April 2003, Volume 45 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Constituents of Thalictrum delavayi
Author: WANG Ye, YANG Xiao-Sheng, LUO Bo, ZHAO Chao, HAO Xiao-Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 500-502
      
    

Two new compounds, 5-hydro-N-methylcorydalidine (1) and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-N-methyl-6-hydroxyl-5, 7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline (2), together with seven known ones (3-9) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the herb Thalictrum delavayi Franch., among which compound 7 was firstly obtained from the genus Thalictrum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence including HMQC and HMBC experiments. Key words:Thalictrum delavayi; isoquinoline; benzyl isoquinoline

偏翅唐松草化学成分的研究
汪 冶 杨小生 罗 波 赵 超 郝小江

(1. 中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学与西部植物资源国家重点实验室,昆明650204;
2.  贵州省、中国科学院天然产物化学重点实验室,贵阳550002)

摘要: 从偏翅唐松草(Thalictrum delavayi Franch.)的乙醇提取物的氯仿部分分离到9个化合物(1-9).其中化合物1和2为新化合物,分别为5-hydro-N-methylcorydalidine  (1)和1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-N-methyl-6-hydroxyl-5,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline  (2).化合物7为首次从唐松草属中分离到.它们的结构经波谱方法(包括HMQC和HMBC)得到鉴定.

关键词: 偏翅唐松草;异喹啉;苄基异喹啉

Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  Full Text PDF       
Camptothecin and 10-Hydroxycamptothecin Accumulate Differentially Under Specific Developmental Control in Camptotheca acuminata
Author: ZU Yuan-Gang, TANG Zhong-Hua, YU Jing-Hua, ZHAO Chun-Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 494-499
      
    

Camptotheca acuminata Decaisne is a tree unique to China, producing terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA), camptothecin (CPT), and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), which possesses strong anti-cancer bioactivity. The dynamics of HCPT and CPT during seed maturation, seed germination, postgerminative development and daily growth were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This article provides some evidence for presenting the theory that each characteristic of HCPT and CPT accumulation is under developmental regulation and then attempt to elucidate the metabolic relationships between them. HCPT accumulates particularly in young tissues and organs and is relatively unstable, while the distribution of CPT is more ubiquitous and stable. Their different distribution properties suggest that HCPT and CPT are differentially regulated and play distinct roles during development. Key words:Camptotheca acuminata; camptothecin; 10-hydroxycamptothecin; control; development

喜树碱和10-羟基喜树碱受喜树生长发育调控的不同特点
祖元刚 唐中华 于景华 赵春建
(东北林业大学森林植物生态学教育部重点实验室,哈尔滨150040)

摘要: 为了揭示喜树碱 (camptothecin ,CPT)和 1 0-羟基喜树碱 (1 0-hydroxycamptothecin ,HCPT)在喜树 (Camptothecaacuminata Decaisne)体内代谢的生理调控机制及这两种类似物之间的关系和作用 ,运用高效液相色谱技术对种子形成、成熟、萌发和幼苗生长过程中喜树碱和 1 0-羟基喜树碱的代谢动态进行了全面的研究。结果表明 ,喜树碱相对稳定地存在于成熟和幼嫩的组织中 ;1 0-羟基喜树碱特异性地积累在乳熟期的种子、种芽的子叶、幼嫩的真叶等幼嫩组织中 ,随着组织的进一步发育和成熟 ,其含量快速减少 ,成熟组织中积累极少 ,并且这两种生物碱的代谢在时间和数量上都呈现出相互消长的特点 ,由此推断 ,这两种生物碱不同程度地受生长发育调控的特点可能与喜树的化学防御策略密切相关 ,并且 ,它们之间可以相互转化以充分利用有限的氮素资源。

关键词: 喜树;喜树碱;10-羟基喜树碱;调控;生长发育

通讯作者。Tel: 0451-2191517;Fax: 0451-2102082; E-mail: <zygorl @ pubic. hr.hl.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 3887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distance-Dependent Long-Range Electron Transfer in Protein: a Case Study of Photosynthetic Bacterial Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex LH2 Assembled on TiO2 Nanoparticle by Femto-Second Time-Resolved Spectroscopy
Author: WENG Yu-Xiang, ZHANG Lei, YANG Jian, QUAN Dong-Hui, WANG Li, YANG Guo-Zhen, FUJII Ritsuko, KOYAMA Yasushi, ZHANG Jian-Ping, FENG Juan, YU Jun-Hua, ZHANG Bao-Wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 488-493
      
    

The function of protein in long-range biological electron transfer is a question of debate. We report some preliminary results in femtosecond spectroscopic study of photosynthetic bacterial light-harvesting antenna complex assembled onto TiO2 nanoparticle with an average size of 8 nm in diameter. Crystal structure shows that photosynthetic bacterial antenna complex LH2 has a ring-like structure composed by α- and β-apoprotein helices. The α- and β-transmembrance helices construct two concentric cylinders with pigments bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchla) and carotenoid (Car) buried inside the protein. We attempt to insert TiO2 nanoparticle into the cavity of the inner cylindrical hollow of LH2 to investigate the nature of the electron transfer between the excited-state Bchl a and the TiO2 nanoparticle. A significant decrease in the ground state bleaching recovery time constant for Bchl a at 850 nm (B850) in respect to that of the Bchl a in free LH2 has been observed. By using the relation of distance-dependent long-range electron transfer rate in protein, the distance between the donor B850 and the acceptor TiO2 nanoparticle has been estimated, which is about 0.6 nm. The proposed method of assembling proteins onto wide-gap semiconductor nanoparticle can be a promising way to determine the role of the protein playing in biological electron transfer processes. Key words: TiO2 nanoparticle; LH2; time-resolved spectroscopy; charge transfer; energy transfer; protein

应用飞秒时间分辨瞬态吸收光谱研究蛋白质中距离相关长程电荷转移:光合细菌天线复合体LH2 与TiO2纳米颗粒超分子组装体个例初探
翁羽翔  张 蕾 杨 健  全冬晖 汪力  杨国桢  藤井律子 小山泰  张建平 冯娟  余军华 张宝文

(1.  中国科学院物理研究所,北京100080;2.  日本关西学院大学理学院化学系,日本兵库县三田市学园2-669-1337;
3. 中国科学院化学研究所,北京100080;4 .中国科学院理化技术研究所,北京100101)

摘要:蛋白质在生物体内电荷转移过程中所起的作用迄今仍然是一个有争议的问题。其争论焦点是蛋白质在生物电荷转移过程中是否提供特殊的电子传递通道或者是仅仅作为普通的有机介质。应用飞秒时间分辨瞬态吸收光谱研究由光合细菌天线分子和平均粒径为 8nm的TiO2 组装而成的超分子系统中长程电荷转移。晶体结构研究表明 ,光合细菌天线分子具有由多个α- 脱辅基和 β- 脱辅基蛋白跨膜螺旋构成的双层空心柱面体结构 ,其中α- 脱辅基蛋白跨膜螺旋构成的小环状体套于 β- 脱辅基蛋白跨膜螺旋构成的大环状体中。小环状体的空腔直径约为 3.6nm。光合色素细菌叶绿素和 β_胡萝卜素分子处于两环之间。细菌叶绿素距离外周胞质膜最近 ,预计为 1nm。本研究试图将TiO2 纳米颗粒部分装入光合细菌膜蛋白的腔体中 ,探讨细菌叶绿素与TiO2 纳米颗粒间进行的光致长程电荷转移 ,进而揭示蛋白质在电荷转移过程中所起的作用。实验观察到细菌叶绿素B850在LH2 /TiO2 中的基态漂白恢复的时间常数明显地比在LH2中短 ,应用长程电荷转移模型 ,将蛋白质视为普通介电媒体 ,由电荷转移速率推算得到细菌叶绿素与TiO2 纳米颗粒最近表面的距离为 0 .6nm ,表明TiO2 纳米颗粒已经成功地部分装入光合细菌天线分子的空腔中。
 

关键词: 二氧化钛纳米颗粒;细菌天线叶绿素;时间分辨光谱;电荷转移;能量转移;蛋白质

通讯作者。Tel: 010-25649432; Fax: 010-82649451; E-mail: <yxweng @ aphy.iphy. ac. cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2304)  |  Full Text PDF       
AtpH Is a Chilling-Repressed Gene in Rice
Author: MAO Xing-Xue, ZHUANG Chu-Xong, PENG Xin-Xiang, MEI Man-Tong, MIAO Zheng-Xin, GUO Zhen-Fei, LI Ming-Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 484-487
      
    

A chilling-repressed cDNA fragment was cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) differential display. Database comparison of the cDNA sequence is identical to atpH encoded by rice chloroplast genome. Northern hybridization showed that its RNA transcript was reduced greatly on the first day and fully inhibited after 2 d of chilling treatment. Key words: rice; chilling; atpH

水稻AtpH基因的表达受冷抑制
毛兴学 庄楚雄 彭新湘 梅曼彤 缪征新 郭振飞 李明启
(华南农业大学生命科学学院,广州510642)

摘要: 采用RT-PCR差异显示法 ,从水稻 (Oryzasativa L .)幼苗克隆了 1个受冷抑制表达的cDNA片段。该片段序列与水稻叶绿体基因组编码ATP合酶CF0 Ⅲ亚基的atpH基因完全同源 ,且覆盖了atpH基因编码区。以Northern杂交分析了水稻幼苗在冷处理不同时间后的atpH基因转录水平 ,结果表明 ,atpH基因的转录受冷抑制 ,在冷处理第 1天就明显下降 ,第 2天以后完全受抑制。

关键词: 水稻;冷;atpH

通讯作者。Tel: 020-85282469; E-mail: <zhfguo @ yahoo.com>。

 

Abstract (Browse 2114)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Submergence-induced Genes in Maize Seedlings by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization
Author: GAO Peng, WANG Guo-Ying, ZHAO Hu-Ji, FAN Li, TAO Ya-Zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 479-483
      
    

To investigate the expression profile of maize genes induced by submergence, a subtracted cDNA library of maize seedling roots was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). The cDNA of maize seedling roots treated with submergence (ST) was used as tester and what from untreated roots (UT) as driver. Products of the secondary PCR from the forward subtraction were cloned into T/A vector and transferred into Escherichia coli strain JM10B by electroporation. Four hundred and eight randomly chosen transformants carrying cDNA fragments were screened with PCR-Select Deferential Screening Kit. One hundred and eighty-four cDNA clones were identified as submergence specifically induced or highly expressed. After sequencing and removing redundant cDNAs, we got 95 submergence-induced cDNA clones. Of the 95 cDNA clones, 68 contain the regions with 60%-90% identity to their homolog in GenBank, 21 are expected to be novel genes, only 6 correspond to the published maize sequences. Key words: maize; expression profile; suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH); submergence

抑制差减杂交法分离玉米幼苗淹水诱导表达基因
高鹏 王国英 赵虎基 樊 立 陶亚忠
(中国农业大学农业生物技术国家重点实验室和国家玉米改良中心,北京100094

摘要: 以淹水处理 (submergence-treated ,ST)的玉米 (Zeamays L .)幼苗根部cDNA为目标群体 ,未处理 (untreated ,UT)的玉米幼苗根部cDNA为对照群体 ,进行抑制差减杂交。用经过UT差减的STcDNA构建了一个含有大约 2 0 0 0个独立克隆的差减文库。对随机挑取的 40 8个克隆进行差异筛选 ,获得了 1 84个在ST中特异表达或表达增强的候选克隆。对其中 1 55个cDNA克隆测序并去除重复克隆后 ,共得到 95个差异表达的cDNA片段。GenBank中BLAST查询结果表明 :6个克隆为已知的玉米核苷酸序列 ;6 8个克隆与已知基因或EST序列部分区域的同源性为 6 0 %~90 % ;2 1个克隆在GenBank中无法查到对应的同源序列 ,可能代表了新基因 ,或者由于序列位于变异丰富的 3′端而无法查到与其他物种基因的同源性。

关键词: 关键词: 玉米;诱导表达基因;抑制差减杂交;淹水胁迫
 

通讯作者。Tel; 010-62892577; E-mail: <gywang @ amil.cau.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2405)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Characterization of Mlo and NBS-LRR-like Gene Sequences in Wheat
Author: LI Ai-Li, KONG Xiu-Ying, ZHOU Rong-Hua, MA Zhi-Ying, JIA Ji-Zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 472-478
      
    

Based on both cDNA sequence of barley powdery mildew resistance control element Mlo and DNA sequence of the known putative disease resistance gene from Triticum monococcum L., we designed some primers to amplify resistant homologous sequences in the near isogenic lines (NILs) of powdery mildew resistance using RT-PCR method. Two expressed cDNA fragments were isolated from wheat genome. One showed 83% homology to the Mlo gene of barley. The other contained two possible open reading frames (ORFs). NBS conservative domains 2, 3 of disease resistance gene and 13 LRR structures similar to rice Pib protein terminal were found respectively in the two ORFs. It indicated that the latter fragment belongs to NBS-LRR-like genes. The obvious difference of RT-PCR products was observed between the before challenged and the challenged for 72 h by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, which implied that this sequence could be associated with disease resistance of wheat. Using nulli-tetrasomic lines of “Chinese Spring", the NBS-LRR-like gene had been located on chromosome 1D. Key words:Mlo; NBS-LRR; cDNA cloning; NIL; RGA

小麦Mlo及NBS-LRR类抗病基因同源序列的分离与鉴定
李爱丽  孔秀英 周荣华  马峙英 贾继增

(1. 中国农业科学院作物品种资源研究所,农业部作物种质资源与生物技术重点开放实验室,北京100081;2. 河北农业大学农学院,保定071001)

摘要: 根据GenBank 中公布的大麦白粉病抗性控制基因Mlo cDNA 序列及一个来源于栽培一粒小麦( Triticummonococcum  L. ) 的假定抗病基因序列分别设计引物,以携带小麦抗白粉病基因的近等基因系为材料进行RT- PCR 筛选。结果获得两个表达基因的cDNA 克隆。其中一个与大麦白粉病抗性控制基因Mlo 的同源性达83 %。另一个为非通读序列,含有两个可能的开放阅读框,分别包含抗病基因NBS 保守结构域2 和3 以及与水稻抗稻瘟病基因Pib蛋白末端相似的13 个LRR 区域,推测该序列属于NBS-LRR 类。白粉菌诱导前后,该片段RT- PCR 扩增产物存在差异,表明该片段可能与小麦抗病性相关。利用“中国春”缺体-四体系,将该NBS-LRR 类序列定位在小麦1D 染色体上。
关键词:  Mlo ; NBS-LRR ; cDNA 克隆; 近等基因系; RGA

通讯作者。E-mail: <jizeng @ mimi. cnc.ac. cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2448)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Expression Analyses of a Gene Encoding Fructose-6-Phosphate, 2-Kinase/Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphatase from Maize
Author: WANG Dong, DU Xi-Ling, ZHANG Hong-Sheng, QIAN Xiao-Yin, YANG Jin-Shui, ZHAI Hu-Qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 466-474
      
    

A full-length cDNA encoding fructose-6-phosphate, 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from maize (Zea mays L.) was cloned by the methods of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and designated as mF2KP. The encoded protein is composed of two regions. Its COOH-terminal region is catalytic region and homologous to the enzymes from other eukaryotes; and its NH2-terminal region is common and special region only in plant. A truncated fragment of mF2KP covering integrated catalytic region was expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein had the activities of fructose-6-phosphate, 2-kinase as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. Northern blot showed that the transcript level of mF2KP in seedlings initiated from strong-vigor seeds is lower than that from weak-vigor seeds. Key words: maize;fructose-2,6-bisphosphate;fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase; seed vigor

玉米果糖-6-磷酸,2-激酶/果糖-2,6-二磷酸酶基因的结构与表达分析

王东 杜喜玲 张红生 钱晓茵  杨金水 翟虎渠

(1. 南京农业大学作物遗传与种质创新国家重点实验室,南京210095;
2.  复旦大学生命科学院遗传学研究所,上海200433)

摘要: 通过RT-PCR ,结合RACE技术 ,得到了玉米 (Zeamays L .)果糖-6-磷酸 ,2-激酶 /果糖-2 ,6-二磷酸酶的全长cDNA克隆 ,命名为mF2KP。氨基酸序列同源性比较发现 ,mF2KP蛋白可以分为两个部分 :C端包含高度保守的催化功能区 ,N端为植物中特有的多肽。将mF2KP基因中一段包含完整催化功能区的片段在大肠杆菌 (Escherichiacoli)中表达 ,融合蛋白具有果糖-6-磷酸 ,2-激酶 /果糖-2 ,6-二磷酸酶活性。Northern杂交证明在种子活力不同的幼苗中 ,mF2KP的转录水平存在明显差异。种子活力越高 ,幼苗中mF2KP的转录水平越低。
【关键词】:玉米;果糖-2,6-二磷酸;果糖-6-磷酸,2-激酶/果糖-2,6-二磷酸酶;种子活力

通讯作者。E-mail: <hszhang@ njau.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2217)  |  Full Text PDF       
Unisexual Pistillate Flower Regeneration in Immature Embryo Culture of Wheat
Author: WU Bi-Hua, ZHENG You-Liang, LIU Deng-Cai, ZHOU Yong-Hong, YAN Ze-Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 452-459
      
    

In this experiment, floral development from tissue culture of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated. Immature embryos of 45 wheat cultivars were cultured, and 11.1% of the genotypes regenerated floral organs from the calli near the bases of the green buds or plantlets regenerated. The floral buds were morphologically incomplete with the appearances of unisexual pistillate flowers which were naked, clustered with normal ovaries and exuberant feather-like stigmas, but without stamens, paleas, lemmas and glumes. The histological examination showed that the pistils originated from the meristematic cells near the green buds or plantlets, and the clustered pistils were formed by secondary pistillate regeneration. The development of the feather-like structures was earlier than that of the ovules. Biovule developed from an ovary besides normal uniovule. Statistical analysis by χ2 test for independency demonstrated highly significant difference of flower regeneration among the tested genotypes. Wheat cultivar YA-1 revealed higher percentage (44.4%) than other genotypes, and the response could well be repeated in different years. It was indicated that the floral regeneration of immature embryo explants of YA-1 is relatively stable. The frequency of floral regeneration was mainly regulated by the components in the subculture media, compared with the response of the dedifferentiation media, despite the obviously different components involving basal medium type, inorganic Fe2+ concentration and plant growth regulators. The results suggested the combination of 6-benzylaminopurine, α-naphthalene acetic-acid and doubled inorganic Fe2+ might be more beneficial to inducing the floral development than that of 2,4-D and normal inorganic Fe2+ concentration in subculture medium. However, both immature inflorescence and mature embryo, as cultured explants of YA-1, did not regenerate any flower organs. It is believed that the immature embryo culture of YA-1 can be used to establish ideal experimental system for the study of floral developmental mechanism in wheat. Key words:Triticum aestivum; immature embryo culture; unisexual flower regeneration; genotype; explant

小麦幼胚培养再生单性雌花的研究
伍碧华 郑有良 刘登才 周永红 颜泽洪
(四川农业大学小麦研究所,都江堰611830)

摘要: 通过45个基因型的小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)幼胚培养,发现有11.1%的基因型从靠近再生芽基部的愈伤组织上分化形成花器官.再生花芽呈裸露的、多子房丛生的、具有茂盛羽毛状柱头而缺乏雄蕊、外稃、内稃和颖片的单性雌花. 组织切片观察发现,其雌蕊起源于再生芽附近的分生组织细胞,并通过次生雌蕊再生的方式形成丛生状,其羽毛状结构的发育先于子房中胚珠的分化. 除正常的单胚珠外,还发现双生胚珠分化.χ2独立性检验结果显示,花芽再生率存在强烈的基因型效应.小麦品种YA-1 表现突出(44.4%),其花芽再生潜力能在不同年份间较好地再现,说明YA-1的花芽再生能力具有相对稳定性.与脱分化培养基的效应相比,YA-1的花芽再生效率主要受继代培养基成分的影响. 其中,6-BA、NAA和加倍无机铁盐的配比较2,4-D和正常浓度无机铁盐的配比更有利于YA-1的幼胚培养再生花芽.同时,外植体实验表明,YA-1的幼穗和成熟胚培养无任何成花反应,而其幼胚外植体具有特异的花芽再生能力.据此认为,YA-1的幼胚培养有助于为小麦花发育机理研究建立理想的实验系统. 

关键词: 小麦;幼胚培养;单性花再生;基因型;外植体

通讯作者。Tel: 028-87283949; Fax: 028-87271867; E-mail: <wubihua2001 @ yahoo.com.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2478)  |  Full Text PDF       
Variation of Cyclin B1-like Protein During the Cell Cycle of Physarum polycephalum
Author: LI Gui-Ying, XING Miao, LI Xiao-Xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 445-451
      
    

Physarum polycephalum L., a naturally synchronized myxomycophyta, was demonstrated to contain a cyclin B1-like protein by Western blot and immunoelectron microscopy. The content and subcellular location of the protein varied during the cell cycle. The cyclin B1-like protein was first detected in the plasmodia of S phase while it did not appear in the nuclei until late G2 phase. The content of the protein in both the plasmodia and nuclei rose gradually onwards, peaked at metaphase and disappeared abruptly at ana-telophase. The protein was found to be distributed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei in late G2 phase and metaphase. In nuclei, the protein was mainly located in the chromosomal and nucleolar areas. The results suggest that the cyclin B1-like protein of P. polycephalum begins to be synthesized at S phase, enters the nuclei at late G2 phase, accumulates in both cytoplasm and nuclei onwards and breaks down at ana-telophase. The results also suggest that the cyclin B1-like protein acts as a cytoplasmic-nuclear protein during certain phases of the cell cycle. Key words: Physarum polycephalum; cyclin B1-like protein; Western blot; immunoelectron microscopy

多头绒泡菌类cyclin B1 蛋白在细胞周期中的变化
李桂英 邢 苗 李晓雪
(深圳大学生物工程系,深圳市微生物基因工程重点实验室,深圳518060)

摘要: 以自然同步化的多头绒泡菌(Physarum polycephalum L.)为材料,经抗cyclin B1抗体的免疫印迹和免疫电镜实验观察结果表明,多头绒泡菌中含有类cyclin B1蛋白,该蛋白的含量和细胞内位置在细胞周期进程中存在着动态变化:类cyclin B1蛋白在S期开始合成并在细胞质中积累,G2晚期开始进入细胞核,该蛋白在细胞质和细胞核中含量逐渐增加,有丝分裂中期时达最大值,后末期时骤然消失.在G2晚期到有丝分裂中期期间,类cyclin B1蛋白既是细胞核蛋白又是细胞质蛋白,细胞质是类cyclin B1蛋白的主要存在区域,细胞核中的类cyclin B1蛋白主要结合于染色体和核仁区域.

关键词: 多头绒泡菌;类cyclinn B1蛋白;免疫印迹;免疫电镜

通讯作者。E-mail:<xingmiao @ szu.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2238)  |  Full Text PDF       
Physiology and Ultrastructure of Azolla imbricata as Affected by Hg2+ and Cd2+ Toxicity
Author: SHI Guo-Xin, XU Qin-Song, XIE Kai-Bin, XU Nan, ZHANG Xiao-Lan, ZENG Xiao-Min, ZHOU Hong-Wei, ZHU Lei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 437-444
      
    

The toxic effects of different gradient concentrations of Hg2+ and Cd2+ on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution, respiration rate, anti-oxidase system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD)) and ultrastructure of the cells of Azolla imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai were studied. The results showed that with Hg2+ and Cd2+ increase, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b value, photosynthetic O2 evolution decreased drastically; respiration rate peaked at 2 mg/L pollutant and declined afterwards. The activities of SOD, CAT and POD increased first and decreased afterwards except the activity of POD, which decreased with the increasing of Cd2+ concentration. Ultrastructural observation showed that the extent of ultrastructural damage was much more serious with higher pollutant concentration and longer time of stress. This resulted in swelling of chloroplast, disruption and disappearance of chloroplast membrane and disintegration of chloroplasts; swelling of cristae of mitochondria, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria; condensation of chromatin in nucleus, dispersion of nucleolus and disruption of nuclear membrane. The experimental results showed: (1) Hg2+ and Cd2+ pollution not only destroyed physiological activities, but also caused irreversible damage to its ultrastructure, thus leading the cells to death; (2) With increase in the stress of Hg2+ and Cd2+, ultrastructural damage was related to the changes of plant physiology; (3) The toxic symptoms of plant showed an evident correlation between dose and effect; (4) The toxicity of Cd2+ on A. imbricata is heavier than that of Hg2+ under the same treatment time and concentration. The lethal concentration of Hg2+ to A. imbricata ranged from 3.5 to 4 mg/L, and that of Cd2+ ranged from 3 to 3.5 mg/L. The damage of cell ultrastructure on Anabaena azollae Strasburger was observed. The results indicated that tolerance of Azolla imbricata for Hg2+ and Cd2+ was higher than that of A. imbricata. Key words: Azolla imbricata; Hg2+; Cd2+; physiology; ultrastructure

Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫对满江红生理和细胞超微结构的影响
施国新  徐勤松 解凯彬 徐 楠 张小兰 曾晓敏 周红卫 朱 蕾
(南京师范大学生命科学学院,南京210097)

摘要: 研究了在梯度浓度Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫下,满江红(Azolla imbricata  (Roxb.) Nakai)的叶绿素含量、叶绿素a/b比值、光合放氧速率、呼吸速率、抗氧化酶系(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、过氧化物酶(POD))和细胞超微结构受Hg2+和Cd2+的毒害影响.结果显示:随着胁迫程度的增大,叶绿素含量、叶绿素a/b比值、光合放氧速率明显下降,呼吸速率均在2 mg/L浓度下达到峰值,尔后下降; SOD、CAT、POD的活性均出现不同程度的应激性升高(除POD在Cd2+处理时下降),尔后下降.电镜观察发现,随着污染物浓度的增加和胁迫时间的延长,叶绿体出现膨大、破损和解体;线粒体嵴突膨胀和线粒体变形及空泡化;核染色质凝集,核仁消失,核膜破裂.实验结果表明: Hg2+和Cd2+污染不仅损害植物的生理活性,而且也破坏细胞的超微结构,最终导致植物死亡;随着Hg2+和Cd2+胁迫的增大,细胞超微结构的损伤程度和植物的生理变化是同步的;植物受毒害的程度表现出明显的剂量效应关系;在同一处理时间和浓度下,Cd2对满江红的毒性大于Hg2+.Hg2+对满江红的致死浓度为3.5~4.0 mg/L,Cd2为3.0~3.5 mg/L.对满江红鱼腥藻(Anabaena azollae Strasburger)细胞的超微结构变化观察表明,满江红鱼腥藻对Hg2+和Cd2的耐受性明显高于满江红.

关键词: 满江红;Hg2+;Cd2+ ;生理;超微结构

!通讯作者。Tel: 025-5891571; E-mail: <gxsh @ njnu. edu. cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2368)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Cloning and Expression of PKA Catalytic Subunit and Its Activity in Arabidopsis thaliana
Author: LIU Pu, CHEN Jia, ZHANG Hui-Xia, WANG Xue-Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 460-465
      
    

Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are the general means of regulation metabolism within a cell. A PKA catalytic subunit was found in Arabidopsis genome using Blast software. The cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and sequencing result indicated a high degree of homology at protein level. The cDNA was subcloned into pET30a (+) and expressed in E.coli at different temperatures. The target protein was insoluble when induced at 37 ℃, while dissolvable if induced at 22 ℃ with 0.01 mmol/L IPTG. Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography was used to purify the target protein, which was shown to have cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. Western blotting analysis indicated that stress treatments affected the expression of PKA catalytic subunit at protein level just to a small extent. Key words: cAMP-dependent protein kinase; fusion expression; activity assay

拟南芥PKA催化亚基基因的克隆、原核表达及其催化活性的鉴定
刘 璞 陈 珈 张会霞 王学臣
(中国农业大学生物学院植物生理生化国家重点实验室,北京100094)

摘要: 蛋白质的磷酸化与脱磷酸化是生物体内存在的一种普遍的调节方式 ,几乎参与所有的生命活动过程。利用Blast2 .0分析拟南芥基因组序列发现存在一个与动物蛋白激酶cDNA同源性的序列 ,在GenBank中比较发现它与动物的依赖cAMP的蛋白激酶 (PKA)的催化亚基 (C亚基 )有相似的特征序列。提取拟南芥 (Arabidopsisthaliana (L .)Heynh .)的总RNA ,通过RT_PCR克隆得到这一cDNA片段 ,经序列测定证实它具有完整的阅读框架 ,将其克隆至pET30a原核表达载体 ,结果表明在大肠杆菌 (E .coli)BL2 1 (DE3)中该表达质粒在IPTG诱导下表达产生大量带寡聚组氨酸标记的重组蛋白 ,该蛋白在 37℃表达时主要以包含体形式存在 ,而在 2 2℃表达时主要以可溶性蛋白形式存在。经过与组氨酸结合金属螯合树脂亲和柱层析纯化后 ,得到纯化的目的蛋白 ,其纯度达到 87%以上。活性鉴定表明其具有依赖于cAMP的蛋白激酶活性 ,而加入PKA的抑制剂 (H-8)后 ,其活性显著下降。从而证实它确实是拟南芥的PKA催化亚基。Westernblot结果显示它几乎不受ABA、NaCl等逆境的诱导。

关键词: :cAMP依赖蛋白激酶;融合表达;活性测定

通讯作者。E-mail: <chenja @ public.bta.net.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2848)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phytogenetic Studies on Intergeneric Hybridization Between Brassica napus and Matthiola incana
Author: LUO Peng, FU Hua-Long, LAN Ze-Qu, ZHOU Song-Dong, ZHOU Hong-Fang,
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 432-436
      
    

The intergeneric hybridization between Brassica napus L. cv. oro and Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. was carried out to study the phytogenetic peculiarities of the hybrid plants. In order to improve the oil quality of rape seed, ovaries of B. napus pollinated with pollen of M. incana, were cut off and inoculated onto MS media supplemented with various plant hormones at the 7th day after pollination. Two mature embryos were obtained from 750 pollinated ovaries cultured in vitro. The percentage of seed set was 0.26%. The mature embryos were transferred onto the MS media supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA, and a compound bud was produced later. The compound bud was then cut into a number of single buds, which were transferred onto fresh media. Twenty-two plantlets in vitro were developed from the above single buds. The hybrid plants (F1) were basically intermediate between the two parents in many characters with a few showing hybrid vigor. The fertility of hybrid plants (F1) was poor. Cytological studies revealed that the hybrid plants (F1) were mixoploid in nature. The chromosome number of many somatic cells was 2n=26, which was the sum of the chromosome number of the two parents. The chromosome number of other somatic cells was 2n=38, similar to that of B. napus. The hybrid offspring (F2) from the selfed hybrid plants (F1) showed polymorphism. Among the hybrid offspring (F2) some were nearly matroclinous and fertile, similar to B. napus, some others were intermediate between the two parents and less fertile, and a few were poorly developed and nearly infertile. From the hybrid offspring a few plants with improved seed-oil quality were obtained. Key words: Brassica napus; Matthiola incana; intergeneric hybridization; phytogenetic studies

甘蓝型油菜与紫罗兰属间杂交的植物遗传学研究
罗 鹏  傅华龙 蓝泽蘧 周颂东 周洪芳  罗 晴

(1. 四川大学生命科学学院,成都Y610064;2.  四川师范学院生物系,南充637000)

摘要: 为探索属间杂种的遗传特点以及改良甘蓝型油菜油分品质,进行了甘蓝型油菜和紫罗兰的属间杂交。杂交母本为甘蓝型油菜奥罗(Brassica napus L.cv.oro)。父本为紫罗兰(Motthiola incana (L.)R.Br.)。将授粉7d后的油菜子房切下,消毒后,培养了添加适当植物激素的MS培养基。从750个离体培养的油菜授粉子房中,获得了2粒成熟胚胎,其结籽率为0.26%。将胚胎取出,转接于MS培养基(添加2.0mg/L6-BA和0.1mg/LNAA),获得了丛生芽,将丛生芽分割为许多单芽,转接到新鲜培养基中,长成了22株小苗,杂种一代植株呈中间性,它的许多性状介于两个亲本之间,一些性状倾向母本,少数性状表现显著的超亲杂种优势,植株结实性差。杂种后代(F2)植株表现多样性,多数植株的性状倾向母本,能育。部分植株表现中间性,育性差,少数植株发育不良,不育,染色体研究表明,杂种一代植株为混倍体。在杂种体细胞中,许多细胞的染色体数为2n=26。为两个亲本的配子染色体数之和。杂种后代(F2)中,倾母植株的染色体数为2n=38。矮小植株的许多细胞具非整倍染色体数。如2n-1=37,2n+1=39。从杂种后代中获得了种子油分品质较好的植株,有可能用于油菜的品质育种。

关键词:油菜,紫罗兰,属间杂交,植物遗传学研究

 

Abstract (Browse 2337)  |  Full Text PDF       
Glucose and δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Stimulate the Dark Chlorophyll Synthesis of Rice Seedlings
Author: YANG Chi-Ming, TSAI Hei-Mei, YANG Jia-Hau
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 422-426
      
    

This research was to examine if rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocotyledon of angiosperm, was able to synthesize chlorophyll (Chl) in complete darkness. Five-cm-tall etiolated seedlings of rice were used as starting materials and treated with or without various concentrations of glucose and/or δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the dark. Leaves harvested at the indicated time were determined for their contents of Chl, protoporphyrin Ⅸ(Proto), Mg-protoporphyrin Ⅸ(Mg-Proto) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide). The mole percentage of porphyrin was calculated. The Chl content in the etiolated rice seedlings slightly increased from about 2.5 μg/g to 7.5 μg/g within 12 d in the dark, but the total Chl of dark-grown rice increased from 0.36 μg/g to 3.6 μg/g. While the mole percentages of Proto, Mg-Proto and Pchlide in the dark-grown seedlings without any treatment were about 65%, 27.5% and 7.5% at the beginning, respectively, those in the light-grown seedlings were about 42.5%, 35% and 22.5%, respectively. The mole percentage of porphyrin of etiolated seedlings resumed its normal ratio within 2 d after treatment with glucose. While the Chl content of etiolated seedlings grown in culture solution with 3% and 6% glucose increased 2.5 and 4.0 folds, respectively, those with 3% and 6% glucose and 1 mmol/L ALA increased 22 and 24 folds, respectively. It is concluded that angiosperm might be able to synthesize a small amount of Chl in complete darkness, that either glucose or ALA could stimulate dark Chl synthesis in angiosperm, and that a combination of glucose and ALA exhibited an additional effect. It is still unknown and remains to be further explored what is the mechanism of the effect of glucose and ALA on the Chl synthesis of rice in the dark. Key words: angiosperm; rice; dark chlorophyll synthesis; glucose; δ-aminolevulinic acid; protoporphyrin Ⅸ; Mg-protoporphyrin Ⅸ; protochlorophyllide

葡萄糖和δ—氨基酮戊酸促进水稻在黑暗中合成叶绿素

杨棋明 蔡慧美 杨佳豪
(中国台北植物研究所,台北11529)

摘要: 本研究检测单子叶被子植物水稻(Oryza sativa L.)在完全黑暗中是否能合成叶绿素。以5cm高的水稻黄化幼苗为研究材料,在黑暗中用不同浓度的葡萄糖和δ-氨基酮戊酸(δ-aminolevulinic acid,ALA)处理之,定时采收叶片检测其叶绿素,原卟啉Ⅸ(Proto),Mg-原卟啉Ⅸg-Proto)及原叶绿酸酯(Pchlide)的含量,并计算它们的卟啉的摩尔百分比。在黑暗中12d,水稻幼苗的叶绿素从2.5μg/g增加到7.5μg/g,但叶绿素总量从0.36μg/g增至3.6μg/g。在黑暗中未经处理的幼苗Proto,Mg-Proto及Pchlide的摩尔百分比分别为65%,27.5%和7.5%;而光照下幼苗相应的摩尔百分比分别为42.5%,35.0%和22.5%。在黑暗中用葡萄糖处理水稻黄化幼苗2d。其卟啉的摩尔百分比即可恢复到正常值(如光照下之相同比例)。在黑暗中以3%和6%的葡萄糖处理水稻黄化幼苗2d,其叶绿素含量分别增加2.5和4.0倍;若同时辅以1mmool/Lδ-氨基酮戊酸,其叶绿素含量分别增加22和24倍,因此,被子植物在黑暗中可以合成叶绿素;葡萄糖或δ-氨基酮戊酸可以促进被子植物在黯部合成叶绿素;葡萄糖和δ-氨基酮戊酸并用有加成作用。葡萄糖或δ-氨基酮戊酸促进水稻在黑暗中合成叶绿素在生理机制有待研究。

关键词:被子植物,水稻,黑暗合成叶绿素,葡萄糖,δ-氨基酮戊酸,原卟啉Ⅸ,Mg-原卟啉Ⅸ,原叶绿酸酯

通讯作者。Tel: +886 2 27821258 ext 612; Fax: + 886 2 27827954; E-mail: <cmyang @ gate.sinica.edu.tw>。

Abstract (Browse 2800)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Light Intensity and Nutrient Availability on Clonal Growth and Clonal Morphology of the Stoloniferous Herb Halerpestes ruthenica
Author: YU Fei-Hai, DONG Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 408-416
      
    

In a greenhouse experiment plasticity of clonal growth and clonal morphology of the stoloniferous rosette herb Halerpestes ruthenica Ovcz. in response to differing levels of light intensity and nutrient availability was studied. Total plant dry weight, leaf area of primary ramets, total number of ramets and of stolons, and total stolon length were significantly reduced, while specific internodelength and specific petiole length significantly increased under deep shading (6.25% of high light intensity, 5.3% of full daylight) or under low nutrient availability. Under low nutrient availability, mean stolon internode length of H. ruthenica was significantly larger while branching intensity and number of ramets smaller than those under high nutrient availability. These responses are consistent with the foraging model of clonal plants, indicating that H. ruthenicais able to forage nutrients through the plastic responses of clonal growth and clonal morphology when it grows in heterogeneous environments. However, under deep shading, both mean stolon internode length and mean petiole length were significantly reduced, which disagrees with the findings of many other stoloniferous herbs in response to low or medium levels of shading (ca. 13%-75% of high light intensity, >10% of full daylight), suggesting that under deep shading stoloniferous herbs may not forage light through the plastic responses of spacer length. Many traits such as total plant dry weight, total number and length of stolons, total length of secondary and tertiary stolons, total number of ramets, leaf area of primary ramets and branching intensity were markedly influenced by the interaction effect of light intensity and nutrient availability. Under high light intensity nutrient availability affected these traits more pronouncedly, however under low light intensity nutrient availability either did not affect or affected less markedly on these traits, indicating that light intensity had significant effect on nutrient foraging in H. ruthenica. Under deep shading or low nutrient availability, H. ruthenica may increase its mean stolon internode length by means of thinning stolon internodes (i.e., an increase in specific internode length), which provides it with more chance to escape from resource-poor sites. Key words: clonal growth; clonal morphology; foraging behavior; Halerpestes ruthenica; light; nutrient; plasticity

光照强度和基质养分对匍匐茎草本金戴戴克隆生长和克隆形态的影响
于飞海 董鸣

(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学开放实验室,北京100093)

摘要:在深度遮光(光照强度为高光条件的6.25%,约为自然光照的5.3%)或低养分条件下,金戴戴(Halerpestes ruthenica Ovcz.)生物量、初级分株叶面积、分株总数、匍匐茎总数和总长度均显著减小,而比节间长和比叶柄长显著增加.在低养分条件下,金戴戴匍匐茎平均节间长显著增加,而匍匐茎分枝强度和分株数显著减小.这些结果与克隆植物觅食模型相符合,表明当生长于异质性生境中,金戴戴可能通过以克隆生长和克隆形态的可塑性实现的觅养行为来增加对养分资源的摄取.在深度遮光条件下,金戴戴平均间隔子长度(即平均节间长和平均叶柄长)均显著减小.这一结果与以往实验中匍匐茎草本间隔子对中度和轻度遮光(光照强度为高光条件的13%~75%,>10%的自然光照)的反应不同.这表明,在深度遮光条件下匍匐茎克隆植物可能不发生通过间隔子可塑性实现的觅光行为.光照强度和基质养分条件的交互作用对许多性状如总生物量、匍匐茎总数和总长度、二级和三级分株数、分株总数、初级分株叶面积以及分枝强度均有十分显著的效应.在高光条件下,基质养分对这些性状有十分显著的影响;而在低光条件下,基质养分条件对这些性状不产生影响或影响较小.这表明,光照强度影响金戴戴对基质养分的可塑性反应.在深度遮光或低养分条件下,金戴戴可能通过减小匍匐茎节间粗度(增加比节间长)来增加或维持其相对长度,从而更有机会逃离资源丰度低的斑块.

关键词: 克隆生长;克隆形态;觅食行为;金戴戴;光照;养分;可塑性

通讯作者。E-mail: <dongming @ 95777.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2575)  |  Full Text PDF       
Crystallization of Nitrogenase MoFe Protein from a Mutant nifE Deleted Strain of Azotobacter vinelandii
Author: ZHAO Ying, ZHAO Jian-Feng, Lü Yu-Bing, WANG Zhi-Ping WANG Yao-Ping, HUANG Ju-Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 427-431
      
    

Under a suitable condition of crystallization, dark brown short rhombohedron crystals could be obtained from FeMoco-deficient MoFe protein (ΔnifE Av1) purified from a nifE deleted mutant DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann grown in NH3-limited medium. The number, size and quality of crystals were significantly affected by either the concentration of precipitants and buffer or diffusion method. The longest sides of the largest crystal of ΔnifE Av1 protein, which was obtained by vapor diffusion in the hanging drop method, were 0.12 and 0.13 mm, respectively. Key words: mutant DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii; nitrogenase ΔnifE Av1; crystallization

棕色固氮菌缺失nifE 的突变种固氮酶钼铁蛋白的结晶
赵 颖  赵剑峰  吕玉兵  汪志平  王耀萍  黄巨富

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093;2.  中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京100101; 3.  浙江大学原子核农业研究所,杭州310029)

摘要: 从限氨固氮培养基中培养棕色固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)缺失nifE的突变种DJ35中,分离纯化得到缺失FeMoco的钼铁蛋白(Δnif E Av1).在一定条件下结晶得到深棕色短斜四棱柱晶体.结晶溶液中各组分的浓度以及结晶方法等对其晶核数目、晶体大小和质量有明显影响.目前用气相扩散的悬滴法所得的最大晶体的二维边长分别为0.12 mm和0.13 mm.

关键词: 棕色固氮菌DJ35突变种;固氮酶Δnif E 钼铁蛋白;结晶
?> 中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京L@@L@L;G> 浙江大学原子核农业研究所,杭州GL@@?M

Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biocontrol Efficacy of Three Antagonistic Yeasts Against Penicillium expansum in Harvested Apple Fruits
Author: QIN Guo-Zheng, TIAN Shi-Ping*, LIU Hai-Bo, XU Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 417-421
      
    

Three antagonistic yeasts, Trichosporon pullulans (Lindner.) Diddens and Lodder, Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuffer.) Skinner and Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresen.) F. C. Harrison, selected from over 50 yeasts on apple fruits, were investigated of their biocontrol efficacy against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum Link in apple fruits.T. pullulans was identified to be a new yeast antagonist and was the most effective at inhibiting blue mould rot in the three yeasts. The effects of different concentrations of the three yeasts and addition of nutrients, as well as combination with calcium on controlling blue mould rot in apples were presented in the paper. The results indicated that the higher the yeast concentrations, the more effective the yeasts on biocontrol activity. Addition of nutrients reduced the biocontrol capacity of the yeasts. Combination of 0.18 mol/L CaCl2 with C. laurentii cell suspensions could significantly enhance its effect to P. expansum in apple fruits, while the efficacy of calcium on biocontrol activity of T. pullulans or R. glutinis was not remarkable. Key words:Trichosporon pullulans; Cryptococcus laurentii; Rhodotorula glutinis; Penicillium expansum; apple; CaCl2

三种拮抗酵母菌对苹果采后青霉病的抑制效果
秦国政 田世平  刘海波 徐 勇
(中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 从苹果果实上分离获得的50余种酵母菌中筛选出了能够有效地抑制苹果青霉病(Peniclium expansum Link) 的丝孢酵母(Trichosporon pullulans (Lindner.)Diddens and Lodder)。罗伦隐球酵母(Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuffer.)skin-ner)和粘红酵母(Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresen.)F.C.Harrison)。其中,抑病效果最好的T.pullulans是一种用于采后果实生物防治的新型拮抗菌,研究了这三种拮抗菌不同浓度处理和外加营养物质以及与钙配合使用对苹果青霉病的抑病效果。实验结果表明;酵母菌浓度越高,抑病作用越强;外源营养物质的加入削弱了酵母菌的拮抗效果;在C.laurentii 的细胞悬浮液中加入0.18mol/L的CaCl2能显著提高其抑病能力。但增加CaCl2对T.pullulans R.glutinis 的抑病效果却没有明显作用。

关键词:丝孢酵母,罗伦隐球酵母,粘红酵母,青霉病,苹果;CaC12

通讯作者。E-mail: <shiping @ 95777.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2672)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phytoplankton in Prydz Bay and Its Adjacent Sea Area of Antarctica During the Austral Summer (1998/1999)
Author: ZHU Gen-Hai, NING Xiu-Ren, CAI Yu-Ming, LIU Zi-Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 390-398
      
    

The cell density, species composition and distribution of phytoplankton, and their relations to environmental factors in Prydz Bay and its adjacent sea area, Antarctica (69°-77° E, 62°-70° S) during the austral summer of 1998/1999 were investigated. A total of 48 taxa belonging to 21 genera of phytoplankton in the sea area were identified. The average cell density of phytoplankton was 22.46×103 cells/dm3, of which diatoms were predominant (84.51%). The highest cell density of phytoplankton occurred in Prydz Bay and the adjacent continental shelf where the average cell density was 46.03×103 cells/dm3. The lowest cell density (3.34×103 cells/dm3) occurred in deep sea area. The dominant species of phytoplankton was Fragilariopsis curta. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton density was highest in the upper part of 0-50 m depth, lower in 100 m and lowest in 150 m. The species composition and cell density of phytoplankton were influenced by water circulation. The cell density was positively correlated with water temperature and salinity, and negatively correlated with the concentration of nutrients. Key words: phytoplankton; distribution; Prydz Bay and its and adjacent sea area; Antarctica

1988/1999年南极普里兹湾邻近海域浮游植物的分布特征

朱根海宁修仁蔡昱明刘子琳
(国家海洋局海底科学重点实验室,国家海洋局海洋动力过程与卫星海洋学重点实验室,国家海洋局第二海洋研究所,杭州310012)

摘要: 中国第15次南大洋考察从普里兹湾邻近海域获得25个测站的浮游植物样品,主要研究了其种类组成。分布及其与环境的关系。浮游植物有5门16科21属48种(变种和变型),浮游植物平均细胞密度为22.46×103个/dm3。其中以硅藻类占优势(84.51%)。浮游植物分布以近海岸陆架区的细胞密度最高(46.03×103个/dm3),其次为陆坡(4.40×103个/dm3)。深海区最低(3.34×103个/dm3)。表层叶绿素a浓度为0.16-3.99μg/dm3。普里兹湾内和湾西部四女士浅滩海域浓度在3.5μg/dm3以上;平面分布趋势浓度从湾内向西北方向递减,深海区浓度在0.5μg/dm3以下,浮游植物优势种为硅藻的短拟脆杆藻(Fragilariopsis curtta)。浮游植物垂直分布密集区位于0-50m水层,100m或100m以下水层随深度的增加而细胞密度逐渐减少,200m水层稀少或未见,其密集区位于普里兹湾近岸陆架区,而陆坡及深海区细胞密度显著减少,叶绿素a浓度的最大值同样分布在25m或50m层,50m以下的浓度随深度的增加而降低。200m层叶绿素a浓度分布范围为0.01-0.95μg/dm3,粒径分级叶绿素a浓度以微小型浮游生物的贡献占优势(56%),微型浮游生物的贡献占24%。微微型浮游生物的贡献占20%,经回归统计分析,浮游植物细胞丰度(y)与水温(T),盐度成正相关。与营养盐(PO4(P),NO3-(N),SiO3(Si)成显著负相关。

关键词:浮游植物,分布,普里兹湾邻近海域,南极

通讯作者。E-mail:<zhugenhai @ sio. zj. edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2183)  |  Full Text PDF       
Late Miocene Woods of Taxodiaceae from Yunnan, China
Author: YI Tie-Mei, LI Cheng-Sen, XU Jing-Xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 384-389
      
    

Late Miocene woods were investigated from the Lühe Basin in Chuxiong Borough, central Yunnan, China. The calcified woods preserved in the Shigucun member of the Shihuiba Formation, are represented by fallen logs and stumps. Two species of fossil wood, Taxodioxylon cryptomeripsoides Schonfeld 1953 and T. cunninghamioides Watari 1948, are described. Their anatomical structure shows striking similarities to the woods of Cryptomeria and Cunninghamia respectively. That the two fossil woods are classed in the Taxodiaceae suggest a subtropical, humid, and warm environment in Lühe during Late Miocene. They compare favorably to other fossil specimens and species reported from localities ranging from Cretaceous to Pliocene. This is the first record of the presence of the species T. cryptomeripsoides and T. cunninghamioides in Late Miocene of Yunnan. Key words: fossil wood; Taxodioxylon cryptomeripsoides; Taxodioxylon cunninghamioides; Late Miocene; Yunnan; palaeoenvironment

云南中新世杉科化石木研究
 扆铁梅   李承森  徐景先

(1. 中国科学院植物研究所,北京100093; 2. 中国科学院地球环境研究所黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室,西安710075; 3. 山西农业大学林学院,太谷030801)

摘要: 利用光学显微镜和扫描电镜首次对云南省楚雄州晚中新世石灰坝组石鼓村层的钙化木材进行了解剖学研究.鉴定出两种类型的木材:柳杉型落羽杉型木(Taxodioxylon cryptomeripsoides Schonfeld)和杉木型落羽杉型木(Taxodioxylon cunninghamioides Watari).二者分别与现代柳杉属和杉木属具有最接近的亲缘关系.根据这两种杉科化石木现存最近亲缘种的生态环境,并综合其他资料,推测该地区在晚中新世为温暖湿润的亚热带气候环境.

关键词: 化石木;柳杉型落羽杉型木;杉木型落羽杉型木;晚中新世;云南;古环境

通讯作者。E-mail: <lics @ 95777.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2488)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Major Nutrient Release Patterns of Quercus liaotungensis Leaf Litter Decomposition in Different Climatic Zones
Author: WANG Li-Xin, WANG Jin, HUANG Jian-Hui*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 399-407
      
    

辽东栎叶片凋落物在不同气候带下的分解及其主要元素释放的比较
王立新 王 瑾 黄建辉

(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京100093)

摘要: 应用分解网袋法对辽东栎(Quercus liaotungensis Koize)叶片凋落物分别在暖温带的东灵山,亚热带的神农架,热带的西双版纳为期1-2年的分解和K,Ca,Mg,Fe,P,Cu,Mn等营养元素释放动态进行比较研究。三个气候带下辽东栎叶片凋落物质量损失基本符合Olson的指数模型。但降解速率有很大的差别。气候条件对凋落物的分解和营养元素的释放影响很大,降水量增多,年均温增高,凋落物分解速率相应加快,研究还发现影响营养元素释放的因素除公认的土壤生物(土壤动物和土壤微生物)作用外。对于Fe,Mn等元素遵循的是“化学因素主导”模式。特征在于由于化学螯合作用。其释放过程和凋落物本身失重呈显著负相关。另外,对不同因素占主导的各种分解模式进行了归纳总结。

关键词:辽东栎,叶片凋落物,分解,暖温带,亚热带,热
Abstract (Browse 2316)  |  Full Text PDF       
Using Subtracted AFLP to Efficiently Mark an Alien Chromosome Fragment in Wheat Background
Author: CHAI Jian-Fang, WU Zhi-Ming, ZHAO He, André LAROCHE, WANG Hai-Bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(4): 379-383
      
    

利用减法AFLP有效标记小麦中的外源染色体片段
柴建芳  吴志明  赵 和 王海波

(1.  河北省农林科学院农业物理生理生化研究所,石家庄050051;
2. Agriculture and Agri-F00d Canada, Lethbridge Research Center,Lethbridge, AB T1j4B1,Canada)

摘要: 为解决AFLP中样品间共同片段对多态性片段识别的干扰,作者建立了一种"减法AFLP"标记技术,并运用这种技术成功对小麦中的外源染色体片段进行了标记.运用该技术,样品间的共同扩增片段显著减少,在非变性聚丙稀酰胺凝胶上带型差异十分明显,多态性片段很容易分辨.其真实性通过将其中两条成功转换成外源染色体片段特异的SCAR标记得到了验证.减法AFLP标记技术的建立为标记作物中的外源染色体片段提供了一种有效手段.

关键词: 减法AFLP;减法杂交;AFLP;外源染色体片段;小麦

通讯作者。Tel: 0311-7652006; E-mail: <pgec @ heinfo.net>。

Abstract (Browse 3199)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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