August 2002, Volume 44 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Effect of Weak Light on the Peroxidation of Membrane-Lipid of Cherry Leaves
Author: HUANG Wei-Dong, WU Lan-Kun and ZHAN Ji-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 920-924
      
    

The effect of weak light on the peroxidation of membrane lipid of one year old cherries (Prunus pseudocerasus L. “Laiyang”) was studied by whole tree shading. The results showed that the net photosynthetic rate of cherry leaves under weak light was remarkably lower; the activity peroxidase (POD) increased when light intensity decreased; the activity of catalase (CAT) showed an opposite trend, and it was positively correlated with light intensity; the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased under 366 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 533.8 μmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity, but decreased under 228.8 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 83.9 μmol·m-2·s-1 light intensity. A remarkable increase of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation, was also observed in cherry leaves when treated with weak light, indicating more serious peroxidation in the membrane.

弱光对樱桃叶片膜脂过氧化的影响
黄卫东 吴兰坤 战吉
(中国农业大学园艺学院,北京100094)

摘要:以无性繁殖的一年生莱阳矮樱桃( Prunus pseudocerasus L. "Laiyang")幼苗为试材,研究了弱光对樱桃叶片膜脂过氧化的影响.结果表明:随着光照强度的减弱,樱桃叶片的净光合速率降低;而MDA含量和膜保护酶活性在弱光下也发生明显变化,其中MDA含量和POD活性上升;CAT活性下降;SOD在366 μmol*m-2*s-1和533.8 μmol*m-2*s-1光强下活性升高,而在228.8 μmol*m-2*s-1和83.9 μmol*m-2*s-1光强下活性下降.

 

关键词: 弱光;樱桃;膜脂过氧化;膜保护酶

 

Abstract (Browse 2181)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Chinese Zhangzhou Isolate DNA 4 and the Promoter Activity of Its Non-coding Region
Author: SUN De-Jun, WEI Hong-Yan, CAI Wen-Qi and TIAN Ying-Chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 941-945
      
    

Banana bunchy top virus Chinese Zhangzhou isolate (BBTV-ZZ) DNA 4 was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis showed that BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 is 1039 nucleotides (nts) in length and this virus could be one member of BBTV Asian group. Transcriptional initiation site A, which is at the 269 nucleotide, was preliminarily determined by using 5′ RACE method. BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 non-coding region was sub cloned by PCR and inserted into upstream of gfp∶∶gus plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1304 to construct recombinant plasmid pTA2.Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pTA2 was injected into leaves of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi NC) via Agrobacterium infiltration procedure. Transient expressions of GUS and GFP were determined in injected leaves 3-5 d later. GUS activities of pTA2,pCAMBIA 1304 injected and noninjected tobacco leaves respectively were 1.0070 pmol MU·μg-1·min-1, 2.0690 pmol MU·μg-1·min-1 and 0.0214 pmol MU·μg-1·min-1. Indirect ELISA for GFP in 1 mg total protein from pTA2, pCAMBIA 1304 injected and non injected leaves showed an A 490 nm value of 89.577, 100.440 and 3.287, respectively. These results showed that the non coding region of BBTV-ZZ DNA 4 has a promoter activity not only in the virus replication in monocot, but also in driving the expression of a foreign gene in dicot plants.

香蕉束顶病毒中国漳州分离物DNA 4的克隆及非编码区的启动子活性初探
孙德俊 魏红艳 蔡文启* 田颖川
(中国科学院微生物研究所,北京100080)

摘要: 应用PCR方法克隆了香蕉束顶病毒中国漳州分离物(Banana bunchy top virus Chinese Zhangzhou isolate, BBTV-ZZ) DNA 4.序列分析表明其序列全长为1 039 nt,归属于亚洲组.5′ RACE分析确定其转录起始位点是269 nt处的A.利用PCR方法亚克隆了BBTV-ZZ DNA 4非编码区序列并将其插入到植物表达载体pCAMBIA 1304中的 gfp∶∶gus 基因上游得到重组质粒pTA2.将含pTA2和pCAMBIA 1304的根癌土壤杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)注射进烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi NC)叶片,3~5 d后剪下注射部位的叶片进行GUS和GFP的表达分析.pTA2(含BBTV-ZZ DNA 4非编码区)、pCAMBIA 1304(含CaMV 35S启动子)和未注射的烟草叶片的GUS活性分别为1.007 0 pmol MU*μg-1*min-1 , 2.069 0 pmol MU*μg-1*min-1和0.021 4 pmol MU*μg-1*min-1.注射含pTA2和pCAMBIA 1304植物表达载体根癌土壤杆菌以及未注射的烟草叶片的每毫克总蛋白的GFP间接ELISA在490 nm的吸光值分别为89.577、100.440和3.287.

关键词: 香蕉束顶病毒漳州分离物DNA 4;5′RACE;启动子;GFP;GUS

通讯作者。E-mail: <caowq @ sun.im.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2509)  |  Full Text PDF       
Marker Free: a Novel Tendency of Transgenic Plants
Author: KAI Guo Yin, ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Hong Yu, XU Tie Feng, TANG Ke Xuan, ZHANG Han Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 883-888
      
    

Marker free is a rapidly developed strategy that offers a new approach for the elimination of public concerns caused by the selectable marker genes conferring antibiotic or herbicide resistance and so on. Furthermore, marker free transgenic plants (MFTPs) have a number of special advantages, such as decreasing the concerns about safety of selectable marker and stacking transgenes progressively into transgenic plants, which significantly owns potential application value. Major approaches developed recently for obtaining MFTPs were reviewed in this paper.

无标记(Markerr-Free):转基因植物研究的新趋势
开国银1 张磊1,2 张红宇1  许铁峰1,2 唐克轩1* 张汉明2

(1.  复旦大学生命科学学院遗传工程国家重点实验室,上海200433;2.  第二军医大学药学院生药教研室,上海>200433)


摘要: 目前,几乎所有的植物遗传转化中都要使用选择性标记基因诸如抗生素或除草剂抗性基因等来筛选转化子。为了消除由此而引起的公众的安全性顾虑,一种全新的发展策略即获取无选择标记的转基因植物应运而生。无选择标记的转基因植物具有许多独特的优势,如消除大众对转基因植物中含有选择标记基因而引起的恐惧及可以反复地向已转化的植物中叠加外源基因等,因此,这种新策略(无标记)有着巨大的应用潜力。本文对获得无标记转基因植物的一些途径做一综述。
关键词: 无标记转基因植物;共转化;Gre/lox;;转座子;MAT 载体

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Abstract (Browse 2440)  |  Full Text PDF       
Floral Organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Gesneriaceae)
Author: PAN Kai-Yu, LI Zhen-Yu and WANG Yin-Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 895-902
      
    

Floral organogenesis of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Hemsl.) Soler., the only species in the genus and endemic to East Asia, was observed under SEM. We found that the development of calyx, corolla and androecium belongs to pentamerous pattern. They come respectively from primordia of calyx, corolla and androecium, and all differentiated from the flower primordium. The zygomorphism of corolla and androecium is derived from quicker growth of the upper lip of corolla and delay in development of the staminode. Initiation of sepal primordia and their development are not consistent in order; the order of initiation is from adaxial central primordium, abaxial two primordia and finally lateral two primordia, while the order of development is first adaxial central sepal, lateral two and finally abaxial two. Sepals are valvate in flower bud. Initiation of corolla lobe primordia and their development are consistent in order, i.e. first abaxial central lobe (central lobe of the lower lip), lateral two (lateral two lobes of the lower lip) and finally adaxial two (two lobes of the upper lip). The aestivation of corolla is imbricate, and the order from outside to inside is the central lobe of the lower lip, lateral two of the lower lip, and finally two of the upper lip or lateral two lobes of the lower lip, two of the upper lip and central one of the lower lip. Stamen primordia are alternate to the corolla lobe primordia, with the anterior two primordia later than the posterior two in initiation; staminode primordium is simultaneous with the posterior two in initiation, but smaller, and opposite to the adaxial carpel (upper lip of stigma). Compared to the patterns of floral organogenesis of Rehmannia (Scrophulariaceae), Whytockia and Rhynchoglossum (Gesneriaceae), the present authors found that the floral organogenesis is diverse and does not form two distinct patterns among these four genera. Based on the results we tend to consider that the conventional demarcation between the Scrophulariaceae and Gesneriaceae using number of ovary locules (two vs one) and placentation (axile vs parietal) is questionable.

台闽苣苔(苦苣苔科)花部器官的形态发生
潘开玉 李振宇* 王印政
(国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 在扫描电镜下对台闽苣苔 (T. oldhamii (Hemsl.) Solereder)进行了花部器官形态发生的观察,为探索该类群的个体发育、类群间的系统发育关系和进化趋势提供依据.研究发现该属植物萼片、花冠和雄蕊发生式样均为五数花类型,它们各自来源于花原基上分化出来的萼片原基、花冠原基和雄蕊原基;花冠与雄蕊的两侧对称性与花冠上唇生长稍快和退化雄蕊原基发育迟滞相关;萼片原基的发生和发育的顺序是不一致的:萼片原基发生的式样为近轴中原基-远轴2原基-2侧原基,发育式样则为近轴中萼片-2侧萼片-远轴2萼片,花蕾时为镊合状排列.花冠裂片原基的发生和发育式样是一致的,即远轴中裂原基(下唇中裂片)-远轴2侧裂原基(下唇2侧裂片)-近轴2裂原基(上唇2裂片).花蕾期卷迭式为覆瓦状排列,从外向内:下唇中裂片-下唇2侧裂片-上唇2裂片或下唇2侧裂片-上唇2裂片-下唇中裂片.雄蕊原基与花冠裂片原基互生,前方雄蕊原基在发生上稍迟于后方雄蕊原基,后者与退化雄蕊原基几乎同时发生,但较小,并与近轴心皮(或柱头上唇)对生.将该属与玄参科(Scrophulariaceae)的地黄属( Rehmannia )、苦苣苔科(Gesneriaceae)的异叶苣苔属( Whytockia)和尖舌苣苔属(Rhynchoglossum )的花部器官比较发现,这四个属在这方面呈现出多样性和交叉.过去一直按子房室数和胎座类型划分玄参科(子房2室、中轴胎座)和苦苣苔科(子房1室、侧膜胎座)这一做法受到了质疑.

关键词: 苦苣苔科;台闽苣苔属;花器官发生

Abstract (Browse 2108)  |  Full Text PDF       
Floral Organogenesis and Development of Two Taxa in Tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae)?aPrzewalskia tangutica and Hyoscyamus niger
Author: YANG Dong-Zhi, ZHANG Zhi-Yun, LU An-Ming, SUN Kun and LIU Jian-Quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 889-894
      
    

Floral organogenesis and development of Przewalskia tangutica Maxim.endemic to China and Hyoscyamus niger L., which belong to the tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae), were studied using scanning electron microscope. They have three common characters of floral organ initiation and development: 1) initiation of the floral organs in the two species follows Hofmeister’s rule; 2) the mode of corolla tube development belongs to the “late sympetaly” type; 3) primordia of the floral appendages initiated in a pentamerous pattern and acropetal order. But initiation of the calyx lobe primordia showed different modes in these two species. The calyx lobe primordia of H. niger have simultaneously whorled initiation, while those of P. tangutica have helical initiation, but the five calyx lobe primordia form a ring after all five calyx lobe primordia occur. The systematic significance of the present results in the genera Hyoscyamus and Przewalskia is discussed in this paper.

茄科马尿泡和天仙子的花器官发生
杨冬之1 张志耘1* 路安民1 孙 坤 刘健全3

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室,北京100093;2. 西北师范大学生物系,兰州730070;3.中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,西宁81001)

摘要:  利用扫描电镜研究了茄科(Solanaceae)天仙子族(Hy9oscyameae)中国特有属马尿泡属(Przewalskia Maxim.)马尿泡(Przewalskia tangutica Maxim.)和天仙子属(Hyoscyamus L.)天仙子(Hyoscyamus niger L.)的花器官发生和发育,研究结果表明:马尿泡和天仙子花器官的发生和发育具有以下3个共同特征:1)符合Hofmeister规律,即新器官的发生首先出现在花顶已经存在的器官之间;2)花冠的发育模式符合茄科植物所具有的“后合瓣”(“late sympetaly”)现象,即花瓣单独发生但后来又通过它们基部分生组织的融合而连合起来;3)花被五基数且花器官原基发生顺序为向心发育,但是它们的花萼原基具有不同的发生方式,天仙子花萼裂片原基的发生方式为环状发生;马尿泡花萼裂片原基的发生方式为螺旋状发生,但5个花萼裂片原基在都出现后就连成了一个环,马尿泡是介于天仙子属和山莨菪属之间的类群,它比天仙子属原始但较山莨菪属进化。

关键词: 马尿泡;天仙子;天仙子族;花器官发生

通讯作者。Tel.:+86-10-62591431-6083;E-mail:<zhangzy @ ns.ibcas.ac.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2170)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pattern and Significance of Seedling Development in Titanotrichum oldhamii (Gesneriaceae)
Author: WANG Yin-Zheng, LI Zhen-Yu, PAN Kai-Yu and ZOU Xiu-Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 903-907
      
    

The seedling development of Titanotrichum oldhamii (Hemsl.) Solereder has been investigated to provide insight into the evolution and systematic position of Titanotrichum. In T. oldhamii,the size differentiation of the two cotyledons begins while the hypocotyl grows. However, both of the two cotyledons develop normally and locate at the same level. Finally, the two cotyledons are almost equal in size. The aerial shoot (including stem and leaves) is produced from the permanent activity of the apical meristem in the plumular bud. Even though the seedling development in Titanotrichum basically conforms to the general growth pattern of the seedling in the Cyrtandroideae, it is remarkably different from that of other Cyrtandroideae. Based on the revealed evidence in seedling development in Titanotrichum and other comparative data, the authors have evaluated the possible evolutionary pathway of Titanotrichum and further discussed the familial placement of this genus. 

台闽苣苔(苦苣苔科)幼苗的发育式样及其意义
王印政1 李振宇1  潘开玉1  邹秀红2
(1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室及植物标本馆,北京100093;2., 福建省永春县林业局,362600)

摘要: 为解决台闽苣苔族(Titanotricheae)这一单种族的科级系统位置,通过扫描电镜观察了台闽苣苔(Titanotrichum oldhamii (Hemsl.)Solereder)植物的种子发芽和幼苗发育过程,随着下胚轴的向下伸长,两个子叶开始不明显的异率生长,其中一片子叶略大于另一片子叶,但两片子叶均正常发育并位于同一高度,当真叶发出后,两片子叶几乎等大,并且两个子叶柄等长,在幼苗生长期间,随着子叶的生长,胚芽也正常萌发出茎的顶芽,顶芽持续进行顶端生长产生交互对生的真叶,这一幼苗生长式样和苦苣苔亚科其他类群的仅一片子叶发育与胚芽被抑制的幼苗生长式样有明显区别,考虑到台闽苣苔植物在总状花序的上部大量簇生无性珠芽,并落地迅速生长出新的植株这一在苔苣苔科中独特的无性繁殖方式及相关性状,台闽苣苔族可能较早地从苔苣苔亚科中分化出来,并在繁殖体的功能进化方面和其他类群发生歧化进而获得独特的无性繁殖方式,台闽苣苔族在系统发育上应该被认为是其他苦苣苔亚科类群的姊妹群,应当提升为亚科等级。

关键词: 幼苗发育;子叶;功能进化;科级系统位置;台闽苣苔属;苦苣苔科

Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Gas Exchanges in Leaves of Different Cultivars of Winter Wheat Released in Different Years
Author: LIU He-Qin, JIANG Gao-Ming, ZHANG Qi-De, SUN Jia-Zhu, QU Chun-Mei, GUO Ren-Jun, GAO Lei-Ming, BAI Ke-Zhi and KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 913-919
      
    

Three winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), representatives of those widely cultivated in Beijing over the past six decades, were grown in the same environmental condition, and their physiological features were investigated. Daily changes of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration (Tr) in different growth stages were measured in order to find the relationship between leaf photosynthesis and yield. Instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf was calculated from Pn/Tr. It is suggested that relationship between photosynthetic rate and yield changed with the developing stages of wheat. High yield wheat cultivar Jingdong 8(released in the 1990s)had a higher photosynthetic rate (the maximal Pn increased by 77%) and transpiration rate (the maximal Tr increased by 69%), but a lower WUE than the low yield cultivar Yanda 1817 (released in the 1940s) during the day time at stem elongation stage. However, difference of Pn among the three cultivars changed with wheat growth process. Before 10 o'clock Pn in leaves of Jingdong 8 usually was the highest of the three cultivars, but Pn of Yanda 1817 was the highest after 10 o'clock. At doughripe stage, Pn in leaves of Yanda 1817 was the highest among the three cultivars during the whole day. The difference of changing trend of transpiration in three wheat cultivars was similar to Pn, but WUE of Yanda 1817 was the highest in those three cultivars, indicating that the higher yield of Jingdong 8 was achieved via a greater consumption of water. Contrary to the cultivars released in the later period, midday depression of photosynthesis was small in Yanda 1817, which might suggest that Yanda 1817 was resistant to photoinhibition. It is possible that photosynthetic potential in leaves of wheat increased as wheat cultivars was improved over the past six decades. However, it became less resistant to photoinhibition.

不同年代推出的冬小麦品种叶片气体交换日变化的差异
刘合芹1,2蒋高明1* 张其德2* 孙家柱3渠春梅1郭仁俊3 高雷明1 白克智2 匡廷云2

(1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态实验室,北京100093;
2. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用基础研究开放实验室,北京10093;
3. 北京市农林科学院作物研究所,北京100098)

摘要:选择 6 0年来北京地区广泛种植的 3个冬小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)品种 ,在相同的环境条件下种植。为了研究它们的产量与单位叶面积的净光合速率 (Pn)的关系 ,测定了不同生育期Pn、蒸腾速率 (Tr)的日变化 ,并用Pn/Tr计算叶片瞬时的水分利用率 (WUE)。结果表明 :单位叶面积净光合速率与产量之间的关系随生育期不同而变化。在拔节期高产品种“京冬 8号”(九十年代推出 )的光合速率和蒸腾速率在一天中总是最高 ,一天中差异最大时 ,分别比低产品种“燕大 1817”(四十年代推出 )高 77%和 6 9%。而其水分利用率却小于低产品种。这种差异随小麦的生长发育而变化 ,一般上午 10 :0 0前“京冬 8号”的光合速率较高 ,而 10 :0 0后“燕大 1817”的光合速率较高。到腊熟期 ,低产品种“燕大 1817”的光合速率在一天中始终最高。蒸腾速率的变化规律与光合速率相似 ,然而“燕大1817”叶片的水分利用率一般最高。与现代推出的品种不同 ,老品种“燕大 1817”叶片的光合作用午休现象不明显 ,说明它可能具有一定的抗光氧化性。我们认为 ,在品种改良的过程中 ,叶片光合作用的潜力可能有所提高 ,但它的抗光氧化性可能减弱。
关键词: 净光合速率;日变化;冬小麦品种;蒸腾速率;水分利用率

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Abstract (Browse 2060)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Controlled Atmospheres with High-O2 or High-CO2 Concentrations on Postharvest Physiology and Storability of ?°Napoleon?± Sweet Cherry
Author: JIANG Ai-Li, TIAN Shi-Ping* and XU Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 925-930
      
    

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. cv. Napoleon) were stored in controlled atmospheres (CA) of high O2(70% O2+0% CO2) or high CO2(5% O2+10% CO2), in modified atmosphere package (MAP, (13%-18%) O2+(2%-4%) CO2) and in air (control) at 1 ℃ to investigate the effects of different O2 and CO2 concentrations on physiological properties, quality and storability of the fruits during storage. The results indicated that compared with other treatments, CA with high O2 concentration decreased fruit decay and ethanol content, but increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and stimulated browning. CA with high CO2 concentration inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced MDA content, maintained vitamin C content and firmness, decreased fruit decay and browning. Soluble solids contents (SSC) were not significantly affected by different atmosphere treatments. “Napoleon” fruits stored in 5% O2+10% CO2 for as long as 80 d were of good quality, but only 40, 20 and 30 d stored in MAP, 70% O2+ 0% CO2 and air, respectively.

高O2或高CO 2浓度气调贮藏对“那翁”甜樱桃采后生理和贮藏性的影响
姜爱丽 田世平*徐 勇
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

研究了甜樱桃品种“那翁” (Prunusavium L .cv .Napoleon)在 1℃的高O2 浓度气调 (CA_I:70 %O2  +0 %CO2  )、高CO2  浓度气调 (CA-II:5 %O2  +10 %CO2  )、自发气调 (modifiedatmospherepackage ,MAP)和普通冷藏条件下果实生理、品质、耐藏性的变化。结果表明 :与其他处理相比 ,高O2  浓度的气调可以抑制果实腐烂、减少果肉中乙醇含量 ,但果实的丙二醛 (MDA)含量迅速上升、褐变严重。高CO2 浓度的气调能有效抑制MDA含量上升的速率和多酚氧化酶 (PPO)活性 ,保持果实硬度和维生素C含量 ,减少果实腐烂和褐变 ,延长贮藏寿命。不同处理对果实可溶性固形物含量的影响不大。“那翁”甜樱桃在 5 %O2  +10 %CO2  气调中贮藏 80d能保持果实固有的风味品质。在MAP下 ,70 %O2  +0 %CO2  和普通冷藏中的适宜贮藏期分别为 4 0d、2 0d和 30d。

关键词: 甜樱桃;生理特性;品质;耐贮性;高O2浓度;高CO2浓度

通讯作者。Tel.;010-62591431-6463;Fax;010-/82594675;E-mail;<shping @ 95777.com>

Abstract (Browse 2371)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization of Two GFP-tagged Tobacco Plastid Division Protein NtFtsZs in Escherichia coli
Author: WANG Dong, KONG Dong-Dong, JU Chuan-Li, HU Yong, HE Yi-Kun and SUN Jing-San
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 931-935
      
    

Two plastid division genes, NtFtsZ1 and NtFtsZ2 isolated from Nicotiana tabacum L. were fused with gfp and expressed in Escherichia coli. The regular localizations of full length NtFtsZs∶GFP along the filamentous bacteria indicated that the NtFtsZs could recognize the potential division sites in E. coli and be polymerized with heterogeneous FtsZ from bacteria. The overexpression of NtFtsZs∶gfp inhibited the division of host strain cells and resulted in the long filamentous bacterial morphology. These results suggested that eukaryotic ftsZs have similar function to their prokaryotic homologs. Meanwhile, the different deletions of motifs of NtFtsZs are also employed to investigate the functions of these proteins in E. coli. The results showed that the C terminal domains of NtFtsZs were related to the correct localization of NtFtsZs in E. coli and the N terminal domains of NtFtsZs were responsible for the polymerization of homogeneous and heterogeneous FtsZ proteins. The significance of these results in understanding the functions of NtFtsZs in plastid division were discussed.

烟草质体分裂蛋白NtFtsZs, 在大肠杆菌中的定位分析
王 东1 孔冬冬1 鞠传丽2 胡 勇2 何奕昆1,2  孙敬三1*

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093;2. 首都师范大学生物系,北京100037)

摘要:分别构建了两个烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)质体分裂基因NtFtsZ1NtFtsZ2与编码绿色荧光蛋白的gfpS65A、V68L、S72A基因相融合的原核表达载体,并导入大肠杆菌( Escherichia coli ) JM109菌株中进行表达.全长NtFtsZs∶GFP融合蛋白在菌体中有规律地定位,暗示NtFtsZs能识别大肠杆菌潜在的分裂位点,并能与大肠杆菌的内源FtsZ发生聚合作用;融合蛋白的诱导表达抑制了宿主菌的分裂,形成了明显的丝状菌体,证明真核生物的 ftsZ 基因与大肠杆菌的 ftsZ 基因有相似的作用.同时构建了NtFtsZs不同缺失的原核表达载体,对这两个基因所编码蛋白不同结构域的功能做了初步分析.实验结果表明,烟草FtsZ蛋白的C端结构域与其在大肠杆菌细胞中的正确定位有关.

关键词: 烟草;质体分裂基因;NtFtsZ;绿色荧光蛋白;缺失表达;原核定位

通讯作者。E-mail:<yhe @ duke.edu;sunjs @ ns.ibcas.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Analysis of Rubber Hevein Gene and Its Promoter Sequence
Author: DENG Xiao-Dong, FEI Xiao-Wen, HUANG Jun-Sheng and ZHENG Xue-Qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 936-940
      
    

Hevein, a lectin like protein, is a major factor of lutoids in the latex of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.). This factor is involved in coagulation of the latex and has the ability to bind chitin. The hevein gene with a length of 680 bp was cloned by the method of RT PCR. Its promoter region with 1 306 bp of this gene was also isolated by genome walking, and its sequence included the typical TATA and CAAT boxes as well as the homologous sequence of abscisic acid (ABA)response elements. Expression of the hevein gene in the latex and leaves was detected by Northern blot. After treatment of the trees with ethylene and ABA, the results showed that the hevein gene was expressed principally in latex, and the expression could be induced by ethylene and ABA.

橡胶树凝集因子hevein 基因及其启动子序列的分离与分析
邓晓东1费小雯2黄俊生1 郑学勤1

(1. 中国热带农业科学院热带作物生物技术国家重点实验室,海口571101;2. 中山大学生命科学学院生物工程中心,广州510275)

摘要:橡胶树 (Heveabrasiliensis Muell._Arg .)凝集因子hevein是引起橡胶粒子凝集的主要因素 ,它是胶乳中黄色体内主要的蛋白质 ,具有几丁结合的功能。通过PCR技术扩增并克隆了橡胶树hevein基因共 6 80bp的序列。继而通过步移法分离启动子区域 130 6bp的序列 ,序列含典型的TATA盒和CAAT盒以及ABA效应元件的同源序列。为证实该基因在乳管中特异表达 ,利用Northernblot分析hevein基因在胶乳和叶片中的表达 ,同时 ,分析乙烯和ABA处理后hevein基因的表达。结果表明 ,hevein基因主要在胶乳中表达 ,乙烯和ABA对基因的表达有诱导作用。

关键词: 橡胶树;凝集因子hevein;启动子;Northem blot.

Abstract (Browse 2212)  |  Full Text PDF       
Obtaining High Pest-resistant Transgenic Upland Cotton Cultivars Carrying cry1Ac3 Gene Driven by Chimeric OM Promoter
Author: CHEN Wan-Xin, XIAO Gui-Fang and ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 963-970
      
    

Hypocotyl segments from aseptic seedlings of two important cultivars of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Northwest China, “Xinluzao 1", “Jinmian 7", “Jinmian 12" and “Jihe 321" were transformed respectively by two efficient lant expression plasmids pBinMoBc and pBinoBc via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In pBinMoBc,cry 1Ac3 gene, which encodes the Bt toxin, is under the control of chimeric OM promoter. In pBinoBc, it is undercontrol of CaMV 35S promoter. After cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefimpfaciens LBA4404 (containing pBinMoBc or pBinoBc), kanamycin resistant selection, somatic embryos were induced and regenerated plants were obtained. Then the regenerated plantlets were grafted to untransformed stocks in greenhouse to produce descendants. The integration of cry1Ac3 gene and its expression in T2 generation of transgenic cotton plants were confirmed by Southern hybridization and Western blotting. The analyses of insect bioassay indicated that the transgenic plants of both onstructions have significant resistance to the larvae of cotton bollworm (Heliothis armigera ) and that cry1Ac3 gene driven by chimeric OM promoter could endue T2 generation cotton with high pest resistant ability, implicating that it has a profound application in genetic engineering to breed new pest resistant cotton varieties.

陆地棉栽培品种转复合启动子控制下的cry 1Ac3 基因获得高效抗虫植株
陈宛新 肖桂芳 朱 祯*

(中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京100101)

摘要:以根癌土壤杆菌 (Agrobacterium tumefaciens)介导法分别将植物表达载体pBinMoBc和pBinoBc导入陆地棉(Gossypiumhirsutum L .)栽培品种“新陆早 1号”、“晋棉 7号”、“晋棉 12号”和“冀合 32 1”。pBinMoBc携带有高效启动子复合OM启动子控制下的cry1Ac3基因 ,pBinoBc携带有 35S启动子控制下的cry1Ac3基因。经过共培养、卡那霉素筛选抗性愈伤组织及体细胞胚的诱导 ,得到了再生植株。对T2 代的PCR、Southernblotting、ELISA检测及Westernblotting证明cry1Ac3基因已整合入受体棉花基因组并得到表达。抗虫性检测表明转基因后代对棉铃虫 (Heliothisarmigera )具有良好的抗性 ,转pBinMoBcT2代与转pBinoBcT2 代相比 ,对棉铃虫具有更快的致死速度。本研究建立了一套高效的陆地棉栽培品种转化体系 ;进一步的检测结果表明 ,复合OM启动子可以提高外源基因的表达量从而增强转基因棉的抗虫性。

关键词: 陆地棉;抗虫棉;转基因植物;根癌土壤杆菌;cry1Ac3 基因;复合启动子

通讯作者.Tel:010-64873490;E-mail<zzhu @ genetics.ac.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2051)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Two Groups of Low copy and Specific DNA Sequences Isolated from Chromosome 7B of Common Wheat
Author: LIU Zhen Lan, DONG Yu Zhu, LIU Bao*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 946-950
      
    

Recent work revealed that, in the genomes of polyploid wheat, there exists a class of low copy and chromosome specific sequences that are labile upon polyploid formation. This class of sequences was proposed to play a critical role in the stabilization and establishment of nascent plant polyploids as new species. To further study this issue, five wheat chromosome 7B specific sequences, isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by chromosome microdissection, were characterized. The sequences were studied by genomic Southern hybridizations on a collection of polyploid wheats and their diploid progenitors. Four sequences hybridized to all polyploid species, but at the diploid level to only species closely related to the B genome of polyploid wheat. This indicates that these sequences originated with the divergence of the diploid species, and was then vertically transmitted to polyploids. One sequence hybridized to all species at both the diploid and polyploid levels, suggesting its elimination after the polyploid wheat formation. The hybridization of this sequence to two synthetic polyploid wheats indicated that sequence elimination is a rapid event and probably related to methylation status of the sequence. Based on the above results, we suggest that selective changes of low copy sequences occur rapidly after polyploid formation, which may contribute to the differentiation of chromosomes in newly formed allopolyploid wheats.

普通小麦7B 染色体两类低拷贝专化DNA 序列的特性
刘振兰 董玉柱 刘 宝*

(东北师范大学遗传与细胞研究所,长春130024)

摘要: 研究表明,多倍体小麦基因且中存在一类低拷贝,染色体专化的DNA序列,其在多倍体形成时常表现出不稳定性,这类序列被认为在异源多倍体的建立和稳定中起着关键作用,为进一步研究这一问题,对通过染色体显微切割从普通小麦(Triticum aestium L.)中分离的5个7B染色体专化DNA序列的特性进行了研究,以这些序列为探针对大量的多倍体小麦和它们的二倍体祖先物种进行了Southern杂交分析,结果表明,这些序列可被分为两种类型:其中的4个序列与所有的多倍体物种均杂交,但是在二倍体水平上,它们却只与和多倍体小麦B基因组紧密相关的物种杂交,这说明这些序列是在二倍体物种分化以后产生的,然后垂直传递给多保体;其中的1个序列与所有的二倍体及多倍体物种均杂交,暗示在多倍体形成后这些序列从A和D基因组中消除了,用这一序分别与一个人工合成的六倍体和四倍体小麦进行Southern杂交的结果表明,序列消除是一个迅速的事件而且很可能与这些序列的甲基化状态有关,认为这些低拷贝的染色体专化序列对于多倍体形成后部分同源染色体之间的进一步分化起着重要作用。

关键词:多倍体小麦;染色体专化DNA; 序列;序列消除;DNA; 甲基化;基因组进化
Abstract (Browse 2000)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Doubled-CO2 Concentration on Ultrastructure, Supramolecular Architecture and Spectral Characteristics of Chloroplasts from Wheat
Author: ZUO Bao-Yu, ZHANG Quan, JIANG Gui-Zhen, BAI Ke-Zhi and KUANG Ting-Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 908-912
      
    

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under ambient and doubled CO2(plus 350 μL/L) concentration in cylindrical open top chamber to examine their effects on the ultrastructure, supramolecular architecture, absorption spectrum and low temperature (77 K) fluorescence emission spectrum of the chloroplasts from wheat leaves. The results were briefly summarized as follows: (1) The wheat leaves possessed normally developed chloroplasts with intact grana and stroma thylakoid membranes; The grana intertwined with stroma thylakoid membranes and increased slightly in stacking degree and the width of granum, in spite of more accumulated starch grains within the chloroplasts than those in control; (2) The particle density in the stacked region of the endoplasmic fracture face (EFs) and protoplasmic fracture face (PFs) and in the unstacked region the endoplasmic fracture face (EFu) and the protoplasmic fracture face (PFu) was significantly higher than that of control. Furthermore, in some cases many more particles on EFs faces of thylakoid membranes appeared as a paracrystalline particle array; (3) The variations in the structure of chloroplasts were consistent with the absorption spectra and the low temperature (77 K) fluorescence emission spectra of the chloroplasts developed under the doubled CO2 concentration. Results indicate that the capability of light energy absorption of chloroplasts and regulative capability of excitation energy distribution between PSⅡ and PSⅠ were raised by doubled CO2 concentration. This is very favorable for final productivity of wheat.

CO2浓度倍增对小麦叶绿体超微结构、超分子结构及光谱特性的影响
左宝玉 张 泉 姜桂珍 白克智 匡廷云
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)

摘要: 超薄切片及冰冻撕裂电镜观察、吸收光谱及 77K低温荧光发射光谱的测定结果表明 :CO2 浓度倍增对小麦(Triticumaestivum L .)叶绿体的超微、超分子结构及光谱特性的影响均为正效应。具体反映在 :(1)小麦叶绿体中除了比对照积累有较多的淀粉粒外 ,其基粒和基质类囊体膜发育较好 ;(2 )叶绿体的光合膜系 ,无论是垛叠和非垛叠膜区 ,其镶嵌于内质膜撕裂面 (EFs和EFu)及原生质膜撕裂面 (PFs和PFu)的功能蛋白粒均比其对照的发育良好 ,尤其PFs与EFs面较为突出 ,即它们除了所含蛋白粒的密度较大外 ,在EFs面上有时还呈现出密集有序的阵列结构 ;(3)叶绿体整个吸收谱带 ,尤其红区和蓝区的主峰均较其对照有较大的光吸收 ,表明对光能的捕获能力明显高于对照 ;(4)无论是以 4 36nm还是以 4 80nm波长激发的 ,其叶绿体的F684/F 73 3 (PSⅡ /PSⅠ )的比值均较对照的高 ,表明CO2 浓度倍增条件下生长的小麦叶片叶绿体的PSⅡ相对荧光强度有所增强 ,这与叶绿体的超微、超分子结构及吸收光谱的测定结果相一致。以上结果可为小麦在高CO2  浓度下增产提供理论依据。
关键词: 叶绿体;小麦;CO 2浓度倍增;超微及超分子结构;吸收光谱;低温荧光发射光谱

Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Overexpression of Proline Transporter Gene Isolated from Halophyte Confers Salt Tolerance in Arabidopsis
Author: SHEN Yi-Guo, ZHANG Wan-Ke, YAN Dong-Qing, DU Bao-Xing, ZHANG Jin-Song and CHE N Shou-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 956-962
      
    

Proline is one of the most important and widespread osmolyte which functions in adaptation to adverse environmental stresses in many organisms. Also it is an important carbon and nitrogen resource in higher plants. Metabolism of proline has been elucidated in many plant species. However, transport of proline was poorly characterized although transport system plays an important role in proline distribution in different tissues. We isolated one full length cDNA encoding proline transporter from the typical halophyte: Atriplex hortensis L. through cDNA library screening and 5′-RACE. The deduced amino acid sequence had eleven transmembrane domains, showed 60%-69% similarities to other ProTs and the gene was designated AhProT1 . In the phylogenetic tree, higher plants’ ProTs, e.g. AhProT1 , showed more similar to ProP from microorganisms than ProT from mammalians. AhProT1 gene was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana under 35S promoter. In MS medium containing [U-14C] proline, AhProT1+ plants were able to accumulate much more radiolabeled proline in the roots than control plants. In MS medium containing different concentrations of NaCl, AhProT1+ plants could endure 200 mmol/L NaCl and keep development and biomass increase with proline supply, whereas control plants died back at 150 mmol/L NaCl.

榆钱菠菜脯氨酸转运蛋白基因的克隆及转基因拟南芥的耐盐性
沈义国1*张万科1*阎冬青2 杜保兴1 张劲松1 陈受宜1**

(1.中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京100101;2. 西北农林科技大学生命科学学院,陕西杨凌712100)

摘要: 脯氨酸是自然界中分布最广泛 ,作用最重要的渗透保护剂之一 ,同时又是高等植物中一类重要的碳源和氮源物质。为了解环境胁迫下脯氨酸的转运调节 ,从一个典型的盐生植物榆钱菠菜 (AtriplexhortensisL .)中通过cDNA文库筛选和 5′-RACE的方法获得了一个全长的cDNA (AhProT1) ,其编码蛋白与脯氨酸转运蛋白有 6 0 %~ 6 9%的同源性 ,含有 11个跨膜结构域。聚类分析表明 ,微生物和高等植物的脯氨酸转运蛋白同源程度相对高于哺乳动物。为进一步分析脯氨酸转运蛋白在植物中的功能 ,将AhProT1置于 35S启动子下转入拟南芥 (Arabidopsisthaliana)。通过同位素示踪法发现 ,与对照植物相比 ,转基因植物在根中积累更多的脯氨酸 ;在一系列不同浓度的盐胁迫试验中 ,转基因植株最高可耐受 2 0 0mmol/LNaCl,并可持续生长 ,而对照植株在 15 0mmol/LNaCl下即已死亡。

关键词: 榆钱菠菜;脯氨酸转运蛋白;沉积作用;盐胁迫

通讯作者。E-mail: <sychen @ gemetocs.ac.cn>; Fax:010-64873428 Tel.: 010-64886859

Abstract (Browse 2413)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production of Somatic Hybrid Plants Between Two Types of Wheat Protoplasts and the Protoplasts of Haynaldia villosa
Author: ZHOU Ai-Fen, XIA Guang-Min, CHEN Xiu-Ling and CHEN Hui-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 1004-1008
      
    

同一小麦品种不同来源的两种原生质体与簇毛麦原生质体融合再生杂种植株
周爱芬 夏光敏* 陈秀玲 陈惠民

(山东大学生命科学学院,济南250100)

摘要: 小麦 (Triticumaestivum L .)济南 177的两种原生质体 ,一种来自快速生长的悬浮细胞 ,它们因长期继代而丧失分化能力 ,其染色体只有 2n =2 4~ 2 8;另一种来自可以再生的愈伤组织 ,其原生质体不能持续分裂。它们中任一种与UV照射过的簇毛麦原生质体融合均不能再生植株。然而当它们混合在一起作为受体时 ,能够获得再生绿色植株。细胞核基因和胞质基因的分析证明这些绿色植株是杂种。以上事实说明这两种原生质体在融合时存在某些互补的关系 ,讨论了这种融合方式的可能作用及重要性。

关键词: 小麦;簇毛麦;紫外照射;体细胞杂交;胞质基因

通讯作者。E-mail:<Xiagm @ life.adu.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2236)  |  Full Text PDF       
Molecular Phylogeny of the Lardizabalaceae Based on TrnL-F Sequences and Combined Chloroplast Data
Author: WANG Feng, LI De-Zhu and YANG Jun-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 971-977
      
    

The molecular phylogeny of the Lardizabalaceae is reconstructed based on chloroplast trnL-F sequences alone and combined trnL-F and rbcL sequences. The phylogenetic topologies agree well with Qin's and Takhtajan's tribal classification in both analyses. Decaisneae and Sinofranchetieae are basal clades in the phylogenetic trees and external to all other taxa in the family. Lardizabaleae consisting of Boquila and Lardizabala are well supported in both trnL-F (100%) analysis and trnL-F and rbcL combined analysis (99%). Tribe Akebieae are strongly supported by a bootstrap value of 100% in both trnL-F analysis and trnL F and rbcL combined analysis. However, the new genus Archakebia is nested within the genus Akebia in the trnL-F trees. In the combined trees, Archakebia is sister to Akebia with high bootstrap support. The inter relationships among three closely related genera Parvatia, Holboellia and Stauntonia are still problematic. P. brunoniana ssp. elliptica is sister to H. latifolia in both analyses with low bootstrap support. H. parviflora is nested within the Stauntonia and sister to S. cavalerieana. Therefore, these three genera of tribe Akebieae may not be monophylytic and their generic boundary and delimitation need to be further studied, by exploring more molecular data, together with more morphological characters.

基于叶绿体Trn L-F 序列和联合数据分析木通科的分子系统发育
王 峰1,2  李德铢1* 杨俊波1

(1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学开放实验室,昆明650204;2. 西北师范大学学报编辑部,兰州730070)

摘要:  基于叶绿体 trn L-F 序列单独分析以及 trn L-F 和 rbc L 序列联合分析重建了木通科的分子系统发育.本研究的系统发育拓扑结构与覃海宁和塔赫他间的族划分系统非常一致.猫儿屎族和串果藤族在系统发育树上位于本科的基部.由分布于南美的勃奎拉藤属和拉氏藤属组成的拉氏藤族得到了 trn L-F 序列分析(100%)和联合序列分析(99%)的很好支持.木通族在两个分析里都得到了100%的靴带支持率.新建立的长萼木通属在 trn L-F 树上嵌套在木通属内;然而,在联合分析的树上,它与木通属形成姐妹群并得到很高的支持率.在系统发育上关系密切的3个属: 牛藤果属、八月瓜属和野木瓜属之间的关系仍未解决.牛藤果与八月瓜在两个分析里都形成姐妹群,但支持率低.小花鹰爪枫嵌套在野木瓜属内,并与西南野木瓜形成姐妹群.木通族内这3个属可能都不是单系,它们的属间界限和属的界定需要更多的分子和形态数据的进一步研究

关键词: 木通科;分子系统发育;trn L-F序列;rbcL 序列

Abstract (Browse 2299)  |  Full Text PDF       
Bioaccumulation of Nickel by Various Scenedesmus Species in Culture Solution Containing Nickel
Author: HU Zhang-Li, WONG Yuk-Shan and TAM Fung-Yee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 978-982
      
    

Sixteen Scenedesmus species or strains have been employed to investigate the maximum capacity of nickel (Ni) accumulation in 10 mg/L Ni solution. The results showed that the capacity of accumulating Ni from aqueous solution in 16 Scenedesmus species or strains showed the diversity.S. quadricauda freshwater algae culture collection of the Institute of Hydrobiology (FACHB) 44 and S. quadricauda FACHB 506 performed much more capacity of Ni accumulation than other species such as Scenedesmus sp. FACHB 416 and Scenedesmus sp. FACHB 489. Sequestration of Ni ions from aqueous solution was very efficient (26.7 mg Ni/g dry weight, in the 100 mg/L Ni solution) in S.quadricauda FACHB 44. The kinetics of Ni binding indicated that Ni bioaccumulation, in algal cell of S. quadricauda FACHB 44, possessed a rapid biosorption (5 min) and an slow bioaccumulation (2-3 h). More than 70% of Ni binding in algal cell were accumulated by biosorption and the remaining 20%-30% were bioaccumulated by energy consumed transportation. It is much more higher ratio of energy consumed transportation in S. quadricauda FACHB 44 than in other algae. Both the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X ray (EDX) microanalyses also revealed the different mechanisms of bioaccumulation in the various subcellular regions: a very fast adsorption in the cell wall; and a time dependent absorption in protoplasm, specially in starch and chromatin

栅藻对水环境中镍的累积效应与机理分析
胡章立2黄玉山1* 谭凤仪1

(1. 香港城市大学生物及化学系海岸污染与保护中心,香港;2. 深圳大学生命科学学院,深圳518060)

摘要: 对不同Scenedesmus品种的藻细胞从含镍水溶液 (10mg/L)中累积金属镍的能力进行了分析 ,结果表明 :藻细胞对镍的生物累积量表现出明显的品种差异性。Scenedesmusquadricauda FACHB 4 4和Scenedesmusquadricauda FACHB 5 0 6表现出很强的累积能力 (累积量达到 5~ 6mgNi /g干重 ) ,而Scenedesmus sp .FACHB 4 16和Scenedesmussp .FACHB 4 89在相同条件对金属镍累积量要少得多 (1~ 1.5mgNi /g干重 )。这种差异可能与不同品种藻细胞间的形态结构和生理特性是相关的。对S .quadricaudaFACHB 4 4重金属抗性和累积能力进一步的分析表明 ,S .quadricaudaFACHB 4 4用于含镍重金属废水处理是非常有效的 ,在高浓度 (10 0mg/L)的镍溶液中 ,藻细胞的最大累积量能达到 (2 6 .7mgNi/g干重 )。对该藻细胞镍累积动力学分析发现 :藻细胞对镍的生物累积包括一个快速的被动吸附过程 (5min ,结合 70 %的镍 )和一个缓慢的耗能累积过程 (2~ 3h时间内的累积量占总量的 2 0 %~ 30 % )。与其他藻类相比 ,S .quadricaudaFACHB 4 4对水溶液中镍的耗能累积量明显高于其他藻类。透射电子显微镜(TEM)和X射线能谱 (EDX)分析结果均表明 ,藻细胞耗能累积的镍主要集中在原生质体中 ,尤以淀粉粒和染色质中为多。
 

关键词: 生物累积;栅藻;镍

Abstract (Browse 2158)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Traits and Soil Chemical Variables During a Secondary Vegetation Successi on in Abandoned Fields on the Loess Plateau
Author: WANG Guo-Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 990-998
      
    

Species dynamics in terms of both plant biological traits, ecological strategies and species richness as well as soil chemical variables during a secondary succession in abandoned fields on the Loess Plateau along a temporal sere from 3 a to 149 a were studied. The results indicated that (1) Soil total C and N increased while soil pH, total K and Na decreased with years since abandonment. No noticeable trend was found in the case of soil P along the successional sere. On the other hand, total CaO of the surface layer (0-10 cm) decreased, but that of the two deeper layers (20-30 cm, 40-50 cm) increased with years since abandonment. Soil C, N, K and P decreased, while Na, CaO and soil pH increased with increasing soil depth. (2) Species richness peaked at both mid stage of the successional sere and the intermediate portion of soil chemical variables gradient. (3) An ideal dominant species in the early successional stage were annuals with stable seed pool, CR life strategy, S regeneration strategy, and strong competitive ability on relatively poor soil, while perennials capable of intensive lateral spread and colonal ability, requiring high nutrient supply, and having C life strategy would be the dominant species in the subsequent stages. Plant traits, such as perennial life history, C , CR , SC , SR , S and R life strategies, W , S , Bs VBs and V regeneration strategies, were over represented throughout the whole sere among the other species. (4) Some traits, such as C, SC life strategies, ability of clonality, perennial life history, well developed lateral spread ability, V and VBs regeneration strategies, seed animal dispersal mode, flowering time of autumn, fruit types of legumen and nut, were more or less correlated with increased soil total C, N and K, while S , SR , R , CR life strategies, annual , biannual life history, non clonal ability, S regeneration strategy, poor lateral spread ability, and fruit types of utricle, capsule were associated with increased soil total Na, CaO and pH. The results suggested that steppes should be the dominant native vegetation coinciding with the large scaled eco climatic conditions on the Loess Plateau.

黄土高原自然植被演替过程中的植物特征与土壤元素动态
王国宏
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京100093)

在 3~ 14 9年的时间尺度上 ,对黄土高原植被次生演替过程中植物特征和土壤养分元素动态进行了研究。结果表明 :1)随着演替时间尺度的延伸 ,土壤全C、全N含量呈增加趋势 ,而土壤全K、全Na和土壤pH值呈下降趋势 ,土壤全P变化趋势不明显 ;此外 ,表层 (0~ 10cm)土壤CaO含量在演替系列上呈下降趋势 ,深层 (2 0~ 30cm ,4 0~5 0cm)则呈增加趋势。演替过程对几种土壤化学元素含量影响的程度随着土壤深度的增加而减弱。 2 )植物群落物种丰富度在演替的中间阶段最高。 3)在演替的早期阶段 ,植物群落优势种往往具有稳定的土壤种子库、CR-生活对策和S-繁殖对策 ,在贫瘠的土壤上具有较强的竞争能力 ,且具有较强的水平扩展能力和克隆繁殖能力 ,C-生活对策、在土壤全N含量较高的生境中具有较强竞争能力的多年生植物 ,在演替中后期占据群落的优势地位。此外 ,在所涉及的植物特征中 ,多年生生活史 ,C-、CR-、SC-、SR-、S-生活对策 ,以及R-、W-、Bs-、VBs-和V-繁殖对策等特征在非优势物种中出现的频率较高。 4 )C-、SC-生活对策 ,克隆能力 ,多年生生活史 ,水平扩展能力 ,种子的动物传播方式 ,秋季开花 ,荚果、坚果等特征出现的比例在一定程度上与土壤全C、全N和全K含量正相关 ;而S-、SR-、R-、CR-生活对策 ,一、二年生生生活史,种子繁殖,s-繁殖对策,以及胞果、蒴果等特征的比例与土壤全Na、Cao 含量和土壤pH正相关。5)在演替过程中出现的植物均属草本植物生活型,因此,草原可能是黄土高原上受制于大尺度环境
条件(显域生境)下的优势植被类型(特别是降雨量不超过550mm的地区)。

关键词: 撂荒地;植物特征;土壤化学变量;演替;黄土高原

E-mail:<ghwanggaq @ yahoo.com.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2189)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigation on Physiological Status of Regional Vegetation Using Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager Data
Author: GAN Fu-Ping, WANG Run-Sheng, MA Ai-Nai and YANG Su-Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 983-989
      
    

To extract vegetation pigment concentration and physiological status has been studied in two test areas covered with swamp and flourish vegetation using pushbroom hyperspectral imager (PHI) data which flied in September of 2000 at Daxing'anling district of Heilongjiang Province, China. The ratio analysis of reflectance spectra (RARS) indices, which were put forward by Chappelle et al (1992), are chosen in this paper owing to their effect and simpleness against both comparison with various methods and techniques for exploration of pigment concentration and characteristics of PHI data. The correlation coefficients between RARS indices and pigment concentration of vegetation were up to 0.8. The new RARS indices modes are established in the two test areas using both PHI data and spectra of different vegetations measured in the field. The indices' parameter images of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids (Cars) of the test areas covered with swamp and flourish vegetation are acquired by the new RARS indices modes. Furthermore, the regional concentration of Chl a and Chl b are extracted and quantified using regression equations between RARS indices and pigment concentrations, which were built by Blackburn (1998). The results showed the physiological status and variety clearly, and are in good agreement with the distribution of vegetation in the field.

利用PHI数据进行区域性植物生理信息探测与分析
甘甫平1,2* 王润生2  马蔼乃1杨苏明2

(1.  北京大学遥感与地理信息系统研究所,北京100871;2. 中国国土资源航空物探遥感中心,北京100083)

摘要: 本次试验研究选择两个实验区 :沼泽地和植被茂盛区。利用 2 0 0 0年 9月上旬在黑龙江省大兴安岭地区获取的推帚式超光谱成像 ,(PHI,pushbroomhyperspectralimager)数据进行区域性植物生理量 (主要是叶绿素 )的探测与生态分析。在叶绿素含量探测中 ,结合所获取的成像光谱PHI数据的特点 ,在比较不同技术方法的基础之上 ,选用了有效而简单可靠的RARS(Ratioanalysisofreflectancespectra)指数。该色素指数与植物叶绿素a、b含量拟合的相关系数 (R)达 0 .8以上。利用PHI数据和野外实测植物光谱分别建立沼泽地和植被茂盛区的RARS指数模式 ,分别得到具有指示两试验区的叶绿素a (Chla)、叶绿素b (Chlb)以及类胡萝卜素 (Cars)的参数图像。更进一步地利用Blackburn(1998)所建立的RARS指数与叶绿素浓度之间的强拟合方程 ,相对定量估算了叶绿素a、b浓度的区域性分布 ,清晰地反映出植被生态状况和差异。这与野外实地考察较为一致。

关键词: 色素指数;色素浓度;叶绿素;RARS 指数;推帚式超光谱成像(PHI);大兴安岭地区

通讯作者。E-mail:<fpan @ 263.net>

Abstract (Browse 2328)  |  Full Text PDF       
A p34cdc2-like Protein Is Localized in Both Nuclei and Cytoplasm of Physarum polycephalum
Author: LI Gui-Ying, XING Miao and HU Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8): 999-1003
      
    

多头绒泡菌类p34cdc2蛋白的定位研究
李桂英*  邢 苗** 胡波***

(深圳大学生物工程系,深圳518060)

摘要: 目前关于动物和酵母细胞中p34cdc2的定位研究结果尚存在分歧,而关于该蛋白在植物细胞中的定位尚不清楚.以多头绒泡菌( Physarum polycephalum )S期、G2早期、G2中期、G2晚期、前期、中期和后末期的原质团和细胞核为材料进行免疫印迹,发现原质团和细胞核都含有一种分子量约34 kD的类p34cdc2蛋白,该蛋白在原质团和细胞核中的含量在整个细胞周期进程中基本保持稳定.以抗p34cdc2单克隆抗体为探针的免疫电镜结果显示,类p34cdc2蛋白既分布于细胞核也分布于细胞质中,在细胞核中主要与染色体和核仁结合.经抗p34cdc2单克隆抗体处理后,多头绒泡菌的有丝分裂启始迟滞约2 h.结果表明,多头绒泡菌类p34cdc2蛋白存在于细胞核和细胞质中,与细胞有丝分裂密切相关,其含量在细胞周期进程中基本保持稳定.

关键词: 类p34cdc2蛋白;多头绒泡菌;免疫印迹;免疫电镜;抗体处理

Abstract (Browse 1976)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pathogen-resistant Transgenic Plant of Brassica pekinensis by Transfering Antibacterial Peptide Gene and Its Genetic Stability
Author: WANG Guan-Lin, FANG Hong-Jun, WANG Huo-Xu, LI Hong-Yan and WEI Yu-Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(8)
      
    The soft rot infected by pathogenic bacterium Erwinia aroideae Holland is one of the three serious diseases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.). By constructing vector system of high frequency transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105, anti bacterial peptide gene with strong bactericidal action to pathogenic bacteria was introduced into Chinese cabbage AB 81 self bred line and the transgenic plants were obtained. PCR and Southern blotting detection showed that target gene was integrated into plant genome of Chinese cabbage. The tests of bacteriostasis action of the extract from transgenic plants in vitro, and the assay of disease resistant of transgenic plantlets in the tube and the pot by perfusing inoculation with pathogenic bacteria showed obvious resistance to soft rot. This resistance can be a stable heredity by genetic analysis of generations of transgenic plants self bred, separation ratio of its R1 was 3∶1. The resistance to Km and disease of soft rot was still kept in the R5. These results indicated the possibility of breeding new varieties of anti soft rot Chinese cabbage by transgenic plants as parents.
Abstract (Browse 2061)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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