January 1960, Volume 9 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Studies in the Differentiation of the Shoot Apex of Rice II. The Effect of the Saline-alkali Water Irrigation upon the Differentiation and the Development of the Shoot Apex in Rice
Author: Laboratory of Experimental Plant Morphology, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    In North China the cultivation of rice was greatly limited on account of the lack of sweet water for irrigation. After the liberation in 1949 the cultivated area for the rice has increased immensely owing to the construction of the irrigation system. However, the problem of water shortage for irrigation has not been solved entirely. Therefore, the adequate utilization of the saline-akaline water for the cultivation of rice is an important problem. In 1958 experiments dealing with the rational utilization of the salineakaline water for parrial irrigation have been undertaken. The salineakaline water at different concentrations was used for irrigation at different stages of the development of the rice plant. From observations made on the shoot apex, the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The tolerance to the saline water of the rice plant varies with the stage of development, the earlier the stage the less the tolerance. Thus in case of water shortage, different concentrations of saline-akaline water in accordance with the stage of development may be used for temporary irrigation. In time of resuming growth in early spring the concentration of the salt should not exceed 0.1%, in the stage of tillering, 0.2%, and in the shooting stage 0.4%. Rational temporary irrigation at the above mentioned concentrations would not affect the development of the shoot apex of the rice plant. 2. The rice plant does not tolerate the saline water over 0.1% for long time irrigation. The development of the shoot apex and the formation of the panicle will be severely affected.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in the Differentiation of the Shoot Apex of Rice I. Varietal Differences
Author: Laboratory of Experimental Plant Morphology, Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    1. The differentiation of the shoot apex of rice is morphogenetically similar to that of other Graminae such as Kaoliang, millet, Italian millet etc. in which the inflorescence is a panicle. The differentiation of the shoot apex initiates by swelling and somewhat elongating. Then the papillae- like primordia of the branches of the first order appear acropetally. The appearence of the branch primordia of the second order follows soon. In the middle part of the inflorescence the branch primordia of the third order make their appearence in succession, while at both ends only the branch primordia of the second order are formed. The order of the differentiation occurs in the following sequence: 2 glumes which are greatly reduced in size, 2 sterile lemma, the fertile lemma, the palea, the stamens, and the pistil. 2. The morphological difference in the differentiation of the shoot apex of rice among the different varieties is not great. In the early stage there is only slighte difference in size. During the development of the flower, the characteristics of the varieties become prominent; for example, in the variety Hsiao Hung Mong the awn primordia appear at the time of the closing of the lemma and the palea. From the developmental point of view, there are great differences among the varieties: in the early maturing varieties, the stages of differentiation pass through faster than those in the late maturing varieties, and this may explain why the early maturing varieties possess smaller panicle and less grains per panicle. If the transplantation is carried out as early as possible, the period of the vegetative growth may be prolonged, and in turn, it is beneficial to the increase in the size of the panicle and the number of the grains. 3. Owing to the regularity of the differentiation of the shoot apex of rice, more branch primordia may be produced if the fertilizer is applied in advance of their appearance. The rate of the flower development may be promoted, if the fertilizer is applied during the differentiation of the flower organs.
Abstract (Browse 1962)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Observations on the Endosperm Development in Angiosperms
Author: N. F. Chien and C. N. Kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    From the preparations of the dissected endosperms of more than 20 angiosperms, it has been found that in the majority of cases the division of the primary endosperm nucleus takes place in advance of the fertilized egg. In the early stages of the endosperm development the free nuclei are usually of the same size, and more or less evenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Later the free nuclei at the micropylar end and those at the chalazal end begin to differ in size and density. The primary endosperm nucleus, as a rule, divides mitotically for the first divisions. Later the occurrence of mitoses is also regular. At the same time, amitoses are frequently met with particularly in the endosperm of the leguminous plants in which different kinds of amitoses may be seen in the same endosperm and in rare cases the free nuclei divide one after another and the daughter nuclei may be still connected together to form a long chain. In the material observed amitoses are very rare in the endosperms of some plants such as Ricinus communis, Viola spp. etc. Usually amitoses are seen at the chalazal end. During the early stages of the endosperm development the fusion of the free nuclei may take place, though it occurs rather infrequently. The endosperm chalazal haustoria are usually well developed in Leguminosae and Cucurbitaceae and these structures are better studied from the dissected materials.
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Observations on many Kerneled Grains in Rice
Author: P. T. Tin and C. N. Kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    Based upon the morphological observations of the varieties ※Y邦 Sze 3§ and ※compound rice§, a great number of teratological variations on the structure of the spikelet, the scales and the flower parts has been recorded. From analyzing and studying these variations the following results have been obtained: I. Either in the variety ※Y邦 Sze 3§ or in ※compound rice§, more than 997o of the spikelets deviate from the normal structure in different degrees, sometimes the variations being very great. The deviations involve the variation of the form and the arrangement of the scales, the increase of the number of the developed flowers per spikelet, the degree of reduction in flowers, the increase of the lemma and the palea and deviation in their arrangement and so forth. These variations begin at the time of the differentiation of the spikelet and become more prominent when the different parts of the spikelet are well formed. 2. More than 1000 flowers of ※Y邦 Sze 3§ have been dissected and examined and many kinds of variations in flower parts and scales both in external morphology and in internal structure have been discovered. The stamens and the pistil vary greatly in number. The number of the ovary varies from 1 to 6; sometimes the ovaries fuse at the base but remain free at the upper part. There are certain non-stigmatic processes of various sizes on the ovary. The arrangement of the ovaries also varies. The number of stamens varies from 3 to 11. Sometimes the filaments are fused and two vascular bundles are still separate as revealed in the sectons. The number of the vascular bundles of the palea varies from 3 to 5 (3, 43%, 4, 22%, 5, 35%). The lodicules are usually regular. 3. All the morphological variations of the rice spikelets as described by Michaud (1944) in Oryza sativa and Schweickerdt und Marais (1956) in Oryza barthii are also found in ※Y邦 Sze 3§ and ※compound rice§. The data indicate that the spikelet of the rice is originally multiflowered. At the same time the authors agree with the explanation of the morphological structure of the rice spikelet as suggested by Stapf (1900), Arber (1934), Chatterjee (1947) and others, namely: the rice spikelet consists of 6 scales, the 2 greatly reduced glumes at the base, 2 sterile lemma, 1 fertile lemma and 1 palea. 4. The increase of the stamens and the pistils in number also denotes the possibility of the flower to change into ※doubling§. In case of ※Y邦 Sze 3§ the number of the ovary increases while the scales remain unchanged. Meanwhile the pistils are fused at the base and separate vascular bundles lead to separate ovaries. The deviation of the ovary often occurs on the side opposite the lodicules. The variations of the stamens occur mostly in the internal whorl and also opposite the lodicules. From the point of view of organogenesis this part of the flower differentiates rather late ontogenetically; therefore, it may be easily affected by external as well as internal factors. 5. ※Y邦 Sze 3§ is considered to be a high yielding variety, but genetically it seems not very stable as yet. But since its many kerneled character may be fixed through further selection, it is possible for it to become a valuable variety.
Abstract (Browse 2011)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Tribe Eragrostideae and Its Two Genera New to China
Author: P. C. Keng and L. Liou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    Besides introduction, six sections are incorporated in this paper. In the first two sections, the two genera, Eragrostiella and Sclerodactylon each with a single species distributed in Yunnan and new to China, are described, and their type species, Eragrostiella leioptera and Sclerodactylon juncifolium, are designated respectively. Among the two species discovered in Yunnan province, the first is Eragrostiella lolioides (Hand.-Mazz.) Kong f., a new combination made from Eragrostis lolioides Hand.-Mazz. (Symb. Sin. 7: 1282-1283, 1936), while the second, Sclerodactylon micrandrum Keng & Liou, a low perennial grass, is a species new to science. Both of them are described and illustrated, and a Latin description for the new species is appended. The type specimen of this new species is deposited in the herbarium of Sun Yatsen Memorial Botanical Garden, Nanking, China. In the first section there is also another new combination, Eragrostiella coromandelina (Koenig) Keng f. & Liou, made from Poa coromandelina Koenig (ex Rottl., Ges. Naturf. Fr. Neue Schrift. 4: 191, 1803), an Indian species from the Coromandel coast. In the second section, an interrupted distribution of the two species of Sclerodactylon, one in Eastern Madagascar and the other in SW. China, is mentioned. Other genera of Grasses and the families of dicots having similar distributions, such as Harpachne, Thuarea, etc., are also stated here. The third section of this paper deals with the relationships and derivations of the two above mentioned genera. It is shown that both Eragrostiella and Sclerodactylon are related to Eragrostis and probably derived from it. The genus Sclerodactylon, however, also indicates some characteristics intermediate between Eleusine and Dactyloctenium. The fourth section gives chronologically a brief historical sketch on the study of the natural group Eragrostideae. The sketch shows that the taxon o this group becomes higher and higher in rank, since it was at first treated as a subtribe under Festuceae, then a tribe, a series, and at length as a subfamily in itself. As to the origin of the tribe, the authors of this paper consider that the character of spikelet-morphology is much more important in the natural system than that of leaf-anatomy, and they recognize the tribe Eragrostideae being intermediate between Festuceae and Chlorideae. Therefore, they do not agree with the opinion that the two tribes, Eragrostideae and Paniceae, were originated from one common stock. The subfamily Agrostidoideae proposed in 1951 in opposition to Bambusoideae is also published herewith in Latin. In the fifth section of this paper, the various genera of the tribe Eragrostideae of China are discussed. There are in China, 12 genera ascribed to this tribe and divided into three subtribes. Among these subtribes, the first Eragrostidinae contains 5 genera: Eragrostis, Harpachne, Desmos-tachya, Sclerodactylon, and Eragrostiella; the second and the third subtribes, Tridentinae and Eleusininae, are proposed here as new ones; the former contains 5 genera: Orinus, Cleistogenes, Diplachne, Leptochloa, and Tripogon; the latter includes only Eleusine and Dactyloctenium. A phylogenetic diagram showing the relationships and possible lines of the evolution of these Chinese genera and two American ones, Tridens and Triplasis, is given at the end of this section. Finally in the sixth section, there is a key to the three subtribes and the 12 genera attached below the description of the tribe. Then the 12 genera are listed under the three subtribal descriptions in their proper places. A Latin description is also given to each of the two new subtribes, Tridentinae and Eleusininae. The seven new species and one new variety of this tribe, which are published only in Chinese in the ※Flora Illustralis Plantarum Primarum Sinicarum Gramineae, 1959§, are supplemented here with Latin descriptions. They are as follows: 1. Eragrostis perlaxa Keng, 2. E. ferruginea var. yunnanensis Keng, 3. Orinus anomala Keng, 4. Cleistogenes polyphylla Keng, 5. C. longifiora Keng, 6. C. gracilis Keng, 7. C. mucronata Keng, and 8. Tripogon nanus Keng.
Abstract (Browse 2291)  |  Full Text PDF       
De Familia Monotypica Rhoipteleaceae
Author: Kuang Ko-zen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
Abstract (Browse 1705)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Porphyra Dentimarginata Sp. nov.
Author: Chu Chia-yen and Wang Su-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    In the course of our investigation into the distribution of East sea algae, we have found, fry addition to Porphyra dentata Kjellm. and Porphyra suborbiculata Kjellm. previously described by famous scientists, several species of porphyra never described before. In this paper, only one of them, Porphyra dentimarginata, is reported upon. Charecteristics: Its blades are composed of monostromatic cells; Its form is generally round, elliptic, or like flowers; its colour is olive green or somewhat brown. Measures are: 2每14 cm in height, 2每9 cm in breadth, and 76每120 米 in thickness. Its base is discoid in shape. Its stipe is obscure; Its marginal portion consists of 2每6, sometimes more, rows of degenerated cells which are light in colour; when it is young, they are imperceptible, but when sexual cells are mature, they fall off the blade. Their outside is furnished with jagged teeth which are formed of 1每2 or at most 5 cells, sharp or blunt in form. Its vegetative cells are subrectangular with roundish corner in surface view , and sometimes they are 16每28 米 broad, 36每48 米 high in sectional view with a single stellate chromatophore . Plants heterothallic, spermatangia situated just inside the degenerated marginal portion, consists of 128 spermatia, and its mode of division is ﹥ A4B4C8. Sporocarps scattered in the inside of the degenerated marginal portion, composed of 32 or 16 carpospores and its mode of division is ﹦ A2B4C4 or A2B2C4 . HABIT and GROWTH: Porphyra dentimarginata grows on rocks which are near the middle of the littoral region of sea. Its growing season lasts always from the winter of first year to March of the next year. After April, on account of the highly rising temperature, it gradually vanishes. Systematic position: According to the main characteristic of Porphyra dentimar- ginata-marginal portion with jagged teeth and degenerated cells,it belongs to the section marginata of genus Euporphyra. We recognize in it a form of progress, that is, an evolution from section Edentata to section Marginata.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
Porphyra haitanensis, a New Species of Porphyra from Fukien
Author: Chang Te-jui and Zheng Bao-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    A new species of Porphyra has recently been discovered from the Fukien coast. The new alga, Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Cheng, sp. nov., is the principal component of the Porphyra growths on the cultivated rocks in the upper littoral region in Haitan Island (Pingtan District), Fukien, the place where the special method of employing lime water on rocks in Porphyra cultivation was initiated some 150 years ago. A description of the new species are as follows: Thalli generally 12每18 cm, sometimes over 28 cm in height; blades lanceolate, subovate or elongated subovate, shortly but conspicuously stiped, generally with broad cordate base and some with rounded or cuneate ones, marginal portions sometimes slightly undulate, membranaceous, the middle portions 65每95 米 and that near the base up to 110米 in thickness; the margin with microscopic, one to three-celled teeth, but in the rather mature thalli the dentate character generally limited to the basal parts near the holdfast, the upper parts becoming more or less entire and with looser marginal cells; generally monostromatic, but distromatic portions constantly present; vegetative cells 15每22 米 broad, rectangular in sectional view, 35每50 米 in height excluding the gelatinous sheath, generally with a single, axial, stellate chromatophore, but sometimes with two chromatophores; mostly dioecious, sometimes monoecious, in the latter case, spermatangial portion and sporocarpial portion found on the same frond delimited from each other by a straight, curved or crooked line; each spermatangium composed of 128 or 256 spermatia arranged according to the formulae: ﹥ A4B4C8 or ﹥ A4B4C16; each sporocarp composed of 16 and in lesser cases of 32 carpospores arranged according to the formulae: ﹦ A2B2C4 or ﹦A2B4C4; the colour of the specimens dark greenish purple, with brownish tinge when fresh, becoming more greenish when dried, turning to dark purple a few months later. The type specimen, M 592070, was collected on a rock in the upper littoral zone, Dung Au, Pingtan District, Fukien Province on 25 Feb., 1959, deposited in the Herbarium of the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica. The species is widely distributed along the Fukien coast. The Fukien porphyra product, estimated 12000 tons, fresh weight, in 1958, is principally composed of the present species, with P. dentata Kjellm., P. suborbiculata Kjellm. and P. crispata Kjellm. as the minor components. The growing season of the present species is from October to March of the next year. During this period the porphyra is havested once in every 15每20 days at iow tide by plucking down the upper parts of the thalli and letting the lower parts remain unharmed for further growth. There may be six to nine harvestings in a single growing season. Systematic position of the new species: Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng belongs to the subgenus Euporphyra Rosenvinge and to the section Dentata Tseng et T. J. Chang. It is rather nearly related to P. dentata Kjellm., but is differentiated by (1) the presence of monoecious thalli, (2) the presence of the distromatic and bichromatophored characters, though only in parts, (3) the different modes of division of both spermtangia and sporocarps with different numbers of reproductive cells and (4) the greater thickness and the dark greenish purple colour of the thalli.
Abstract (Browse 2200)  |  Full Text PDF       
妍扼抉忌快扶扶抉扼找我 扳抉把技我把抉志忘扶我攸 把忘扼找我找快抖抆扶抉忍抉 扭抉抗把抉志忘 扼快志快把扶抉忍抉 扼抗抖抉扶忘 抒把快忌找忘 抗批扶抆 - 抖批扶攸 我 快忍抉 扼志攸戒抆 扼 忘把我忱扶抉扼找抆攻
Author: 妣我 宋我 - 我扶
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
Abstract (Browse 1638)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Investigation on the Characteristics of the Photo-stage Development of the Kiayuan Free-seeded Cotton (G. barbadense L.)
Author: Wang Tsung-li and Hsi Yuan-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    During 1955 to 1957, we investigated the characteristics of the Kiayuan free-seeded cotton (G, barbadense, L.) originated in the subtropic or tropic region, including the response to the day length, photoperiodic characteristics and the developmental conditions for the growth of young squares. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The normal completion of the photo-stage of Kiayuan free-seeded cotton requires short day. In the range of day length used in this experiment, 10, 12, 13, 16, 24 h., the normal day length of 10-hour illumination was the most favorable. Lengthening of the daily period of illumination retarded the initiation of squaring to a certain extent. 2. The photo-stage of this variety completed under 10 h. short day treatment 18每20 day after seedling emergence. Thereafter, as regard to their subsequent initiation of square meristems, they were already insensitive to the day length. 3. The requirement of short day conditions for completion of their photo-stage was not the same with different seedling ages. The older the age the shorter the days required for satisfying their photo-stage development. Most favorable seedling age for completing the effect of short day treatment found in this experiment was 10 days after their emergence. Hence, the photo-stage could be completed in 8每12 days under 10 h. short day treatment. After then, the period required for the growth of the induced bud meristems to emerge as squares was about 10 days. 4. The development of the individual plants delayed under high temperature conditions, and the most favorable seedling age for reacting with short day treatment came around 15 days after seedling emergence, but its requirement for short day treatment decreased to 6 days. 5. Although the squares could be emerged after the completion of their photo-stage induction, the short day condition is still necessary for their subsequent development. Under natural day, length in August in Nanking, the young squares wilted soon after their appearance. Only the plants which had grown under short day conditions until 5每7 days before blooming were moved to the natural day could bloom normally. 6. The phasic development of individual plant is in close relationship with the formation of organs. The formation of organs and its full development have their appropriated conditions respectively. For the induction of flowering of the Kiayuan free-seeded cotton, short day conditions were necessary. Squares could emerge and get continuous formation only on the basis of the fore-mentioned qualific changes. But a certain period of short day was still required for its subsequent development. The developmental process of the photo-stage could be delayed by high temperature, but there was no change in its requirement for short day. Based on these fundamental findings we are enabled to control the desired blooming time of this cotton type by adjusting the sowing date or applying short day treatment in proper seedling stage. It has its importance as known both in plant breeding and cultural practice.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies of Some Chinese Bamboos
Author: C. L. Lee and T. C. Chin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1960 9(1)
      
    A comparative study of twelve species of bamboos belonging to 9 genera (12 species): Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel, Ph. bambusoides Sieb. & Zucc., Ph. nigra var. Henonis (Mitf.) Stapf., Brachystachyum densiflorum (Rendle) Keng, Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Fenzi) Makino, Pseudosasa japonica (Sieb. & Zucc.) Makino, Shibataea chinensis Nakai, lndocalamus Migoi (Na- kai) Keng f., Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) Keng f., Sinocalamus Oldhami (Munro) McClure, Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeuschel, and B. multiplex var. nana (Roxb.) Keng f., has been under-taken. In view of the middle portion of the bamboo culm which is structurally quite different from the basal portion, and more or less similar to the terminal part, it has been selected for study. Their external morphology and internal structures are briefly described. The 12 species are grouped under 9 types in accord with their configurations and structures of the vascular bundles. Subsequently, an anatomical classification of the 12 species and a key to such are proposed. A conspicuous correlation of the difference in internal structures with the growth habits of the tufted and scattered types is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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