October 2003, Volume 45 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Variations in Composition and Water Use Efficiency of Plant Functional Groups Based on Their Water Ecological Groups in the Xilin River Basin
Author: CHEN Shi-Ping, BAI Yong-Fei, HAN Xing-Guo*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1251-1260
      
    

Major plant species in the Xilin River Basin were grouped into six plant functional groups (PFGs) based on their water ecological groups: xerophytes, mesoxerophytes, xeromesophytes, mesophytes, hygromesophytes and hygrophytes. We surveyed the composition, d13C values and proline concentration of PFGs in eight different plant communities along a soil moisture gradient. Results show that: (1) PFGs occurred variously in eight steppe communities with different soil moisture status. In wetter habitats, hygromesophytes and hygrophytes were more abundant and accounted for the majority of aboveground biomass, whereas xerophytes and mesoxerophytes became more conspicuous in dryer habitats; (2) the numerical order of the mean d13C values of PFGs is as follows: xerophytes (-26.38‰) = mesoxerophytes (-26.51‰) > xeromesophytes (-27.02‰) > mesophytes (-27.56‰) = hygromesophytes and hygrophytes (-27.80‰); (3) xerophytes maintained relative higher d13C values and water use efficiency (WUE) in habitats of different water availability, whereas d13C values of xeromesophytes were more sensitive to change in soil water availability; (4) From xerophytes to hygrophytes, their proline content markedly increased. Significantly positive correlations existed between proline and biomass or d13C values of different water ecological groups.

内蒙古锡林河流域植物功能群组成及其水分利用效率的变化——依水分生态类群划分
陈世苹 白永飞 韩兴国
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室, 北京 100093)


摘要: 依照植物水分生态类群,将锡林河流域主要植物种划分为6个植物功能群:旱生植物、中旱生植物、旱中生植物、中生植物、湿中生植物和湿生植物。沿土壤水分梯度,我们调查了8个植物群落的功能群组成及其d13C值。结果表明:1)在水分状况不同的8个群落中,植物功能群的组成有很大差异。在较湿润生境中(沼泽化草甸和盐化草甸),湿中生和湿生植物成为优势种并构成地上生物量的主要部分;在干旱生境中(草甸草原、典型草原和退化草原),旱生和中旱生植物占绝对优势并构成群落生物量的90%以上;2)不同功能群d13C值表现为:旱生植物(-26.38‰ ) = 中旱生植物(-26.51‰ ) > 旱中生植物(-27.02‰ ) > 中生植物(-27.56‰ ) = 湿中生和湿生植物(-27.80‰ ),表明随着不同水分生态类群所适应生境从干旱到湿润逐渐转变,植物的水分利用效率显著降低;3)在土壤水分状况不同的生境下,旱生植物始终维持相对较高的d13C值和水分利用效率;而中旱生植物的d13C值表现出较大的变化幅度,表明其对土壤水分的改变更敏感;4)旱生植物叶片脯氨酸含量最高;旱中生、中旱生和中生植物次之;湿中生和湿生植物脯氨酸含量最低。不同水分生态类群脯氨酸含量与其d13C值和地上生物量呈显著正相关关系。
关键词: d13C值;水分生态类群;土壤水分梯度;水分利用效率;脯氨酸;叶片含水量

通讯作者。 E-mail: <xghan@ns.ibcas.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2290)  |  Full Text PDF       
Water Use of Leymus chinensis Community
Author: SONG Bing-Yu, YANG Jie*, XU Ri, WU Jiang-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1245-1250
      
    

Soil moisture of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. community has obviously stratified phenomena: the layer (0-40 cm) in which roots are concentrically distributed is directly influenced by precipitation and evapotranspiration. It can be called interaction layer of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The layer (40-120 cm), where water-storage capacity exchange lagged exchange of the root-layer water-storage capacity and the community evapotranspiration, can be called major water-storage layer. The layer (under 120 cm) can be called water relatively stable/balanced layer. The year 1996 was a normal flow year, and soil water had a surplus of 18 mm at the end of the growing season. The year1998 was a high flow year, because leakage took place under continuous heavy rainfall, soil water had a deficit of 15 mm at the end of the growing season. Transpiration to evapotranspiration (T/ET) value reflected not only the luxuriance degree of the community, but also the water use regime of the environmental resources. T/ET value was low (0.5) in May 1998, reaching 0.7 in June, then decreasing to 0.6 in July, due to the impact of rainfall inclining, while August reached the maximum (0.9), and September decreased to 0.6. Water use efficiency (WUE) was mainly restricted by the growing rate of plants under sufficient water condition (1998). Its seasonal changes were coincident with the grand period of growth of the plants. When both meanings of WUE and T/ET were analyzed profoundly, the concept of evapotranspiration efficiency (ETE) which can all-side reflect utilization regime of the environmental water resources was advanced.

羊草群落的水分利用
宋炳煜 杨 劼 旭 日  乌江雨

(1 .内蒙古大学生命科学学院,呼和浩特 0 1 0 0 2 1 ;2 .中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京 1 0 0 0 2 9 ;
3 .内蒙古伊利集团股份有限公司,呼和浩特 0 1 0 0 8 0 )


摘要: 羊草(Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.)群落的土壤水分具有明显的成层性:0~40 cm是根系集中分布
层,受降水和蒸散的直接影响,称为蒸散与降水相互作用层;40~120 cm贮水变化滞后于根系层贮水和群落蒸散的季节变化,称为主要贮水层;120 cm以下称为水分相对稳定/平衡层。1996年属平水年,生长季末土壤水盈余18 mm;1998年属丰水年,在连续强降雨时发生渗漏,生长季末土壤水亏缺15 mm。蒸腾-蒸散比(T/ET)不仅反映群落的繁茂和活力,而且反映植物对环境水资源的利用状况。1998年8月T/ET值较小(0.5),6月达0.7,7月受降水少影响而有所降低(0.6),8月水分利用效率达到最大(0.9),9月降到0.6。水分利用效率(WUE)在良好的水分条件下(1998年),主要受植物自身生长速度的限制,其季节变化与生长大周期吻合。深入分析WUET/ET的内涵,提出蒸散效率(ETE)的概念,能更好地反映植物对环境水资源利用的状况或程度,具有实际意义。
关键词: 羊草群落;水分利用效率(WUE);蒸散-蒸散比(E/ET);蒸散效率(ETE

通讯作者。 E-mail:<Jyang@imu.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2501)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Different Water Stresses on Eco-physiological Characteristics of Hippophae rhamnoides Seedlings
Author: GUO Wei-Hua, LI Bo, HUANG Yong-Mei, ZHAO Hai-Xia, ZHANG Xin-Shi *
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1238-1244
      
    

In order to examine the effects of the decrease of future precipitation on the eco-physiologi-cal characteristics of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides Linn.) in Huangfuchuan Watershed in Nei Mongol, a water gradient experiment was conducted based on the four specially designed water supply levels, including normal precipitation, slight drought, drought and extreme drought. Results of ANOVE showed that different water gradients had a significant effect on (1) microhabitat factors, such as soil water content and soil temperature; (2) gas exchange, such as net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conduc-tance and transpiration rate; (3) resource use efficiency; and (4) leaf water potential. Water use efficiency of H. rhamnoides could increase under moderate water stress, i.e. drought condition, while its net photo-synthetic rate and transpiration rate decreased. All kinds of eco-physiological characteristics proved H. rhamnoides seedlings under all water supplies were affected by water stress more or less and that mecha-nism of intrinsic physiological regulation in seedlings under the extreme drought conditions had the ap-pearance of turbulence to a certain extent. Therefore, H. rhamnoides seedlings in Huangfuchuan Watershed could not acclimate to extreme drought conditions.

不同程度的水分胁迫对沙棘幼苗生理生态特征的影响
郭卫华 李 波  黄永梅 赵海霞 张新时

(1.山东大学生命科学学院, 济南 250100;
2.北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京师范大学中国生态资产评估中心, 北京 100875;
3.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放研究实验室, 北京 100093)


摘要: 为探讨未来降水减少对内蒙古皇甫川流域沙棘幼苗生理生态特征的影响, 特设计平均降雨水平、偏旱、干旱和极端干旱4种不同的水分梯度处理, 开展人工水分梯度实验。方差分析表明, 不同的水分梯度显著影响土壤的含水量、土壤温度等微生境因子, 并显著影响净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率等气体交换特征、资源利用效率和叶片水势特征。适度的水分胁迫(干旱环境)能够提高沙棘的水分利用效率, 同时却降低净光合速率和蒸腾速率。各种生理生态指标表明,4种水分处理的沙棘幼苗都受到不同程度的水分胁迫的影响, 极端干旱环境中沙棘幼苗的内在生理调节机制出现紊乱, 皇甫川流域沙棘不适宜在极端干旱环境中生长。
关键词: 水分胁迫;沙棘;皇甫川流域;气体交换;水势;资源利用效率;干旱

通讯作者。 Tel: +86 (0)10 62208555; Fax: +86 (0)10 62208555; E-mail: <zhxsh@public.bta.net.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2148)  |  Full Text PDF       
Interspecific Transition Among Caragana microphylla, C. davazamcii and C. korshinskii Along Geographic Gradient. Ⅱ. Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Water Metabolism
Author: MA Cheng-Cang, GAO Yu-Bao*, GUO Hong-Yu, WANG Jin-Long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1228-1237
      
    

The characteristics of photosynthesis and water metabolism of Caragana microphylla Lam., C. davazamcii Sancz. and C. korshinskii Kom. populations in different sites (117.6o-105.7o E, 44.6o-38.8o N) were studied. (1) From the east to the west, the responses of the three species to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in net photosynthesis rate increased, the relative humidity of the air which corresponded to the occurrence of maximum photosynthesis rate decreased, and the corresponding air temperature increased. Along the same gradient, the before-noon superiority of the photosynthesis became evident, and the photosynthesis rate and the light use efficiency (LUE ) increased, while the transpiration rate decreased, thus the water use efficiency (WUE ) increased notably, and the leaf water content decreased gradually. From the east to the west, the plants took a water-saving strategy step by step with higher photosynthesis rate and lower transpiration rate. These physiological changes in the plants were adaptable to the conditions of light, temperature and humidity in the habitat of the plants, and might be the biological foundation for the geographical transition among C. microphylla , C. davazamcii and C. korshinskii. (2) The adaptation of photosynthetic system of C. microphylla , C. davazamcii and C. korshinskii to PAR, air humidity and temperature exhibited the interspecific continuity, which was consistent with the environmental gradient. In different species and different sites, the diurnal changes of net photosynthesis rate, the daily cumulative value of net photosynthesis, the diurnal changes of transpiration rate, the daily cumulative value of transpiration, the water use efficiency and the diurnal changes of leaf water content varied with longitudinal descent (from the east to the west). The characteristics of photosynthesis and water metabolism indicated that the geographical transition among C. microphylla , C. davazamcii and C. korshinskii was in gradual change, and these three species formed a geographical cline.

小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿地理渐变性Ⅱ. 光合特性和水分代谢特性
马成仓 高玉葆  郭宏宇  王金龙

(1.南开大学生命科学学院,天津 300071;2.淮北煤炭师范学院生物系,淮北 235000)
摘要: 研究了不同地区(117.6o ~105.7o E,44.6o ~38.8o N)分布的小叶锦鸡儿(Caragana microphylla Lam.)、中间锦鸡儿(Caragana davazamcii Sancz.)和柠条锦鸡儿(C.korshinskii Kom.)种群的光合特性和水分代谢特性。结果发现:(1)由东向西小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿净光合速率对光合有效辐射的响应增强;净光合速率达到最大值时所对应的空气湿度依次下降;净光合速率达到最大值时所对应的气温依次增加。光合日进程午前优势逐渐升高,光合速率逐渐升高,光能利用率逐渐升高,蒸腾速率逐渐降低,水分利用效率显著升高,叶含水量逐渐降低,植株逐渐采取低蒸腾、高光合的节水对策。这些生理变化与它们分布区的光、温、湿条件相适应。这是小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿发生地理替代分布的生物学基础。(2)小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿光合系统对光合有效辐射、空气湿度和气温的适应都表现出连续性,而且这种连续性与环境的梯度变化相一致。不同种、不同地点光合日进程、日净同化积累值、蒸腾日进程、日蒸腾积累值、水分利用效率以及叶含水量日变化也随经度自东向西呈连续变化。光合特性和水分代谢特性表明小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿的地理替代分布是连续过渡的,是一个连续地理渐变群。
关键词: 小叶锦鸡儿;中间锦鸡儿;柠条锦鸡儿;地理渐变性;光合作用;水分代谢

通讯作者。 E-mail: <ybgao@nankai.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2094)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to the Heterogeneous Water Supply in the Rhizomatous Grass Species, Calamagrostis epigejos in the Mu Us Sandy Land of China
Author: ZHANG Cheng-Yi, YU Fei-Hai, CHEN Yu-Fu, DONG Ming *
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1210-1217
      
    

Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth. is a perennial grass with slender and long rhizome segments between interconnected neighbor ramets. To investigate the phenotypic plasticity in response to the heterogeneous soil water supply, ramet pairs of the species were subjected to heterogeneous water supply by which either mother ramets or daughter ramets were in high or low soil water supply, respectively, in the Maowusu (Mu Us) Sandy Land of Nei Mongol. The results showed that the phenotypic characteris- tics of the individual ramets of C. epigejos were greatly influenced by the heterogeneous water supply. The ramets treated with high water supply significantly produced more new rhizomes and more offspring (ramets), and accumulated more shoot biomass, and allocated more biomass to their shoots than those treated with low water supply. In comparison with the daughter ramets in homogeneous soil water supply, phenotypic characteristics, in terms of new rhizome growth, the production of new offspring, and the biomass allocation pattern, of the daughter ramets within the pairs of the species were not significantly changed, no matter that high or low soil water supply to mother ramets. The phenotypic responses of mother ramets to soil water supply were similar to those of daughter ramets. From these results, it is inferred that the interconnected ramets of C. epigejos response phenotypically to their local soil water rather than to the soil water experienced by the interconnected ramets. The interconnected ramets of C. epigejos might be independent of each other in water relationship, although they are physically interconnected with rhizome segments. The physiological independence of interconnected ramets might facilitate the risk spreading and thus enhance the genet survivorship under the frequent drought stresses in Mu Us Sandland.

毛乌素沙地根茎禾草拂子茅对异质性水分供应的表型可塑性
张称意  于飞海  陈玉福 董 鸣

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京 100093;2 .内蒙古农业大学,呼和浩特 010019;
3. 中国气象局国家气候中心,北京 100081; 4. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101)


摘要: 拂子茅(Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth.)为根茎型多年生禾草,具细长根茎。为了探讨拂子茅在异质性水分环境中的表型差异,在内蒙古鄂尔多斯高原的毛乌素沙地对拂子茅由母株、子株组成的分株对给予了高水、低水两种不同的异质性土壤水分处理。实验结果表明:土壤水分状况显著地影响着拂子茅分株的生长表型。在高土壤水分条件下,拂子茅的分株产生的根茎、新生后代分株较多,并使生物量主要分配于地上部分,地上生物量积累多;在低土壤水分条件下,拂子茅分株产生较少的根茎与新生后代分株,并且分配到根系的生物量明显增大。在具有一定对比度的异质性土壤水分环境中,拂子茅分株并不因相连的其他分株所处的土壤水分状况而在根茎生长、新生后代分株的产生和生物量分配等特征上,与同质环境中的具有相同土壤水分状况的分株相比,有明显差异。这些结果揭示:拂子茅仅以分株的形式对异质性水分供应发生表型反应;相连的克隆分株在向顶向和向基向这两个基本方向上,不能对另一分株的土壤水分状况在生长表型上发生反应,它们在水分关系上可能是相互相对独立的。分株的相对独立可能有利于在气候干旱、扰动强烈的沙地环境中实现风险分摊,提高基株的存活几率。
关键词: 表型可塑性;异质性土壤水分;拂子茅;分株对;根茎;克隆植物;毛乌素沙地

通讯作者。E-mail: <dongming@95777.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2388)  |  Full Text PDF       
Interspecific Transition Among Caragana microphylla, C. davazamcii and C. korshinskii Along Geographic Gradient. Ⅰ. Ecological and RAPD Evidence
Author: MA Cheng-Cang, GAO Yu-Bao*, LIU Hui-Fen, WANG Jin-Long, GUO Hong-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1218-1227
      
    

The former plant population survey has shown that three genetically-related species, Caragana microphylla Lam., C. davazamcii Sancz. and C. korshinskii Kom., form a geographical replacement series in Nei Mongol Plateau. The present study on population distribution, taxonomy, morphology, development and genetic structure demonstrated that the geographical distribution of these three species was successive and in gradual change, thus forming a geographical cline which extended from the east to the west of Nei Mongol Plateau. With an analysis of climate change over time, it was considered that the formation of this geographical cline was a result of plant adaptation to its natural environment.

小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿地理渐变性Ⅰ. 生态学和RAPD 证据
马成仓 高玉葆  刘惠芬  王金龙  郭宏宇

(1.南开大学生命科学学院,天津 300071; 2.淮北煤炭师范学院生物系,淮北 235000)


摘要: 植物种群调查结果证实,小叶锦鸡儿(Caragana microphylla Lam.)、中间锦鸡儿(C.davazamcii Sancz.)和柠条锦鸡儿(C.korshinskii Kom.)在内蒙古高原形成地理替代分布。种群分布、分类、形态、生长发育和遗传结构研究结果表明,小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿地理替代分布是连续的、渐变的,三个种在内蒙古高原自东向西形成一个地理连续渐变群。分析内蒙古高原的气候变迁和小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿及柠条锦鸡儿的地理替代分布状况认为,小叶锦鸡儿、中间锦鸡儿和柠条锦鸡儿地理替代分布是适应环境演化的结果。
关键词: 小叶锦鸡儿;中间锦鸡儿;柠条锦鸡儿;地理渐变性;形态学;分类学;RAPD

通讯作者。 E-mail: <ybgao@nankai.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2109)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Different Vegetation Types on Soil Erosion by Water
Author: ZHANG Yan*, LIU Bao-Yuan, ZHANG Qing-Chun, XIE Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1204-1209
      
    

The C factor in Universal Soil loss Equation reflecting the effect of vegetation on soil erosion by water is one of the important parameters for estimating soil erosion rate and selecting appropriate land use patterns. In this study, the C factor for nine types of grassland and woodland was estimated from 195 plot-year observation data of six groups of soil erosion experiments on Loess Plateau. The result indicates that the effects of woodland and grassland on soil erosion keep approximately uniform after two or three years’ growth. The estimated woodland C factor ranges from 0.004 to 0.164, and the grassland C factor ranges from 0.071 to 0.377, showing that the effect of woodland and grassland on soil conservation is greatly better than that of cropland. The study results can be used to compare or estimate the soil loss from land with different vegetation cover, and are the useful references for land use pattern selection and the project of returning cropland to forest or grassland.

不同植被类型对土壤水蚀的影响
张 岩  刘宝元  张清春  谢 云

(1 . 北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京 1 0 0 8 7 5;2.国土资源部土地整理中心国土整治研究室,北京 100035)


摘要: 不同植被类型对土壤水蚀的影响因子是计算土壤水蚀速率以及选择适当土地利用方式的基本参数。本文以土壤侵蚀模型中的植被因子(C因子)为指标,研究不同植被类型对土壤水蚀的影响。根据6个水土保持试验项目33个小区共195个小区年的资料,计算了刺槐、柠条、沙棘、沙棘-杨树,沙棘-油松、沙打旺、红豆草、苜蓿和草木樨等9种林草植被因子值。林地植被因子介于0.004到0.164之间,以刺槐林的C值最低。草地植被因子介于0.071到0.377之间,以第一年的草木樨C值为最高。定量对比说明林草植被的水土保持效益明显优于农作物。本项研究结果可以用于定量比较不同植被类型覆盖下的土壤流失速率,对于北方农牧交错带退耕还林还草政策的实施具有参考价值。
关键词: 土壤水蚀;植被因子(C因子);林地;草地;农作物

通讯作者。E-mail:<zhangyan628@sina.com> 。

Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Vegetation Coverage and Management Practice on Soil Nitrogen Loss by Erosion in a Hilly Region of the Loess Plateau in China
Author: ZHANG Xing-Chang*, SHAO Ming-An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1195-1203
      
    

Soil erosion and nutrient loss due to erosion are world-wide problems. Similar to soil loss by erosion, soil nitrogen (N) loss by erosion in small catchments is affected by vegetation coverage. The practice of comprehensive management for catchments mainly by adjusting cropland, grassland and wood-land areas was widely adopted to reduce soil and water loss in catchments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Three experiments under natural and artificial rainfall conditions on N loss by erosion for a model catch-ment and for an actual catchment in Zhifanggou of Ansai County in China was performed to determine the relationships between comprehensive management and N loss by runoff in small catchments. The results for vegetation coverage of 60%, 40%, 20% and 0 show that runoff loss of ammonium, nitrate, and total N were 87.08, 44.31, 25.16, 13.71 kg/km2; 85.50, 74.06, 63.95, 56.23 kg/km2; and 0.18, 1.18, 1.98, 7.51 t/km2, respectively. Due to reduction in the size of cropped area on steeply sloping land, soil N loss by erosion in the catchments was decreased by 15.8% as compared with that in 1992, i.e., from 8 758.5 kg in 1992 to 7 562.2 kg in 1998. Whereas, catchments act as a filter for ammonium and nitrate in rain, the catchment filtering effects on nitrate is remarkably higher than that on ammonium. The enrichment of <20 mm aggregate in sediment results in the enrichment of organic matter and total N in flood sediment. Greater vegetation coverage can effectively decrease soil erosion and total N loss. However, soil mineral N loss increased as vegetation coverage increased.

植被覆盖度和综合治理对纸坊沟流域土壤氮素流失的影响
张兴昌 邵明安

(1.黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室,杨凌 712100;
2.中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所,北京 100081;3.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101)


摘要: 同小流域土壤侵蚀一样,小流域土壤氮素随洪流流失也受到植被覆盖度的影响,通常经过调整小流域内土地利用结构以达到控制水土流失。该研究以8.27 km2纸坊沟流域和1:400比例流域模型为研究对象,研究植被覆盖度和综合治理对纸坊沟流域土壤氮素流失的影响。结果表明:在模拟降雨下,当流域植被覆盖度分别为60%、40%、20%和0时,流域模型铵态氮流失量分别为87.08、44.31、25.16和13.71 kg/km2,硝态氮为85.50、74.05、63.95和56.23 kg/km2,全氮为0.81、1.18、1.98和7.51 t/km2;在自然降雨下,1998年与1992年相比,全流域年土壤侵蚀量为1 086 t/km2和1 119 t/km2,氮素流失量为8 758.5和7 562.2 kg,减少了15.8%,其中农地减少了52.0%。流域对降水中的矿质氮具有过滤作用,硝态氮的过滤作用明显高于铵态氮。洪流泥沙中<20 mm微团聚体富集造成了泥沙有机质和全氮的富集。植被覆盖虽能有效地减少流域土壤侵蚀和全氮的流失,却能增加土壤矿质氮的流失。坡地退耕还林草可显著减少流域土壤氮素流失。
关键词: 植被覆盖度; 小流域综合治理; 土壤氮素径流流失

通讯作者。 E-mail: <zhangxc@ms.iswc.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  Full Text PDF       
Supporting of Potential Forage Production to the Herbivore-based Pastoral Farming Industry on the Loess Plateau
Author: WANG Guo-Hong, ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1186-1194
      
    

For the purpose of contributing to the establishment of optimized eco-productive paradigm, a new layout of land use of the Loess Plateau was carried out and the associated forage potential was estimated. Results indicated that the percentages of the area of grassland, woodland, basic farmland and orchard to the total productive land area were 44%, 22%, 20% and 14% respectively according to this new land use scenario. Based on the datasets of 197 counties in the Loess Plateau, the estimated forage potential would amount to 104 881 028 ton/a (hay), which can raise 104 881 028 productivity sheep unit/a. According to the unchanged price in 1999, pastoral gross product value would amount to 52 440.51 million yuan RMB/a, which is as much as 5.3 times of that in 1999 and exceeds the agricultural gross product in 1999 by 14%. In addition, there are ca. 59% of counties whose mean pastoral product value per person would be more than 1 000 yuan RMB/a, while ca. 41% of counties whose mean pastoral product value per person would be less than 1 000 yuan RMB/a. On the other hand, the estimated agricultural gross product on the Loess Plateau would amount to 11 472 2.34 million yuan RMB/a and ca. 46% of the total would come from pastoral industry, 27% from orchid industry, 14% from forestry and 13% from farmland. From the perspective both ecologically and economically, this paper holds that the herbi-vore-based pastoral industry is a promising industry bolstering the ecological improvement and economical development on the Loess Plateau.

黄土高原草地畜牧业产业形成与发展的牧草生产力基础
王国宏 张新时
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京 100093)


摘要: 在黄土高原197个区县土地利用方式重新规划的基础上,对黄土高原畜牧业产业形成与发展的牧草生产潜力进行了分析预测。结果表明:规划的牧、林、农、果用地占生产用地的比例分别是草地44%、林地22%、基本农田20%、果园14%;197个区县草地牧草生产、作物秸秆、草田轮作和果园种草预测的总牧草饲料生产潜力达104 881 028 t/a (其中,草地牧草生产潜力约占45%,达47 196 462.7 t/a), 可载畜104 881 028个羊单位/a(其中草地可载畜47 196 462.7个羊单位/a)。按1999年不变价格计算,黄土高原预测畜牧业总产值将达到5 244 051万元RMB/a,是1999年畜牧业总产值的5.3倍,超过1999年黄土高原农业总产值14%。农业人口人均预测畜牧业产值大于1 000元的区县占59%;小于1 000元的区县占41%。此外,预测的农业总产值将达到1 147.223 4亿元RMB/a,其中畜牧业、果业、林业和农业产值占农业总产值的比重分别是46%、27%、14%和13%。随着畜牧业产业链的逐步建立与完善,产业发展布局的日趋合理,黄土高原畜牧业生产总值将有较大幅度的提高,黄土高原生态环境将有进一步的改善。黄土高原草地畜牧业蕴藏着巨大的发展潜力,有望成为黄土高原优化的生产-生态新产业带建制中的支柱产业。
关键词: 草地;牧草生产力;畜牧业;黄土高原

Abstract (Browse 2164)  |  Full Text PDF       
Eco-economic Background of Hilly-Gullied Loess Region and Optimized Eco-productive Paradigm of Small Watersheds
Author: KONG Zheng-Hong, ZHANG Xin-Shi*, ZHU Gui-Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1174-1185
      
    

A thorough analysis on its natural environment as well as social economic status of the hilly-gullied loess region is presented. A small watershed, the dominant landscape unit of the region, has been singled out for further and specific study on landscape pattern and function, its social and economic distinctions. The authors proposed several principles based on its eco-economic background study, which includes water balance and efficient use principle, co-development of grass and agro-forestry principle, location optimization principle. Integrated with detailed analysis of a small watershed, an eco-productive paradigm for the loess land’s development based on a small watershed scale was worked out. It consists of circle pattern with villages at core for high efficient agriculture production, hierarchical pattern along the slope for eco-economic development, point-axis pattern for commodity production and circulation in small watersheds and core-margin pattern for exchanges among watersheds.

黄土丘陵沟壑区生态- 经济背景以及小流域优化生态- 生产范式
孔正红  张新时  朱桂杰

(1 . 中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态重点实验室,北京 100093 ;
2.华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062)
摘要: 在全面分析黄土丘陵沟壑区生态-经济敏感带的自然环境、社会经济环境的基础上,深入探讨了区域的优势景观单元——小流域的景观结构和功能,由此提出了构建小流域生态——生产范式的几项原则及范式内容。其中包括以下几项原则:水分平衡和高效利用原则、农林牧复合系统原则、区位优化原则等。范式内容强调小流域景观单元的空间异质性和等级特点,主要包括以村庄为中心的高效农业生产圈层结构模式、坡面梯状生态经济带建设模式、流域生态-经济水平生产模式、流域之间高效能流物流点-轴发展模式以及流域与外界环境的核心-边缘发展模式。
关键词: 黄土丘陵沟壑区;小流域;景观结构与功能;区位优化

通讯作者。 E-mail: <zhxsh@public.bta.net.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2102)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of Optimized Eco-productive Paradigm in the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China
Author: TANG Hai-Ping, ZHANG Xin-Shi*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1166-1173
      
    

The farming-pastoral zone of northern China plays a dual role in ecological conditions and production and occupies an important position in the national economy. In this paper, the methodology of system engineering is introduced to construct and optimize an eco-productive paradigm system for the typical areas of the farming-pastoral zone. The system was constructed in the following steps: (1) design the framework of the paradigm system based on the data of physical site characteristics, biocommunities, production and economy, social culture and historical changes; (2) analyze the vegetation patterns, the interactions between vegetation and environmental factors (natural, social, economic, etc.) and the con-tributions of vegetation to the area, including the synthesis of the existing researches; and (3) provide the spatial arrangements of ecosystems and planning of each area, raise a comprehensive indicators of evaluation, evaluate the feasibility and soundness, and determine the optimum eco-productive paradigms for policy-makers which were land-use patterns within the threshold of ecological conservation. Three primitive paradigms of Maowusu (Mu Us) Ssandy Land, Loess Plateau and Huailai Basin in the farming-pastoral zone of northern China were proposed according to this paradigm system.

中国北方农牧交错带优化生态- 生产范式体系构建
唐海萍 张新时

(1. 北京师范大学中国生态资产评估研究中心,北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京 100875;
2.中国科学院植物研究所, 北京 100093)
摘要: 中国北方农牧交错带的生态、生产双重功能决定了其在国民经济发展中的重要战略地位。将系统工程方法论引入对农牧交错带的研究中,构建典型区域内优化的生态- 生产范式体系。在建立自然环境要素、生物群落特征、生产与经济以及社会文化和历史变迁四大基本数据库的基础上确定范式体系并设计框架;之后以数学模型和方法为手段分析范式所涉及的植被和其所处的自然、社会环境以及经济等各因素的相互作用的过程和格局及其对区域的贡献,包括对前人工作的综合集成;最终以各种遥感图件、地形图等为基础给出不同范式点的剖面结构图、规划图及说明,设计综合的评价指标体系对范式的可行性、科学性等进行评价择优,为决策者提供优化的生态-生产范式,也就是生态保育阈值内最优的的土地利用格局。最后,给出了农牧交错带内选取的3个范式点的剖面图,建立了范式的初步框架。
关键词: 农牧交错带;系统工程;生态- 生产范式体系

通讯作者。 E-mail: <xinshiz@yahoo.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2096)  |  Full Text PDF       
Detecting Vegetation Fractional Coverage of Typical Steppe in Northern China Based on Multi-scale Remotely Sensed Data
Author: LI Xiao-Bing, CHEN Yun-Hao*, SHI Pei-Jun, CHEN Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1146-1156
      
    

One of the study objectives of global change is land use/cover change (LUCC) by using multi-scale remotely sensed data on global and regional scale. In this paper, field sample, digital camera, Landsat-ETM+ (ETM+, Enhanced Thematic Mapper) image and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra-tion/the advanced very high resolution radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) image were integrated to detect, simulate and analyze the vegetation fractional coverage of typical steppe in northern China. The results show: (1) Vegetation fractional coverage measured by digital camera is more precise than results mea-sured by other methods. It can be used to validate other measuring results. (2) Vegetation fractional coverage measured by 1 m2 field sample change fluctuantly for different observers and for different sample areas. In this experiment, the coverage is generally high compared with the result measured by digital camera, and the average absolute error is 9.92%, but two groups measure results, correlation coefficient r2 = 0.89. (3) Three kinds of methods using remotely sensed data were adopted to simulate the vegetation fractional coverage. Average absolute errors of the vegetation fractional coverage, measured by ETM+ and NOAA, are respectively 7.03% and 7.83% compared with the result measured by digital camera. When NOAA pixel was decomposed by ETM+ pixels after geometrical registry, the average absolute errors measured by this method is 5.68% compared with the digital camera result. Correction coefficients of three results with digital camera result r2 are respectively 0.78, 0.61and 0.76. (4) The result of statistic model established by NOAA-NDVI (NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and the vegetation fractional coverage mea-sured by digital camera show lower precision (r2 = 0.65) than the result of statistic model established by ETM+-NDVI and digital camera coverage then converted to NOAA image (r2 = 0.80). Pixel decomposability method improves the precision of measuring the vegetation fractional coverage on a large scale. This is a significant practice on scaling by using remotely sensed data. Integrated application of multi-scale re-motely sensed data in earth observation will be an important approach to promoting measuring precision of ecological parameters.

多尺度遥感综合监测我国北方典型草原区植被盖度
李晓兵  陈云浩  史培军  陈 晋

(1 . 北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京 1 0 0 8 7 5;2 . 日本国立环境研究所,筑波,日本)


摘要: 利用多尺度遥感影像综合进行全球和区域尺度的土地利用/覆盖变化(LUCC)研究是最近全球变化研究的重要方向之一。本文综合利用野外群落样方、数字相机、ETM+影像、NOAA/AVHRR影像,在遥感、GIS和GPS支持下,对我国北方典型草原区植被盖度进行了综合监测、模拟与分析。结果表明:(1) 利用经处理后的数字相机影像测量盖度的结果准确性较高,可以作为植被盖度测量的标准结果,反映真实的覆盖特征,并用以验证利用其它方法测量结果的精度。(2) 利用野外1 m2样方网格法目视估测的植被盖度结果变化较大,不稳定。本次实验中,与数字相机测量结果相比,样方估测的盖度普遍偏高,平均偏差为9.92%;但两者相关性较好(r 2=0.89)。(3) 采用Gutman模型ETM+影像、NOAA/AVHRR影像反演植被盖度的结果与数字相机测量结果偏差分别为7.03%、7.83%,ETM+像元分解NOAA像元后得到的植被盖度与数字相机测量结果偏差5.68%。三者与数字相机测量结果的相关系数r2分别为0.78、0.61和0.76。(4)利用野外实测植被盖度数据直接与NOAA-NDVI影像建立统计模型估算植被盖度的精度较低(r 2=0.65),而通过空间分辨率介于两者之间的ETM+影像进行转换后,该精度得到一定的提高(r 2=0.80)。利用像元分解的方法提高了大尺度植被盖度监测的精度,是利用遥感数据进行尺度转换研究的重要实践。多尺度遥感影像的综合对地观测对大区域上反演植被盖度有很好的促进作用。
关键词: 多尺度遥感;典型草原;植被盖度

通讯作者。 Tel.: 010-62206098; Fax: 010-62208460; E-mail: <cyh@bnu.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ecological Regionalization of Suitable Trees, Shrubs and Herbages for Vegetation Restoration in the Farming-Pastoral Zone of Northern China
Author: KANG Mu-Yi, DONG Shi-Kui, HUANG Xiao-Xia, XIONG Min, CHEN Hai, ZHANG Xin-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1157-1165
      
    

To provide materials for the selection of plant species for vegetation restoration and re-construction in the farming-pastoral zone in northern China, where the eco-environment has been al-ready deteriorated by over-farming and over-grazing, the suitable trees, shrubs and herbages were examined, screened and identified under the guidance of four principles of taking precedence for ecological conservation, being beneficial to economic production, matching species (trees, shrubs and herbages) with the site, and giving consideration to the integrity of local administrative division. According to the key ecological factors that determine species growth and distribution in the zone, i.e., the lowest daily mean temperature in a year, annual accumulated temperature, and water regimes represented by the moist index, the ratio between annual rainfall and accumulated temperature (>0 ℃), as well as the soil type influenced by climate, surface substances and landform, the farming-pastoral zone was regionalized into seven parts: (Ⅰ) Western Songliao Plain and Da Hinggan Mountain Region; (Ⅱ) Upper Liaohe River Sandy Region; (Ⅲ) Mid-Eastern Nei Mongol Plateau and Northwestern Heibei Mountain Region; (Ⅳ) Luliang, Taihang and Yanshan Mountain Region; (Ⅴ) Ordos Plateau Sandy Region; (Ⅵ) Northern Shaanxi to Eastern Gansu Loess Plateau Region; and (Ⅶ) Mid Gansu to Eastern Qinghai Plateau Loess Region. And the suitable trees, shrubs and herbages for each region were selected and tabularly introduced in detail.

北方农牧交错带植被重建中适宜乔、灌、草种的生态区划
康慕谊 董世魁 黄晓霞 熊 敏 陈 海 张新时
(北京师范大学中国生态资产评估研究中心,北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室, 北京 100875)


摘要: 因遭受滥垦及过度放牧破坏的中国北方农牧交错带亟待进行植被的恢复和重建。本文从为该区域植被的恢复与重建提供植物物种上的支持出发,对适宜该区域生长与分布的乔、灌、草种进行了生态区划。生态区划的原则概括为4条:生态保育优先、有利生产发展、适地适树适草以及参考行政区划边界。在该原则指导下,依据限定农牧交错带植物生长和分布的主要生态因子:年最低日均温、年大于0 ℃积温、湿润度指数(年降水量与年大于0 ℃积温之比)、反映区域地表组成物质、地形及气候特征影响的土壤类型等,将农牧交错带划分为7个不同的生态区域,依次为:Ⅰ. 松辽平原西部及大兴安岭山地区, Ⅱ. 辽河上游风沙区, Ⅲ. 蒙古高原中、东部及冀西北山地区, Ⅳ. 吕梁山、太行山、燕山山地区, Ⅴ. 鄂尔多斯高原风沙区, Ⅵ.陕北、陇东黄土高原区, Ⅶ. 陇中及青海高原东部黄土区。在上述分区的基础上,对以往文献报道中出现的适宜该区域生长和分布的乔、灌、草,包括乡土种和人工栽培或引种的外来种,按其生态习性分别进行了细致的甄别选择,并在文中择其精要予以列出。
关键词: 农牧交错带;生态区划;植被恢复与重建的适宜种类;中国北方

Abstract (Browse 2115)  |  Full Text PDF       
Intra-annual Vegetation Change Characteristics in the NDVI-Ts Space: Application to Farming-Pastoral Zone in North China
Author: CHEN Yun-Hao, LI Xiao-Bing*, SHI Pei-Jun, DOU Wen, LI Xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(10): 1139-1145
      
    

Land use/land cover change (LUCC) mapping and analysis using multi-temporal normalize difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been well documented. Recent empirical studies have documented that many new methods with high accuracy of retrieved land surface temperature (Ts) have been developed. Thus, the combination of land surface temperature and NDVI has the greatest potential to improve the surface vegetation dynamic monitoring. In this study, the following objectives are pursued to: (1) introduce the practical method to produce the Ts, NDVI and Ts/NDVI based on remotely sensed data; (2) investigate the different retrieved result of vegetation cover information from NDVI, Ts and Ts/NDVI data sets, and analyze the intra-annual time trajectories of different vegetation cover categories in the NDVI-Ts space for farming-pastoral zone in North China, and (3) quantitative analysis the difference in using NDVI, Ts and Ts/NDVI data sets to express information based on the indices (information entropy and averaged information grads), and evaluate the relative role of Ts/NDVI data set in the discrimination of different vegetation cover categories through comparison to traditional NDVI data set.

中国北方草地与农牧交错带植被的N D V I-T s 空间的年内变化特征
陈云浩 李晓兵  史培军 窦 闻 李 霞
(北京师范大学资源科学研究所,北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京 100875)


摘要: 利用多时相或时序植被指数(normalize difference vegetation index,NDVI)数据进行地表覆盖研
究已取得了大量成果。随着陆地表面温度(land surface temperature, Ts)遥感反演精度的不断提高,将Ts与NDVI结合起来进行地表植被动态变化的监测已成为可能。本文主要包括以下三部分内容:1)介绍了基于卫星遥感数据的NDVI、TsTs/NDVI计算方法。2)讨论NDVI、TsTs/NDVI数据对植被覆盖信息表达的差异,并分析了中国北方草地与农牧交错带植被在NDVI-Ts空间的年内变化特征。3)利用信息熵和平均梯度,定量分析了NDVI、TsTs/NDVI数据在信息表达丰富度方面的差异,并对在不同地表植被覆盖下,Ts/NDVI数据对信息提高程度的敏感性进行了讨论。
关键词: 植被指数;陆地表面温度;NDVI-Ts空间;信息熵

通讯作者。E-mail: <xbli@irs.bnu.edu.cn>。

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