @ ns.ibcas.ac.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 3490)  |  Full Text PDF       
Actin Visualization in Living Immature Pollen of Rice Using a GFP-Mouse Talin Fusion Protein
Author: XU Shi Xiong (S Y Zee)*, WANG Ling Jian, QIU Zhi Ping (C P Yau), YE Yong Jian (W K Yip), YU Xu Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 642-648
      
    

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the F actin binding domain of mouse talin labels the actin cytoskeleton in the immature pollen of stable transformed rice ( Oryza sativa L.) plants. Actin microfilaments could be visualized only in the late developmental stage of the immature pollen. During this developmental stage, microfilaments, initially composed of very short fibrils, develop into a very complex and novel network that sometimes totally and sometimes partially encloses the vegetative nucleus and the spherical shaped generative cell in the central cytoplasm of the immature pollen. The behavior of the actin microfilamentous structure throughout the late developmental stage of the immature pollen is extremely dynamic, and the likelihood of this structure in generating forces for vegetative nucleus and generative cell movement in the immature pollen has been discussed. No actin filaments were visualized in the spherical generative cell

绿色荧光蛋白基因结合鼠Talin 基因蛋白标记转基因水稻未成熟花粉的微丝骨架
徐是雄1* 王凌健1,2   丘志平 叶永健1 余旭红1,2

(1. 香港大学植物系,香港;2. 中国科学院上海植物生理生态研究所,上海200032)


摘要: 利用绿色荧光蛋白基因结合鼠Talin基因表达技术及水稻转基因技术,在未成熟花粉发育期(即生殖细胞在形成后从靠壁部位移向中央部位的阶段)的水稻(Oryza satixa L.)内发现了一系列前人未曾报道过的微丝骨架的形成和多变过程。在这一发育阶段,未成熟花粉内的生殖细胞呈圆形,中央部位存有一个大液泡,大量微丝在细胞的中央胞质内形成。微丝首先在营养核的核膜表面形成两个集结中心,中心内的微丝呈短粗状。尔后,中心微丝不断延长,最终在细胞中央的胞质内形成一个非常复杂的类似多个纺锤体结合在一起的网络结构。这一网络的中间部位经常包围着营养核和生殖细胞,网络的部分微丝则与存在周缘细胞质(或称周质)的微丝网络形成连接,在连接点部位则形成一些由微丝环状组成的结构。未成熟花粉中央的微丝网络可能与营养核和生殖细胞在未成熟花粉内的运动有密切关系。
关键词: 水稻;未成熟花粉;绿色荧光蛋白;鼠Talin; 微丝

Abstract (Browse 2268)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of the Multicellular Nodules in Hyperic um perforatum Leaves
Author: LIU Wen Zhe, Lü Hong Fei, HU Zheng Hai*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 649-656
      
    

With the development of the multicellular nodules in the leaves of Hypericum perforatum L., plastids increased both in number and volume, and some plastids degenerated and were surrounded by dark tubular elements and vesicles. Some vesi cles fused with vacuoles and secreted substances into vacuoles. There are many multivesicles, multimembrane structures and osmiophilic droplets in vacuoles of nodule cells. Meanwhile, dictyosome secreted vesicles into the vacuoles. However, there is a large central vacuole completely filled with secretory materials (hypericin) in matured multicellular nodules. This suggests that the osmiophilic droplets may be a precursor of hypericin originated from the degenerated plastids. There were abundant endoplasmic reticulums and dictyosomes between the plastids and osmiophilic droplets, suggesting that they may be involved in the synthesis and/or transport of the precursor of hypericin.

贯叶金丝桃叶中分泌细胞团的超微结构
刘文哲1  吕洪飞1,2 胡正海1*

(1. 西北大学生命科学学院,西安710069;2.  浙江师范大学生命与环境科学学院,金华321004)


摘要: 随着贯叶金丝桃(Hypericum perforatum L.)叶中分泌细胞团的发育,其细胞中质体的数量和体积逐渐增大,但一些质体局部出现解体,大量的深色管状结构和小泡出现在退化质体的周围,有些小泡与液泡融合,并将其内容物释放至液泡中,导致液泡中出现大量的多泡结构、多膜结构和嗜锇滴。同时,高尔基体分泌小泡进入液泡。然而,当分泌细胞团发育成熟后,分泌细胞被含有灰色均匀的分泌物(金丝桃素)的大液泡所占据,嗜锇滴消失。表明嗜锇滴可能是金丝桃素的前体物,来源于退化的质体。出现于质体和嗜锇滴之间的内质网和高尔基体可能也参与了金丝桃素前体物的合成和细胞内的转运。
关键词: 贯叶金丝桃;分泌细胞团;超微结构;金丝桃素

通讯作者。E-mail:<Huzhenghai @ china.com>.

Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of Dynamin from Pollen of Hemerocallis fulva WU Ying-Jie
Author: WU Ying Jie*, CAO Qin Hong, YAN Long Fei, LIU Guo Qin*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 657-660
      
    

Dynamin, a 100 kD GTPase first found in animal cells, is essential for vesicle formation in receptor mediated endocytosis, synaptic vesicle recycling, and possibly vesicle trafficking in and out of the Golgi apparatus. Recently, dynamin like proteins were also found in some plant cells. We demonstrate here the presence of dynamin with molecular weight of 100 kD in day lily (Hemerocallis fulva) pollen based on molecular estimation and Western blotting. The highly purified pollen Dynamin had GTPase activity, which could be stimulated 1.64 fold by calf brain microtubules in vitro. The results from electron microscopic examination showed that the pollen dynamin readily self assembled into ring like structures.

萱草花粉动力蛋白的分离与特性
吴英杰* 曹勤红 阎隆飞 刘国琴**

(中国农业大学生物学院,植物生理生化国家重点实验室,北京100094)


摘要: 动力蛋白(dynamin)是一类具有可被微管激活的GTP型马达蛋白,被证明在动物细胞受体介导
的内吞小泡的形成、突触小泡再循环及高尔基体的囊泡运输中起关键作用。近几年,一些植物细胞也被发现有动力蛋白类似物。本研究通过分子量鉴定和免疫印迹法证明萱草(Hemerocallis fulxa L. )花粉中存在动力蛋白,其分子量为100kD;经过高度纯化的花粉动力蛋白仍具有GTPase 活性,且可被牛脑微管激活1.64倍;电子显微镜观察结果表明,花粉动力蛋白可自我组装成环状结构。
关键词: 动力蛋白;花粉;分离GTPase活性

通讯作者。Email:<liuguoqin2001 @ yahoo.com.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Tonoplast H+-ATPase Activity, Ion Uptake and Calcium in Barley Roots Under NaCl Stress
Author: ZHANG Wen Hua, CHEN Qin, LIU You Liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 667-672
      
    

H+ ATPase activity of tonoplast in roots of Hordeum vulgare L. cv.“Tanyin 2" (salt tolerant cultivar) increased when the roots were exposed to 50-200 mmol/L NaCl for 2 d, and decreased when NaCl concentration was increased to 600 mmol/L. In “Kepin 7" (salt sensitive cultivar), tonoplast H+ ATPase activity in roots also increased at lower levels of NaCl (50-100 mmol/L), but decreased at higher levels of NaCl (200-600 mmol/L). Tonoplast fluidity in roots of“Tanyin 2" decreased at 50-200 mmol/L NaCl, and increased significantly at 600 mmol/L NaCl. Under salt stress, the change of tonoplast fluidity was identical with that of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in tonoplast lipid of barley roots. It is proposed that the increase of tonoplast fluidity due to increased degree of unsaturation of fatty acids is one of the reasons leading to the decrease of H+ ATPase activity under higher level of NaCl stress.

NaC1 胁迫下大麦根液泡膜H+-ATPase活性、离子吸收与钙的关系
章文华 刘友良
(南京农业大学农学院,农业部作物生长调控重点开放实验室,南京210095)

摘要:NaCl胁迫2d,耐盐大麦(Hordeum vulgare L.cv)(“滩引2号”)根系液泡膜H+-ATPase活性增强,H+-PPase活性下降。以质膜Ca 2+通道抑制剂La3+(1 mmol/L)或Ca 2+螯合剂EGTA(5mmol/L)处理大麦幼苗,抑制了NaCl诱导的液泡膜H+-ATPase活性的增强,但提高了H+-PPase活性;用CaM拮抗剂三氟拉嗪(TFP,20μmol/L)处理,也抑制了液泡膜H+-ATPase活性的增强。NaCl胁迫下,外加La3+,TFP或La 3+ ,TFP处理,使Na+ 吸收增加,K +和Ca 2+ 吸收降低。结果表明,NaCl胁迫下,液泡膜H+ -ATPase活性提高和离子吸收的变化可能与Ca-CaM系统有关。

文章关键词: 液泡膜 质子泵 离子吸收 耐盐性 大麦
 

Abstract (Browse 2181)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Nitrate on the Growth of Lateral Root and Nitrogen Absorption in Rice
Author: WANG Xiao Bing, WU Ping*, HU Bin, CHEN Qing Shuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 678-683
      
    

Lateral root is primary organ for plant to explore and utilize soil nutrient efficiently. The development of lateral roots (LR) is controlled by both genetic factors and nutrient status in environment. To investigate the effects of nitrate (NO3-) on rice lateral root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency under upland condition, three treatments, including root split culture and whole plant culture in N sufficient and deficient conditions, were used in a vermiculite culture experiment. Root split treatment showed that the growth of lateral roots was stimulated by localized nitrate supply. However, in whole plant culture, elongation of lateral roots was induced by NO3- deficiency. The effects of NO3- on rice lateral root growth were genotype dependent. Similar N concentration, soluble sugar concentration and N content in shoot were observed in both root split treatment and whole plant culture under NO3- sufficient condition, suggesting that the nitrogen requirement for rice normal growth could be satisfied with only half of roots supplied with NO3-. In the root split treatment, N uptake was positively correlated with the average of lateral root length (ALRL) in NO3- supplied side, suggesting that the ALRL is important for rice root N uptake in the environment where the nitrogen nutrient is limiting factor. No significant correlation was observed between N uptake and ALRL in whole plant culture under N sufficient condition, which implies that the length of lateral roots may not be the main factor to determine the rice root N uptake in nutrient rich zone. Morphological and metabolic evidence in this study provided some prospects for genetic improvement of root system characters to improve the efficiency of nutrient absorption in rice.

硝态氮(No3- )对水稻侧根生长及其氮吸收的影响
王小兵 吴平*  胡 彬 陈青爽
(浙江大学生命科学院,杭州310029)

摘要: 侧根是植物吸收利用土壤养分的重要器官,其生长发育受内部遗传因子和外部环境矿质养分的影响。通过琼脂分层发现:局部供应No3- 可以诱导水稻(Oryza sativa L.)主根或不定根上侧根的生长。为研究旱种条件下No3- 对水稻侧根发育及其N吸收的影响,设置了3个蛭石培养实验:分根处理,全株缺N,全株供N处理。分根处理(一半根系供应3mmol/L,KON 3,另一半根系供应3mmol/L KCl)结果表明:局部供应NO3^-能够促进水稻侧根生长。而在全株处理下,N饥饿衣导了侧根的伸长。水稻根系对No3- 的这两种反应都存在着显著的基因型差异。同时对地上部N浓度,可溶性总糖含量及N含量分析表明,这些生理指标在分根处理与全株加N处理中的差异均不显著,表明分根处理也能基本满足植株正常生长对N的需求。在分根处理中,水稻的N含量与分根处理中供N一侧的平均侧根长度存在显著正相关,这表明在养分不均一的介质中,侧根长度对水稻N素吸收具有十分重要的作用。而在N素充足的条件下,两者之间的相关性并不显著,这暗示在养分充足的环境下,侧根长度可能并不是决定根系吸收N素的主要因素。

关键词:No3- 侧根生长,氮吸附,分根处理,水稻

通讯作者.Tel.:86-571-86971130.E-mail:<docpwu @ cls.zju.edu.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2367)  |  Full Text PDF       
Maize Transformation of cry1Ac3 Gene and Insect Resistance of Their Transgenic Plants
Author: LI Hui Fen, LI Xu Gang, LIU Xiang, CHANG Tuan Jie, XIAO Gui Fang, ZHU Zhen*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 684-688
      
    

The success for genetic transformation of maize (Zea mays L.) is highly related to genotype of target material. A few model varieties can be induced into type Ⅱ callus, which can be easily transformed with high regeneration frequency. However, most of cultivars could be only induced into type Ⅰ callus, which is difficult to be transformed with low regeneration. Thus, studying on the conditions of induction and transformation for type Ⅰ callus will show great importance for improving elite of maize directly with genetic engineering. Bacillus thuringiensis toxin protein (cry1Ac3) gene was successfully delivered into type Ⅰ calli of two elite inbred lines of maize, 340 and E28, via particle bombardment in this work. Fertile transgenic corn plants were obtained through phosphinothricin (PPT) or hygromycin B (HygB) selection, and the results of PCR, Southern blot assay and ELISA showed that foreign genes had been integrated into maize genome and expressed. In the meantime, strong resistance of some transgenic plants to corn borer was showed through bioassay. In addition, the comparison of selective effect between PPT and HygB showed that PPT, as a selective agent, was better than HygB for the growth and regeneration of resistant calli.

转苏云金杆菌毒蛋白基因玉米植株的获得及其抗虫性分析
李慧芬 李旭刚 刘 翔 常团结 肖桂芳 朱 祯*

(中国科学院遗传研究所,北京100101)

摘要: 玉米( Zea mays L.)转化成功与否与基因型密切相关.在转化过程中,除少数模式品种能够形成再生频率较高且易转化的Ⅱ型愈伤组织外,大多数栽培品种往往只能够形成再生频率较低且不易转化的Ⅰ型愈伤组织.因此探索Ⅰ型愈伤组织的诱导及其转化条件,提高转化效率,对直接改良玉米优良自交系具有重要意义.应用基因枪转化技术将苏云金杆菌( Bacillus thuringiensis ) cry1Ac3基因导入玉米优良自交系E28及340的Ⅰ型胚性愈伤组织中,经过膦丝菌素(PPT)或潮霉素(HygB)筛选,获得了再生植株.经PCR检测、Southern blot分析及Bt毒蛋白ELISA检测证实,外源基因已整合到玉米基因组中,并已获得表达.抗虫性分析结果表明,部分转基因玉米植株对玉米螟虫有较强的抗性.还比较了PPT和HygB两种筛选剂的筛选效果,表明PPT筛选的抗性愈伤组织的再生频率要高于HygB筛选的再生频率.

关键词: 玉米;遗传转化;植株再生;抗虫基因

Abstract (Browse 2194)  |  Full Text PDF       
UGPase of Astragalus membranaceus: cDNA Cloning, Analyzing and Expressing in Escherichia coli
Author: WU Xiao Jun, DU Min, WENG Ying Qi, LIU Di, HU Zhi Bi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 689-693
      
    

On the basis of sequences of UGPase from plants, a cDNA encoding the enzyme was isolated from the hairy root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. The cDNA consisted of 1 831 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 471 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 51.5 kD and a deduced isoelectric point of 6.01. Then the open read frame of the cDNA was ligated into pET28(a)+ vector and expressed in E. coli BL21. SDS PAGE showed that the expressed protein was ca. 40% in the total bacterial protein. Enzyme activity assay demonstrated that the UGPase activity in the transformed bacteria was 0.50-3.27 times higher than that of the control. Northern blotting revealed that ugp was expressed in the leaf, stem, root and hairy root of A. membranaceus, with a higher levelin root and hairy root.

黄UGPase cDNA 克隆、分析及其在大肠杆菌中的表达
吴晓俊 杜 旻 翁颖琦 刘 涤 胡之璧
(上海中医药研究院中药研究所,上海200032)

摘要: 在已报道的UGPase的植物cDNA序列基础上 ,从膜荚黄芪 (Astragalusmembranaceus (Fisch .)Bunge)毛状根中分离了此酶的cDNA。此cDNA全长为 1 831bp ,推测编码分子量为 5 1 .5kD、等电点为 6 .0 1的由 4 71个氨基酸残基组成的多肽。将此cDNA的开放阅读框载入质粒pET2 8(a) +并转入大肠杆菌 (Escherichiacoli)BL2 1。SDS_PAGE表明此酶已经在E .coli中获得大量表达 ,表达量约为总细菌蛋白的 4 0 %。酶活分析表明 ,转化菌中UGPase的活性比非转化菌高 0 .5 0~ 3.2 7倍 ,证明此cDNA可以在原核生物中获得表达。Northernblot表明UGPase在黄芪的根、茎、叶及毛状根中均有表达 ,在根及毛状根中表达量较高 ,证明了此酶主要分布于植物贮藏组织的报道。

关键词: 原核表cDNA克隆;UGPase;毛状根;膜荚黄芪

Abstract (Browse 2310)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preparation of Total DNA from
Author: ZENG Jie, ZOU Yu Ping*, BAI Jia Yu, ZHENG Hai Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 694-697
      
    

Contamination problems on DNA isolation from “recalcitrant plant taxa" which is rich in polysaccharides have been commonly encountered in a wide range of research fields such as plant population biology, biodiversity, and molecular marker assisted breeding. Here we present an improved protocol to extract DNA efficiently from dry or fresh leaves of a “recalcitrant plant taxa", Betula alnoides Buch. Ham. ex D. Don in which three key steps are involved: 1) washing out most of polysaccharides and other secondary compounds with CTAB free buffer from homogenate; 2) adoption of 3% CTAB rather than 2% CTAB in the exaction medium; and 3) using of high concentration of salt prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol to remove residual polysaccharides. The isolated DNA has been proved suitable for RAPD PCR amplification and restriction digestion. This modified procedure is simple, inexpensive and reliable, and is also applicable to many other plant taxa with high polysaccharides.

顽拗植物类群的总DNA 制备
曾杰1 邹喻苹2*! 白嘉雨1 郑海水1

(1. 中国林业科学院热带林业研究所,广州F510520;2. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 从富含多糖的顽拗植物类群提取与纯化DNA是许多研究领域例如居群生物学、生物多样性、分子标记辅助育种研究普遍遇到的难题.以西南桦( Betula alnoides )为例发展了一套改进的方案,有效地从这种顽拗植物的干叶和鲜叶中制备了DNA.此方案包括3个关键步骤:首先从植物细胞匀浆中用不含CTAB的缓冲液洗去大部分多糖和其他次生物质;在提取介质中采用3% CTAB而不是通常用的2% CTAB;将常用的高盐去糖的纯化操作提前到用异丙醇沉淀DNA之前进行.从西南桦提取的DNA已成功地用于RAPD-PCR扩增和限制性酶切.这个简单、经济和可靠的改进方案也适用于许多其他的顽拗植物类群.

关键词: 西南桦;多糖;DNA 制备;RAPD;限制性酶切

通讯作者。Fax:0086-10-62590843;E-mail:<zouyp @ ns,ibcas.ac.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2315)  |  Full Text PDF       
Soil Carbon Balance in a Native Temperate Grassland in the Xilin River Basin of Inner Mongolia
Author: LI Ling Hao, HAN Xing Guo, WANG Qi Bing, BAI Wen Ming, BAI Yong Fei, YAN Zhi Dan,CHEN Quan Sheng, ZHANG Yan, YANG Jing, LI Xin, SONG Shi Huan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 740-742
      
    

Based on historical data and field investigation, some major fluxes and reserves of carbon were estimated, and a tentative analysis of the soil carbon balance was made in a native grassland community in the Xilin River basin of Inner Mongolia. Major results were reported as follows: 1) Annual average carbon input from above ground biomass production was 79.8 g C·m-2·a-1, and from root biomass to 30 cm depth averaged 311.9 g C·m-2·a-1. The summed mean annual carbon input of shoot and root materials in the study site was approximately 391.7 g C·m-2·a-1. 2) The annual amount of above ground biomass consumed by insects averaged 14.7 g C·m-2·a-1, and the carbon output by leaching or light chemical oxidation was 3.2 g C·m-2·a-1. The annual evolution rate of CO2 from net soil respiration averaged 346.9 g C·m-2·a-1, and the summed mean annual output was approximately 364.8 g C·m-2·a-1. 3) A mature, steady state system could be assumed for the community for which growth and decay were approximately in balance, with a net carbon accumulation of about 26.9 g C·m-2·a-1. Based on the soil organic carbon density of the field, the turnover rate of soil carbon in 0-30 cm depth was calculated to be 6.2%, with a turnover time of 16 years.

锡林河流域一个原生草原群落的碳素平衡研究
李凌浩 韩兴国 王其兵 白文明 白永飞 闫志丹 陈全胜
张焱杨晶李鑫宋世环
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 野外调查与历史资料相结合,对内蒙古锡林河流域一个永久试验样地内的羊草( Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.)草原群落(原生草原群落)的碳素贮量、主要流量和周转速度等进行了估计.结果表明:1)该群落中地上部净初级生产的碳素固定量的多年平均值为79.8 g C.m-2.a-1,根系碳素输入量的多年平均值为311.9 g C.m-2.a-1, 碳素输入总量为391.7 g C.m-2.a-1; 2)土壤净呼吸量为346.9 g C.m-2.a-1,动物(昆虫)采食量14.7 g C.m-2.a-1,地上立枯阶段的淋溶与光化学分解损失为3.2 g C.m-2.a-1,碳素输出总量为364.8 g C.m-2.a-1; 3)该群落中碳素输入略大于输出,净积累速率为26.9 g C.m-2.a-1,0-30 cm土壤中的碳素周转速率为6.2%,周转时间为16年.

关键词: 羊草草原;碳素平衡;土壤呼吸;周转速率;净初级生产

Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  Full Text PDF       
Existence and Characteristics of Tonoplast-bound Protein Kinase in the Tip Cell of Maize Root
Author: CHEN Shuo, CHEN Jia*, WANG Xue Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 661-666
      
    

For understanding the function of tonoplast protein in plant cell signal pathway, we have identified an integral protein kinase activity from the highly purified tonoplast isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) root by a new nonradioactive method in which a color labeled peptide was used as substrate. The protein kinase was Ca2+ dependent and CaM and phosphatidylserine independent, like the calmodulin like domain protein kinase (CDPK) in many plants. The optimal pH value and Ca2+ concentration were 6.5 and 10 μmol/L, respectively. According to the optimal pH value and the effect of detergent, it could be inferred that the active site of this protein kinase is oriented toward the cytoplasm. Zn2+ had no obvious effect on its activity, indicating that this protein kinase has no zinc finger domain that exists in some mammalian protein kinases. At the same time, when tonoplast proteins were prephosphorylated in the presence of Ca2+ and ATP, both the ATP hydrolysis and the proton transport activity of vacuolar H+ ATPase were stimulated. This stimulation could be reversed by an alkaline phosphatase. These results indicate that a Ca2+ dependent protein kinase was located in the tonoplast, and a Ca2+ dependent phosphorylation, probably caused by this kinase, activated the vacuolar H+ ATPase activity. These results are helpful for further research on the function of CDPK in the course of signal transduction in plants.

玉米根尖细胞液泡膜结合的蛋白激酶的存在及其性质
陈 硕 陈 珈* 王学臣
(中国农业大学生物学院,植物生理生化国家重点实验室,北京100094)

摘要: 为了解液泡膜蛋白在植物细胞信号途径中的功能,用新型的非放射性同位素方法从玉米根细胞的高纯度液泡膜上鉴定出一种膜内在的蛋白激酶.这种蛋白激酶具有Ca 2+依赖、CaM和磷脂酰丝氨酸不依赖等特性,与已在多种植物中报道的含有类似钙调素结构域的蛋白激酶CDPK相似.离体实验表明其活性的最适pH值为6.5,最适Ca 2+浓度为10 μmol/L.从最适pH值和去污剂的影响可以推测出其活性位点朝向胞质一侧.Zn 2+对其活性没有明显的抑制作用,说明该激酶缺少某些哺乳动物的蛋白激酶常含有的锌指结构.当液泡膜蛋白在Ca 2+和ATP存在的条件下被预磷酸化后,液泡膜H +-ATPase的ATP水解和质子转运过程均被激活.激活的活性可以被碱性磷酸酶逆转.以上结果说明玉米根尖细胞的液泡膜中存在一种可能是CDPK的蛋白激酶.由它造成的Ca 2+依赖的磷酸化作用激活了液泡膜H+-ATPase的活性.这些结果将有助于深入研究CDPK在植物细胞信号转导中的功能.

关键词: 蛋白激酶;磷酸化H+-ATPase液泡膜;玉米

通讯作者。E-mail:<chenja @ public.bta.net.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2102)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Antifungal Flavonol Glycoside from Hypericum perforatum
Author: LU Yan Hua, ZHANG Zhen, SHI Guo Xin, MENG Jun Cai, TAN Ren Xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 743-745
      
    

In addition to six known flavonoids quercitrin, hyperoside, avicularin, rutin, quercetin and kaemferol, a new flavonol glycoside named 6″-O-acetyl quercetin 3-O-β-D-alloside (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, FAB-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). Antifungal assay of all compounds showed that metabolite 1, quercitrin and quercetin were inhibitory to the growth of phytopathogenic fungus Helminthosporium sativum Pamel King et Bakke with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25, 50 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, glycoside 1 and quercitrin were also shown to be able to inhibit the growth of Fusarium graminearum Schw. with MIC of 100 μg/mL. The MICs of ketoconazole used as control against the test fungi were 0.5 μg/mL in our assay.

贯叶连翘中的新抗真菌黄酮苷
卢艳花1,2 张臻2  施国新1  孟军才2  谭仁祥2*

(1. 南京师范大学江苏省资源生物技术重点实验室,南京210097;2.  南京大学功能生物分子研究所,南京210093)

摘要: 从贯叶连翘 (HypericumperforatumL .)地上部分的 80 %乙醇提取物中分离得到 1个新的黄酮苷和 6个已知黄酮类化合物。采用红外光谱、紫外光谱、质谱和核磁共振光谱等波谱技术测得新黄酮苷的结构为 6″-O-乙酰基槲皮素-3-O-β-D_阿洛糖苷 (1 ,6″-O-acetylquercetin 3-O-β-D-alloside) ,6个已知化合物分别被鉴定为槲皮苷 (quercitrin)、金丝桃苷 (hyperoside)、蓄苷 (avicularin)、芦丁 (rutin)、槲皮素 (quercetin)和山萘酚 (kaemferol)。体外抗真菌活性实验表明 ,新黄酮苷 (1 )、槲皮苷和槲皮素对植物病原菌Helminthosporiumsativum  Pamel KingetBakke具有一定的抑制作用 ,三者的最小抑制浓度 (MIC)分别为 :2 5、5 0和 5 0 μg/mL。另外 ,1和槲皮苷对禾赤色镰孢霉 (Fusariumgraminearum Schw .)的生长也有抑制作用 (MIC值均为 1 0 0 μg/mL)。

关键词: 贯叶连翘;黄酮类化合物;6″-O-乙酰基槲皮素3-O-β-D-阿洛糖苷;抗真菌

 

Abstract (Browse 2430)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Heterosis and Endogenous Plant Hormones in Liriodendron
Author: LI Zhou Qi, WANG Zhang Rong*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 698-701
      
    

To investigate the possible involvement of endogenous plant hormones in heterosis of Liriodendron interspecific hybrid, growth traits and contents of endogenous GA1/3(gibberellin A1, A3), IAA (indole 3 acetic acid) and iPA (isopentenyl adenine) of tulip tree (L. chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg.),yellow poplar (L. tulipifera L.) and their interspecific hybrid (L. chinense×L. tulipifera) were examined. Results showed that: (1) the heterosis in height growth trait of the interspecific hybrid was mainly caused by the reletively greater elongation of internodes. Although the uppermost three internodes had the potential of elongation, the first one, which had the greatest elongation amount, contributed to the heterosis of the height growth trait; (2) the contents of endogenous GA1/3, IAA and iPA were greatly different among tulip tree, yellow poplar and their interspecific hybrid. All of the three interspecific hybrid families studied significantly contained higher amount of endogenous GA1/3 and iPA in the uppermost first internode than their parental species. And thus, a correlation between the contents of endogenous GA1/3 and iPA, and hybrid vigor for height growth trait in Liriodendron was observed; (3) the rankings of endogenous GA1/3 and iPA contents in the uppermost first internode of three hybrid families studied were not similar to the ranking for height of 3 year old trees. Therefore, the contents of endogenous GA 1/3 and iPA in the uppermost first internode could not be used in predicting hybrid vigor among hybrid families.

鹅掌楸属种间杂种优势与内源植物激素的关系
李周岐1 王章荣2*

(1.  西北农林科技大学林学院,陕西杨凌712100;2. 南京林业大学森林资源与环境学院,南京210037)

摘要: 研究了鹅掌楸属(Liriodendron)种间F 1杂种(杂种马褂木L.Cchinense×L.tulipifera)及其亲本种(中国马褂木L.chinense (Hemsl.)Sarg. 和北美鹅掌楸L.tulipifera L.)在生长性状和内源GA1/3,IAA和iPA含量上的差异性。结果表明:(1)杂种马褂木高生长性状杂种优势主要是由节间的相对伸长造成的,鹅掌楸属节间伸长区位于顶芽下第1-3节间,其中第1节间伸长量最大,是产生杂种优势的主要节间;(2)中国马褂木,北美鹅掌楸和杂种马褂木内源GA 1/3,IAA和iPA含量差异很大,顶芽下第1节间GA 1/3和iPA含量杂种家系分别为两个亲本种中含量相对较高的的中国马褂木的133.585-284.17%和396.64%-1264.28%。杂种马褂木顶芽下第1节间中GA 1/3和iPA含量的大量增加可能与高生长性状杂种优势有关;(3)杂种家系3年生时其苗高生长量排序与顶芽下第1节间中GA  1/3和iPA含量排序并不一致,不能以第1节间GA  1/3和iPA含量的高低作为预测杂种家系间杂种优势大小的依据。
关键词: 鹅掌楸属;杂种优势;内源植物激素

 

Abstract (Browse 2086)  |  Full Text PDF       
Responses of Picoplankton to Nutrient Perturbation in the South China Sea, with Special Reference to the Coast-wards Distribution of Prochlorococcus
Author: JIAO Nian Zhi*, YANG Yan Hui, Hiroshi KOSHIKAWA, Shigeki HARADA, Masataka WATANABE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 731-739
      
    

Responses of Prochlorococcus (Pro),Synechococcus (Syn), pico eukaryotes (Euk) and heterotrophic bacteria (Bact) in pelagic marine ecosystems to external nutrient perturbations were examined using nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),iron (Fe), and cobalt (Co) enriched incubations in the South China Sea in November 1997. Variations in abundance of the 4 groups of microorganism and cellular pigment content of the autotrophs during incubation were followed by flow cytometric measurements for seven days. During the incubation, Syn and Euk showed a relatively higher demand on Fe and N, while Pro required higher levels of Co and P. The Fe was inadequate for all the organisms in the deep euphotic zone (75 m) of the study area. The experimental results also implied that biological interaction among the organisms played a role in the community structure shift during the incubation. It seemed that besides the effects of temperature, there are some other physical and chemical limitations as well as impacts from biological interactions on Pro distribution in coast waters.

从营养扰动实验看原绿球藻在近海分布的制约因素
焦念志1* 杨燕辉1 Hiroshi KOSHIKAWA 2

(厦门大学海洋环境科学教育部重点实验室,厦门361005 2. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0053,Japan)

摘要: 地球上细胞最小、丰度最大的放氧光合自养原核生物原绿球藻(Prochlorococcus)发现于热带大洋,并被证实可在某些近海甚至近岸水域大量分布。但除温度之外,原绿球藻自然分布的控制因子尚不明了。从近海和大洋生态条件的主要差别考虑,在南海进行了主要营养盐———氮、磷和微量元素———铁、钴扰动的现场培养实验,并应用流式细胞技术监测原绿球藻及聚球藻(Synechococcus)、超微型真核浮游植物(pico-eukaryotes)的细胞丰度和单细胞色素含量的响应以及细菌的影响。结果表明,磷和钴的添加有利于原绿球藻,而氮和铁的添加更有利于聚球藻和超微型真核浮游植物。同时,由环境条件引起的生物响应又间接地导致超微型生物之间的相互作用。因而,原绿球藻在近海的分布,可能受到营养盐组成等环境因子以及生物之间的相互作用等多方面的限制和影响。
关键词: 原绿球藻;超微型浮游生物;营养盐;铁;钴;南海

通讯作者. E-mail: <jiao @ xmu.edu.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2262)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Ecophysiological Features and Grain Yield in Different Soybean Varieties
Author: ZHU Gui Jie, JIANG Gao Ming*, HAO Nai Bin, LIU He Qin, KONG Zheng Hong, DU Wei Guang**, MAN Wei Qun**
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 725-730
      
    

Photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance(gs), water use efficiency (WUE), intercellular CO2(Ci) and leaf water potential (Ψ) in varieties of soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) measured in the past three decades (1970s, 1980s and 1990s) and their inter relationships were analyzed. These parameters of soybean changed with development stages. It is shown that there was a strongly positive relationship between the yield of soybean and its net photosynthetic rate. Soybean varieties with high yield potential had higher Pn, gs and Ψ than those with low yield potential. Their values of Ci were remarkably lower. Such relationship was especially remarkable at the critical stage of pod bearing.Pn of soybean of high yield was obviously higher than that of low yield. Of the different stages, the highest Pn was found in the pod bearing stage and other values were higher, too. Pn and Ψ of modern soybean varieties were higher and such was continuing. Increased partitioning of carbon to seed and the size of sink may also be important for yield formation when Pn values were remarkably higher in the pod bearing stage.

大豆生理生态特性与产量的关系
朱桂杰 蒋高明* 郝乃斌 刘合芹 孔正红 杜维广**  满为群**

(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室,北京100093)

比较研究了1970s、1980s和1990s期间不同大豆 ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.)品种的生理生态特性:光合作用、蒸腾作用、气孔导度、水分利用效率、胞间CO 2浓度和叶片水势,分析了各生理生态特性之间以及与产量在不同生育期的关系.研究表明光合速率和产量之间存在显著的相关关系,高产大豆同时具有高的气孔导度和水势,胞间CO 2浓度则很低,特别是在鼓粒期关系更为显著.高产大豆的光合作用在鼓粒期达到最高值,光合作用日变化呈双峰曲线.在鼓粒期高产大豆的光合产物大量运往籽粒中,对于高产品种和高光效-"源"固然重要,而"流"-光合产物的合理运转和分配对产量则更为重要.

关键词: 大豆;生理生态特性;光合速率;气孔导度;水势

Abstract (Browse 2103)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phylogeny of Aceraceae Based on ITS and trnL-F Data Sets
Author: TIAN Xin, GUO Zhen Hua, LI De Zhu*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 714-724
      
    

The nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the plastid encoded trnL-F region were sequenced for 41 species of the Aceraceae, representing both genera Acer and Dipteronia, to reconstruct phylogeny of this family, especially within Acer. The analyses were performed in separate and combined sequence data sets, with the Sapindaceae and Hippocastanaceae being selected asoutgroups. It was indicated that the Aceraceae was monophyletic and D. sinensis was basal to the rest of the family but the two genera of it might be not monophyletic because Dipteronia dyerana was nested within Acer. The result inferred from the combined data showed greater resolution within Acer than that from the two separate data sets. The monophyly of most sections in Xu's system (1996) were supported with high bootstrap values, and some relationships between (or among) sections were also inferred, such as sect. Palmata and sect. Microcarpa; sect.Platanoidea, sect.Lithocarpa and sect. Macrophylla; sect.Integrifolia, sect.Trifoliata and sect.Pentaphylla; and sect. Acer, sect. Goniocarpa and sect. Saccharina (sensu Ogata). However, the sectional status and circumscriptions of some of the above mentioned sections should be further adjusted. It seemed that the Xu's delimitations of sect. Rubra and sect. Saccharodendran should be revaluated.

基于ITS与trn L-F序列探讨槭树科的系统发育
田 欣 郭振华 李德铢

(中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学开放实验室,昆明650204)

摘要: 报道了槭树科41种(其中槭属39种)植物的 trn L-F和ITS序列(其中部分种的ITS序列为重新测定),以期通过分子手段对槭树科内部尤其是复杂的槭属的系统发育关系进行重建.以无患子科和七叶树科为外类群,基于对57个种单独的ITS序列(包括从GenBank下载的16种的序列)、41种 trn L-F序列及41种两者序列的联合数据,分别采用最大简约法(Maximum Parsimony Method)和邻接法(Neighbor-Joining Method)对槭树科的系统发育进行了分析.结果显示,整个槭树科为一单系类群;金钱槭位于槭树科的基部;但由于云南金钱槭( Dipteronia dyerana )聚在了槭属内部,认为金钱槭属和槭属均可能是非单系类群;槭属内组间关系的支持率普遍较低,但多数组的组内关系得到了较好的支持.将两个片段结合比单独的ITS或 trn L-F分析能更好地解决槭属内部的系统关系,其中sect.Palmata 和sect.Microcarpa ,sect.Platanoidea 、sect.Lithocarpa 和sect. Macrophylla ,sect. Integrifolia 、sect.Trifoliata 和sect. Pentaphylla ,以及sect. Acer 、sect.Goniocarpa 和sect. Saccharina (sensu Ogata)的组间亲缘关系得到了一定的支持,但对其中部分组的划分可能应做进一步调整.重新评价了徐廷志系统中对sect. Rubra 和sect.Saccharodendron 的处理.

关键词: 槭树科;系统发育;ITS;trn L-F

通讯作者。E-mail:<dezhuli @ hotmail.com>.

Abstract (Browse 2644)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Unique Aegilops tauschii Genotype Needless to Immature Embryo Culture in Cross with Wheat
Author: LIU Deng Cai*, LAN Xiu Jin, YANG Zu Jun, ZHENG You Liang, WEI Yu Ming, ZHOU Yong Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 708-713
      
    

Common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD, 2n=42) originated ca. 8 000 years ago from hybridization of tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., AABB, 2n=28) and diploid Aegilops tauschii Coss.(DD, 2n=14). An essential prerequisite for this evolutionary step is that the natural hybrids between tetraploid wheat and diploid Aegilops tauschiican produce relatively many filled seeds which germinated well. In this study, without special techniques, e.g. immature embryo culture, out of 22 Ae. tauschii accessions, the genotype AS60 produced relatively many filled seeds which germinated well. The seed germination percentages in the crosses of Ae. tauschii×tetraploid wheat, tetraploid wheat×Ae. tauschii and Ae. tauschii×common wheat were, respectively, 50.0%, 57.1% and 45.5%. It seems that Ae. tauschii accession AS60 has a unique genotype which facilitate hybrid seed development and viability, and which meets with the prerequisite for wheat evolutionary. Furthermore, the significance of this finding for common wheat improvement and evolution was discussed.

远缘杂交不需幼胚培养的节节麦基因型
刘登才* 兰秀锦 杨足君 郑有良 魏育明 周永红
(四川农业大学小麦研究所,四川都江堰611830)

六倍体普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)是由四倍体小麦(T.turgidum L.)与二倍体节节麦(Aegilops tanschii Coss.)天然杂交然后通过染色体自然加倍形成的异源多倍体.这一起源过程是自然条件下天然发生的,它的发生需要具备一个条件:四倍体小麦与节节麦的天然杂交种子在自然条件(没有幼胚培养等)下能够正常发芽出苗.我们从22份节节麦中发现来自中东的节节麦AS60在不采用幼胚培养等人工辅助条件下,仍然很容易与四倍体小麦和普通小麦产生有生活力的杂种植株.AS60与四倍体小麦的杂交种子有50.0%(反交)及57.1%(正交)的种子,而AS60与六倍体普通小麦的杂交种子则有45.5%不需幼胚培养等措施能够正常发芽、生长.AS60的这一特征正是普通小麦起源过程需要的条件.最后探讨了这一发现对小麦遗传改良和对普通小麦起源演化研究的意义.

关键词: 节节麦;普通小麦;四倍体小麦;幼胚培养;起源;遗传改良

通讯作者。E-mail:<dcliu3 @ public.cd.sc.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2284)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Dissection of Relationship Between Seedling Characteristics and Seed Size in Rice
Author: CUI Ke Hui*, PENG Shao Bing, XING Yong Zhong, YU Si Bin, XU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6): 702-707
      
    

Seedling characteristics such as leaf emergency, chlorophyll content,and height are important for early growth and also associated with seed size. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling characteristics (leaf length, chlorophyll content, seedling height) and seed size were identified with an attempt to explore the relationship between seedling characteristics and seed size, using a recombinant inbred population derived from a cross between Zhenshan 97A and Minghui 63. Two, one, five, four, four, and nine QTLs were detected for chlorophyll a content, total chlorophyll, length of the second seedling leaf, length of the third seedling leaf, seedling height, and seed size, respectively. The results indicated that four QTLs for seed size and four QTLs for seedling characteristics shared several similar regions (G359 RG532, C567 RG236, RZ403 R19, C371 C405a), respectively, suggesting a close association between seedling characteristics and seed size. Several chromosomal regions influencing seed size, however, had no effects on seedling characteristics, suggesting that it was possible to improve seedling vigor without increasing grain size.

水稻幼苗特性与籽粒大小关系的分子检测
崔克辉1,2*  彭少兵 邢永忠1 余四斌1  徐才国1

(1.  华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室,武汉430070;2. 国际水稻研究所,MCPO Box 3127, 1271 Makati City,Philippines)

摘要: 水稻( Oryza sativa L.)幼苗特性如叶的发生、叶绿素含量、植株高度等对早期生长是重要的,与籽粒大小相联系.以水稻珍汕97A和明恢63组合的重组自交系群体为材料,对5个幼苗特性性状和籽粒大小进行了数量性状基因定位(QTL),目的在于从遗传水平探求幼苗特性与籽粒大小的内在关系.对叶绿素a、总叶绿素含量、第二片叶长、第三片叶长、幼苗高度、粒重分别检测到2、1、5、4、4、9个QTLs.结果揭示4个幼苗特性性状的QTL和4个籽粒大小的QTL位点分别定位在4个相似区域 (G359-RG532、C567-RG236、RZ403-R19和C371-C405a),表明幼苗特性性状与籽粒大小间的紧密关系,也显示控制籽粒大小的几个染色体区域对幼苗特性性状没有影响,这意味着通过标记辅助选择改良幼苗活力但并不增加粒重是可能的.

关键词: QTL 定位;幼苗特性性状;籽粒大小;水稻

Abstract (Browse 2402)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation and Climate on the Sunda Shelf of the South China Sea During the Last Glactiation-Pollen Results from Station 17962
Author: Sun Xiang Jun, Li Xun, Luo Yun Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(6)
      
    This paper presents the pollen data from deep sea sediments of station 17962 from the continental slope of the southern South China Sea. The 8 m long profile covers the last 30 000 years including the late stage of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3, the Last Glacial Maximum, the Termination and the Holocene. The pollen results reveal that lowland rainforest covered the emerged southern continental shelf of the South China Sea (Sunda Land) during the last glacial period at low sea level stand. At the same time, upper montane rainforest on the adjacent islands expanded, showing the climate was cooler than that in present day, but no dryness was indicated. The vegetation and climate experienced great fluctuations including abrupt warming and cooling at the end of the ice age. During the Holocene, expansion of mangroves and lowland rainforest, and significant diminution of pollen influx values suggests warming of the climate, rising of the sea level and the submerge of the shelf.
Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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