September 2002, Volume 44 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
Development of Plant Embryology in China
Author: HU Shi-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1022-1042
      
    

The development of plant embryology in China can be roughly divided into three stages: (1) the initial stage, (2) the stage of establishing plant embryology as a branch of plant sciences, and (3) the stage when plant embryology evolves into plant reproductive biology with its vigorous development. It is in the third stage that research work in this field in China has developed rapidly and many of the significant achievements obtained are described in more details in this review. Researches of experimental embryology are not included in this paper.

植物胚胎学在中国的发展
胡适宜
(北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871)


摘要: 植物胚胎学在中国的发展大体可划分为3个时期:(1)初始时期,主要在裸子植物胚胎发育的观察和实验研究方面开展了一些工作。(2)在20 世纪50年代后的十几年是学科的建立时期。这期间培养了一些植物胚胎学的人才和开展了许多胚胎发育的描述性研究。(3)近二十几年,随着国际上这一学科的发展,进入植物生殖生物学的发展时期。在这一时期中,以被子植物为对象开展了多方面的研究。第一,在结构与功能关系方面,研究小孢子发生过程中细胞质改组,雄配子体发育中营养核与生殖细胞的关系;雄性生殖单位与雌性生殖单位的结构,细胞质遗传的细胞学机理;生殖系统中的细胞骨架和传递细胞的结构与分布;胚珠中细胞衰退与其物质的迁移。第二,生理活动方面,研究钙在受精过程中的作用,ATP 酶在胚珠物质运输中的参与,受精过程中与识别作用相关的柱头表膜和精细胞质膜蛋白的分离与组分的分析。第三,与育种相关的胚胎学研究,包括雄性不育性、无融合生殖及远缘杂交等。在以裸子植物为对象的研究中,首先是对许多我国特有的属种的胚胎发育作出详细的描述,以及为讨论系统位置提供胚胎学佐证。这方面的研究是独具特色的。其次,在受精作用和精细胞的光镜和电镜的研究也获得
了突出的成果。
关键词: 植物胚胎学;植物生殖生物学;被子植物;裸子植物

Abstract (Browse 2603)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Fertilization of Angiosperms—10 Year Effort in China
Author: SUN Meng Xiang*, YANG Hong Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1011-1021
      
    

This review gives a brief retrospect to the development on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of angiosperms in China. During the last decade Chinese scientists put great enthusiasm and efforts on IVF system construction and builtupnotable contributions to the flourish of this field. Keeping pace with international development and participating international cooperation in the field of IVF, Chinese scientists have now focused on the investigation of basic mechanism relevant to possible gamete interaction, egg cell activation and early embryogenesis by IVF. In vitro manipulation techniques are combined with cytological and molecular biological approaches to unveil the double fertilization mysteries.

我国被子植物体外受精研究——十年回顾
孙蒙祥* 杨弘远
(武汉大学植物发育生物学教育部重点实验室,武汉430072)

摘要: 简要回顾了十余年来我国被子植物体外受精领域的研究历程和主要成就。我国科学家在性细胞的分离,尤其是生活胚囊和雌配子的分离方面走在国际前列。在一定程度上我国科学家的开拓性工作引起了国际同行的广泛兴趣和重视,推动了该领域的迅速发展,为实现被子植物真正意义的体外受精做出了独特的贡献。十年来,我国已建立了自己独特的被子植物离体受精实验技术系统并利用该系统与国际同行合作进行了一系列研究,尤其在探讨配子相互作用、卵细胞激活、避免多精入卵的机制等方面做出了创新性工作,为正确认识体外受精系统的优越性与局限性,也为深入探讨受精机制提供了有价值的新资料。目前正以体外受精操作系统结合细胞生物学和分子生物学等多种手段对受精过程中的一些重要事态与机理做进一步探讨。
关键词: 配子;体外受精;被子植物

通讯作者。E-mail:<mxsun @ whu.edu.cn>.

Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fifty Years of Botanical Gardens in China
Author: HE Shan-An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1123-1133
      
    

The development, distribution and features of one hundred and forty botanical gardens (BGs) in China are reported and their functions on research, conservation, display and utilization of biodiversity are summarized in this paper. The contributions to the social and economic development in the early stage of Chinese BGs with the researches of economic plant (tobacco), medicinal plant (yam) and wild fruit tree resources are evaluated. The theoretical and applied achievements in recent years in seed science, plant conservation, economic plant introduction, acclimatization and breeding are also described. A general scope of living plant collections in Chinese BGs is presented and the outstanding ones, including Magnoliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cycadaceae, medicinal plants,Actinidia and Rhododendron are particularly mentioned. With special reference to Chinese penjing art garden and silicified wood garden, the development of scientific popularization and tourism in BGs is reviewed.

中国植物园五十年
贺善安
(中国科学院江苏省南京植物研究所,中山植物园,南京210014)


摘要: 概述了中国140多个植物园过去50 年发展的历史过程、分布和特征,以及植物园在研究、保护、展示和利用生物多样性等方面的功能。评述了中国植物园早期在经济作物烟草、药用植物薯蓣和野生果树资源研究中对社会和经济发展的贡献,以及近年来在种子科学、物种保护、经济植物引种驯化和育种等方面的理论和应用研究成果。介绍了中国植物园活植物收集的现状。其中木兰科、姜科、苏铁类、药用植物、猕猴桃属和杜鹃属等收集圃的建设已属世界领先。介绍了植物园科普和旅游的发展和中国植物园特有的盆景艺术园和硅化木收集园。
关键词: 植物园;生物多样性;物种保护;药用植物;植物引种驯化;植物育种;植物收集圃

Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation-Climate Relationship and Its Application in the Division of Vegetation Zone in China
Author: FANG Jing-Yun, SONG Yong-Chang, LIU Hong-Yan and PIAO Shi-Long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1105-1122
      
    

Distribution of vegetation is closely coupled with climate; the climate controls distribution of vegetation and the vegetation type reflects regional climates. To reveal vegetation climate relationships is the foundation for understanding the vegetation distribution and theoretically serving vegetation regionalization. Vegetation regionalization is a theoretical integration of vegetation studies and provides a base for physiogeographical regionalization as well as agriculture and forestry regionalization. Based on a brief historical overview on studies of vegetation climate relationships and vegetation regionalization conducted in China, we review the principles, bases and major schemes of previous vegetation regionalization and discuss on several contentious boundaries of vegetation zones in the present paper. We proposed that, under the circumstances that the primary vegetation has been destroyed in most parts of China, the division of vegetation zones/regions should be based on the distribution of primary and its secondary vegetation types and climatic indices that delimit distribution of the vegetation types. This not only reveals the closed relationship between vegetation and climate, but also is feasible practically. Although there still are divergence of views on the name and their boundaries of the several vegetation zones, it is commonly accepted that there are eight major vegetation regions in China, i.e. cold temperate needleleaf forest region, temperate needleleaf and broadleaf mixed forest region, warm temperate deciduous broadleaf forest region, subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest region, tropical monsoon forest and rain forest region, temperate steppe region, temperate desert region, and Qinghai Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau high cold vegetation region. Analyzing characteristics of vegetation and climate of major vegetation boundaries, we suggested that: 1) Qinling Mountain Huaihe River line is an important arid/humid climatic, but not a thermal climatic boundary, and thus can not also be regarded as the northern limit of the subtropical vegetation zone; 2) the northern limit of subtropical vegetation zone in China is along the northern coast of the Yangtze River, from Hangzhou Bay, via Taihu Lake, Xuancheng and Tongling in Anhui Province, through by southern slope of the Dabie Mountains, to Wuhan and its west, coinciding with a warmth index (WI) value of 130-140 ℃·month; 3) the tropical region is limited in a very small area in southeastern Hainan Island and southern edge of Taiwan Island; and 4) considering a significant difference in climates between the southern and northern parts of the warm temperate zone, we suggested that the warm temperate zone in China is divided into two vegetation regions, deciduous broadleaf woodland region and deciduous and evergreen broadleaf mixed forest region, the Qinling Mountain Huaihe River line being as their boundary. We also claimed that the zonal vegetation in North China is deciduous broadleaf woodland. Finally, we emphasized the importance of dynamic vegetation regionalization linked to climate changes.

植被气候关系与我国的植被分区
方精云1宋永昌2刘鸿雁1朴世龙1

(1.北京大学生态学系,北京1000871;2. 华东师范大学环境科学系,上海200062)

摘要:气候制约着植被的地理分布 ,植被是区域气候特征的反映和指示 ,两者之间存在密不可分的联系。揭示植被与气候之间的关系是正确认识植被分布的前提 ,是进行植被区划的理论基础。植被区划是植被研究的归纳和总结 ,是其他自然地理区划和农林业区划的基础。本文在简要回顾中国植被气候关系及植被分区的研究历史的基础上 ,对我国以往的主要植被分区原则、依据和方案进行了评述 ,对有争议的主要植被界线进行了讨论。我们认为 ,在当今我国大部分地区的原生植被已遭到破坏的现实情况下 ,根据原生植被及其衍生植被类型的分布 ,确定其分布与限制性气候因子的关系 ,以此来进行植被带 (区 )的划分 ,不仅反映植被气候间密不可分的关系 ,在实践上也便于操作。尽管在一些植被带的命名、具体界线的划定上有分歧 ,但最近的中国植被分区方案大都认为我国基本的植被区有 8至 9个 ,即针叶林、针阔叶混交林、落叶阔叶林、常绿落叶阔叶混交林、常绿阔叶林以及雨林季雨林、草原、荒漠以及高寒植被。通过分析主要植被带附近的植被、气候等特征 ,本文认为 ,1)秦岭淮河线是一条重要的水分气候带 ,而不是温度带 ,不是亚热带植被的北界 ;2 )我国亚热带植被的北界基本上沿长江北岸 ,从杭州湾经太湖、安徽宣城、铜陵经大别山南坡到武汉往西,与WI值130-140OC·月一致;3)我国热带区域的面积极小,仅分布在海南岛的东南部和台湾南端及其以南地区;4)我国东部地区暖温带的水热条件南北差异甚大,建议以秦岭淮河为界,将暖温带划分为两个植被带,即落叶阔叶疏林带和落叶常绿阔叶混交林带;华北地区的地带性植被为落叶阔叶疏林。最后,本文还强调了对应于气候变化进行动态植被分区的重要性。

关键词: 中国;动态植被区划;水分气候;亚热带北界;秦岭淮河线;温度气候;植被气候关系;植被分区;植被界线

Abstract (Browse 2888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genome Analysis in Wheat Breeding for Disease Resistance
Author: LIU Da-Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1096-1104
      
    

A brief review on the development of wheat germplasm with introduced powdery mildew and scab resistance from Haynaldia villosa Sch. and Leymusracemosus Lam.,Roegneria ciliaris (Trin.) Nevski as well as R. kamoji C.Koch respectively was made. In the course of germplasm development, genome analysis by means of chromosome banding, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular markers, particularly restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) coupled with aneuploid analysis was employed for the purpose of improving breeding efficiency. Potential use of such germplasm in wheat breeding practice, basic studies and some related problems were also discussed.

基因组分析与小麦抗病育种
刘大钧
(南京农业大学细胞遗传研究所,南京210095)

摘要: 系统总结了南京农业大学细胞遗传研究所近20多年来利用基因组分析方法培育从簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa Sch.)、大赖草(Leymus racemosus Lam.)、鹅观草(Roegneria kamoji C. Koch)和纤毛鹅观草(R. ciliaris (Trin.) Nevski)导入白粉病和赤霉病抗性的小麦种质的研究进展.利用染色体C-分带、基因组原位杂交、分子标记(特别是RFLP)等技术与非整倍体分析相结合对所创制的种质进行了系统分析与鉴定.还对所培育的小麦种质在育种实践和理论研究中的潜在价值及相关问题进行了讨论.

关键词: 小麦;小麦近缘种;白粉病抗性;赤霉病抗性;染色体分带;原位杂交;分子标记;基因组分析

Abstract (Browse 2498)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Developmental Biology in China: Past, Present and Future
Author: XU Zhi-Hong and CHONG Kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1085-1095
      
    

Plant development is a process from germination of seed to vegetative growth, flower initiation and development, fertilization and finally to the next generation seed formation. A lot of achievements have been obtained in plant developmental biology in China. Since the 1990's, those young generation scientists returned to China from abroad to use molecular and genetic techniques to study morphological, physiological and biochemical process of plant development. The present paper reviews the progress in some research area of plant developmental biology in the past decades and also prospects the chance and future of plant developmental studies, due to the recent advances of plant genome sequencing and functional genomics in China under the international research background.

中国植物发育生物学若干重要领域的研究回顾
许智宏1 种 康2

(1. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871;2.  中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093)


摘要: 植物发育是指从种子萌发经过营养生长、开花与花器官发育、受精结果形成新一代的有序过程。每一个时期具有复杂的代谢和基因表达与调控网络。过去的数10 年中我国在该领域的研究取得了许多重要的进展,特别是近10年来发育生物学已经从以往的以描述为主要特征发展到在分子水平上阐明发育控制的机理。花器官的发育研究是发育生物学研究最具突破性的领域,开花和营养器官的发育已经成为新的研究热点。本文按照植物发育的时间顺序,回顾了我国发育生物学若干重要领域的重要研究进展,并展望了基因组时代给发育生物学研究带来的新的机遇和研究平台。
关键词: 发育生物学;器官分化;开花生理;性别分化;受精;种子生理

Abstract (Browse 2303)  |  Full Text PDF       
Contributions of Chinese Botanists to Plant Tissue Culture in the 20th Century
Author: CHU Chih-Ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1075-1084
      
    

This paper looks back to the development of plant tissue culture in China in the last century. Since 1934, tissue culture studies in China has kept up with the international development in the fields. Progress has been made by Chinese in nea rly every branches of tissue culture, including in vitro organogenesis, shoot tip culture, anther culture, ovary culture, endosperm culture, protoplast culture as well as mass cell culture. On the basis of reviewing the articles written by Chinese on plant tissue culture, the internationally recognized contributions are specially mentioned. The applications of plant tissue culture to agriculture and industry in China are also introduced.

二十世纪我国植物学家对植物组织培养的贡献
朱至清
(中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093)


摘要: 回顾了上一世纪我国植物组织培养的发展。1934年以来,我国的植物组织培养研究一直与国际发展同步进行。我国学者在离体器官发生、茎尖培养、花药培养、子房培养、胚乳培养、原生质体培养和细胞大量培养等分支领域都取得重要进展。本文在引证我国研究者发表的植物组织培养论文的基础上,着重评述了那些被国际同行公认的研究成果。此外,还介绍了植物组织培养在我国农业和工业上应用的情况。
关键词: 植物组织培养;器官发生;茎尖培养;花药培养;子房培养;胚乳培养;原生质体培养;植物细胞大量培养

Abstract (Browse 9114)  |  Full Text PDF       
Progress in Research on Intercellular Movement of Protoplasm in Higher Plants
Author: ZHANG Wei-Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1068-1074
      
    

Since nuclear extrusion was rediscovered in young Allium scale by S.H.WU in the years of 1950’s systematic investigations on this phenomenon were carried outwith various kinds of microscopic techniques and plant materials to collect more effective evidence to clarify the debate about whether the nuclear extrusion is an artifact or normal event. In the cooperative research of S. H. WU and C. H. LOU the normality of the occurrence of nuclear extrusion either in growing part of plant or in senescent tissue has been confirmed. This event is intimately associated with the physiological state of the tissues/cells and may play an important role in redistribution and reutilization of cell contents. Based on the results obtained a hypothesis of intercellular movement of protoplasm as a means of translocation of organic material in plants was suggested. Chromatin extrusion was also discovered in the pollen mother cells (cytomixis) of certain angiosperms by G. C. ZHENG and his team. Intercellular migration of chromatin appears most frequently at the stage of synizesis. Cytomixis has been studied in relation to variation and evolution. Chromosome aberration has been considered to be closely associated with chromatin extrusion. By vital microscopic observations of the live tissues of garlic ( Allium sativum L.) bud and wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) ovule combined with cinemicroscopy and video recording it has been uncovered that, not only the nuclear material but also the cytoplasm could traverse the intercellular channels by vigorous contraction and expansion, and they may simultaneously extrude out of a cell but often asynchronously migrate from one cell to another. The involvement of cytoplasmic constituents in intercellular migration was also detected in pollen mother cells with electron microscopy. Regarding the mechanism of intercellular movement a series of experiments provide convincing evidence showing that this kind of movement is an active metabolic process closely coupled with energy metabolism, and the motive power for driving the extrusion may be supplied by the contractile proteins in protoplasm.

高等植物中原生质细胞间运动研究的进展
张伟成
(中国科学院上海植物生理生态研究所,上海200032)


摘要: 20世纪初已在植物营养组织和生殖体中观察到细胞核或染色质在细胞间的穿壁迁移。但多年来涉及这一研究的学者大多倾向于将它看做是人为赝象而未予深究。50 年代中期,自吴素萱在葱( Allium L.)、蒜(Allium sativum L)等植物中重新发现了核穿壁运动现象以来,我国植物细胞与生理学家随之进行了系统与广泛的探讨。穿壁运动的研究及进展主要包括两个方面。一方面是营养组织中原生质的细胞间运动,由吴素萱、娄成后合作主持的有关研究项目着重与营养组织中有机物的运输、分配与再利用生理过程相联系。多年来积累的成果表明:1)核物质的穿壁运动是广泛存在于植物营养组织中的固有正常现象,是一定生理状态下有机物在细胞间运输与细胞内含物再分配的一种方式;2)通过对蒜芽鞘、小麦(Triticum aestovum L.)珠心、胚乳等组织的显微活体观察与亚显微结构分析,揭示与记录了原生质在细胞间运动的全过程与动态细节,发现参与穿壁过程的不限于核,核和胞质各组分可同时、亦可分别借自身的主动伸缩穿壁迁移;呈现穿壁运动的组织中,壁上部分胞间连丝结构剧烈变更,胞间通道明显扩大,可100-300nm,核或胞质可经此开放通道迁移而不致有损通道外沿质膜的完整;2.原生质穿壁运动的动力来自细胞的能量代谢,与微丝活动密切有关,穿壁的原生质组分呈现活跃的ATP酶活性。近期的研究表明,小麦胚乳细胞中作活跃伸缩运动的胞质纤索是由F肌动蛋白集束组成,肌动蛋白纤丝可跨胞分布而存在于常态胞间连丝中,从而使相邻细胞的胞质骨架得以实现胞间连续。另一方面是生殖体中染色质的穿壁运动研究,主要在郑国锠主持下开展,着重探讨花粉母细胞间染色质穿壁现象的普遍性及其与遗传、变异和进化的关系;对多种植物的系统观察证明,染色质穿壁出现在减数分裂前期I的凝线期,染色质通过胞质通道在一系列细胞间依次迁移;由电镜观察可见,参与穿壁运动的还包括胞质的多种成员;穿壁运动的动力被认为由原生质的收缩蛋白提供。郑国锠等的研究成果表明,染色质穿壁运动可导致染色体数目、结构的改变,由此产生的部分有活力的配子体经受精后有可能导致新一代个体出现多倍体或非整倍体,引起遗传性状的变异。
关键词: 核穿壁;胞间连丝

Abstract (Browse 2433)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advancement of Structural Botany in the Past Fifty Years in China
Author: CUI Ke-Ming and HU Zheng-Hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2002 44(9): 1043-1067
      
    

Structural botany, being derived from plant anatomy, has been considered as an important branch of botany, both in concept and practice. In this paper, a review concerning the evolutionary trends of development from plant developmental anatomy to plant developmental biology, plant comparative anatomy to plant systematic biology and plant ecological anatomy to plant environmental biology during the past 50 years in China is addressed and their potential development and usefulness in the near future were largely discussed.

结构植物学在中国的五十年发展
崔克明1*  胡正海2

(1. 北京大学生命科学学院,北京100871;2. 西北大学植物研究所,西安710069)


摘要: 结构植物学由植物解剖学发展而来,是植物学的一个重要分支学科。本文根据其近代的发展,分别就植物发育解剖学向植物发育生物学的发展、植物比较解剖学向植物系统发育生物学的发展,以及环境生态结构植物学三个主要部分简要介绍了50年来在我国的发展,并对它们的发展趋势进行了预测。
关键词: 植物解剖学;结构植物学;发育解剖学;比较解剖学;生态解剖学

通讯作者。E-mail:<ckm @ pku.edu.cn>

Abstract (Browse 2345)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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