August 2003, Volume 45 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Two New Triterpenes from Neonauclea sessilifolia
Author: KANG Wen-Yi, LI Guo-Hong, HAO Xiao-Jiang*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 1003-1007
      
    

Two new triterpenoids, 3β, 15α, 21β, 23-tetrahydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (1), 3β, 6α, 21β, 23-tetrahydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (2), together with seven known compounds, viz., paeonol (3), 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (4), scosoletin (5), anthraquinones chrysophanol (6), 4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 5, 7-dihydroxy-2-methyl (7), β-sitosterol (8) and stigmasterol glucoside (9) were isolated by the chromatography of the silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex-LH 20 from the EtOAc extract of Neonauclea sessilifolia (Roxb.) Merr. ( Rubiaceae ). Their structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR (HMQC, HMBC), IR and EIMS. Among them, compound 6 was shown to possess inhibitory activity on the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Zopf) Lehmann et Neumann with a minimum inhibitory amount of 25 礸, compounds 2 and 4 also showed weak inhibitory activities on the growteof M. tuberculosis.

   无柄新乌檀中的三萜

康文艺 李国红 郝小江

(1.中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学与西部资源持续利用国家重点实验室,昆明确650204;2.云南大学工业微生物发酵工程重点实验室,昆明 650091)

摘要:采用活性跟踪的方法对无柄新乌檀(Neonauclea sessilifolia (Roxb.)Merr.)枝干的乙醇提取物进行结核杆菌活性检测.利用硅胶柱层析、Sephadex-LH 20和反相硅胶RP18柱层析,从具有活性的乙酸乙酯部分分得9个化合物,利用一维、二维核磁共振技术(HMQC,HMBC)并结合质谱与红外光谱,将它们鉴定为3 β,15 α,21 β,23-tetrahydroxv-12-oleanen-28-oic acid(1)、3 β,6 α,21 β,23-tetrahydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid(2)、单皮酚(3)、3,4-二羟基苯甲酸(4)、东莨菪内酯(5)、蒽醌大黄酚(6)、5,7-二羟基-2-甲基吡喃酮(7)、β-谷甾醇(8)和5,22△-豆甾醇-β-D-葡萄糖苷(9).其中化合物1和2是两个新化合物.体外抗结核杆菌试验表明,化合物6对结核杆菌(Mycobacterium tuber-culosis(Zopf)Lehmann et Neumann)具有一定的抑制效果,用量在2μg时出现抑菌圈;化合物2与4具有微弱的抑制活性.

关键词:无柄新乌檀;结核杆菌;三萜

通讯作者。Tel: 0871-5219684; Fax: 0871-5150227; E-mail: <xjhao@ maul.kib.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1702)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sampling Strategy Within a Wild Soybean Population Based on Its Genetic Variation Detected by ISSR Markers
Author: JIN Yan, ZHANG Wen-Ju, FU Da-Xu, LU Bao-Rong*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 995-1002
      
    

In order to determine an appropriate sampling strategy for the effective conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) in China, a natural population from Jiangwan Airport in Shanghai was studied for its genetic diversity through the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker analysis of a sample set consisting of 100 randomly collected individuals. A relatively large genetic diversity was de-tected among the samples based on estimation of DNA products amplified from 15 selected ISSR primers, with the similarity coefficient varying from 0.17 to 0.89. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.171 4 per locus, and Shannon index (I ) was 0.271 4. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) further indicated that genetic diversity of the Jiangwan wild soybean population was not evenly distributed, instead, was presented by a mosaic or clustered distribution pattern. Correlation study between genetic diversity and number of samples demonstrated that genetic diversity increased dramatically with the increase of number of samples within 40 individuals, but the increase became slow and rapidly reached a plateau when more than 40 individuals were included in the analysis. It is concluded that (i) a sample set of approximately 35-45 individuals should be included to represent possibly high genetic diversity when conservation of a wild soybean population ex situ is undertaken; and (ii) collection of wild soybean samples should be spread out as wide as possible within a population, and a certain distance should be kept as intervals among individuals for sampling.

利用 ISSR 标记研究野大豆居群内遗传变异及其取样策略 

金燕  张文驹  傅大煦  卢宝荣

(复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所,教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室,上海陆空200433) 

摘 要:为了有效地保护野大豆(Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.)并制定合理的居群取样策略,对上海江湾机场的一个人然野大豆居群进行了 100个单株(个体)的随机取样,并用ISSR分子标记对其进行了遗传多样性分析.利用筛选出的15条ISSR引物在这个居群中检测到较高的遗传变异,样本内个体间的相似系数变化在0.17~0.89之间.居群内平均每个位点的平均预期杂合度(He)为0.171 4,香农指数(I)为0.271 4.PCA分析显示,江湾野大豆居群内的遗传变异不是呈均匀分布,而是呈从状分布.该野大豆居群遗传多样性和样本内个体数量间的相关性分析显示:在个体数少于40的情况下,遗传多样性随个体数的增加而迅速增加;当样本中的个体数大于40时,遗传多样性的增加减慢并很快趋于饱和.研究表明:对野大豆居群进行异地保护时,对各居群的采样植株数不应当低于35~45;在居群内采样时,所采集的个体之间最好相隔一定的空间距离.
关键词:野大豆;遗传多样性;分子标记;居群结构;取样策略

通讯作者。Tel.和Fax: 021-65643668;E-mail: <brlu @ fudan.edi.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Starch Properties of Rice Based on an RIL Population
Author: BAO Jin-Song, Harold CORKE, HE Ping, ZHU Li-Huang*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 986-994
      
    

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) eating and cooking quality is mainly influenced by its starch properties. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for starch properties not only helps us understand their genetic basis leading to acceleration of quality improvement, but also helps us find possible genes participating in the synthesis of starch. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 107 lines, derived from an indica (Zaiyeqing 8, ZYQ 8) and a japonica (Jingxi 17, JX 17) rice, was used to investigate the genetic factors affecting starch quality parameters, such as apparent amylose content (AAC), gel consistency (GC), starch pasting viscosity parameters, gel textural properties, gelatinization temperature (GT) and starch retrogradation properties. A total of 44 QTLs covered chromosomes 2-6, 8, 9 and 11 were detected for the 22 traits, with at least one QTL and as many as four QTLs for each individual trait. The results indicated that two major genes were responsible for most starch property traits. The Wx gene that encodes granule bound starch synthase on chromosome 6 was significant for AAC, GC, starch pasting viscosity parameters, gel textural properties and starch retrogradation properties. The alk gene linked with Wx on chromosome 6 was significant for starch gelatinization temperature characteristics. All other QTLs were minor genes. One QTL on chromosome 9 flanked by RZ404 and G295 was significant for gel hardness (HD), gumminess (GUM), chewiness (CHEW), peak temperature of retrogradated starch (RTp), and percentage retrogradation (R%) and all these traits were not tested before.

利用一个水稻RIL群体定位控制淀粉特性的QTL

包劲松   Harold VORKE   何 平 朱立煌

(1.浙江大学华家池校区核农所, 杭州 310029; 2.香港大学植物系; 3.中国科学院遗传与发育生物研究所, 北京100101)

摘要:利用一个由籼粳(Oryza sativa L.)杂交发展成的重组自交系(RIL)群体研究影响淀粉特性的遗传因子,测定了一系列淀粉特性有关性状,包括直链淀粉含量、胶稠度、淀粉糊粘度、胶的质地、糊化温度、热学特性、回生特性等22个参数.共定位了44个QTL,分布在第2~6、8、9、11染色体上,每个性状所定位的QTL在1到4个不等.其中有2个是主基因,一个是第6染色体上的Wx基因,它控制直链淀粉含量、胶稠度、淀粉糊粘度、胶的质地、回生特性等性状,另一个是第6染色体上的alk基因,它控制糊化温度与热学特性等性状,其他QTL都是微效基因,在第9染色体上RZ404和G295区间系首次检测到,它控制淀粉胶的硬度(hardness)、胶粘性(gumminess)、咀嚼性(chewiness)、回生淀粉的最高糊化温度、回生率等性状,这些性状都未曾研究过.

关健词: alk; 食用与蒸煮品质; 数量性状基因位点;水稻;淀粉; Wx

通讯作者。E-mail: <lhzhu @ genetics.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1767)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Expression Analysis of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase (VDE) cDNA in Wheat
Author: ZHANG Ji-Jun, YING Jia, CHANG Sheng-He, LI Bin, LI Zhen-Sheng*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 981-985
      
    

Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) is the key enzyme in the xanthophyll cycle and protects plant photosynthetic apparatus from the damage of excessive light. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan 54) VDE cDNA was obtained using RT-PCR method. Its deduced protein sequence shares high identity with that of Arabidopsis and rice. Southern blot revealed that there are three copies of VDE gene per haploid genome of wheat. VDE transcript levels were higher in green leaf than in root, seed and etiolated leaf. Northern blotting analysis indicated that VDE mRNA level is induced during greening process of etiolated wheat seedling and increased by intense light illumination.

小麦紫黄质脱环氧化酶(VDE)cDNA 的克隆及表达

张吉军 英 加 常胜合 李 滨 李振声

(中中科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所植物细胞与染色体工程国家重点实验室,北京时间100101)

摘要:应用RT-PCR方法从小麦(Triticum aestivum L. cv.Xiaoyan 54)中克隆了紫黄质脱环氧化酶(violaxanthinde-epoxidase,VDE) cDNA,预测的蛋白质序列与拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)、水稻(Oryza sati va)有很高的同源性.Southern杂交结果表明,在小麦中可能存在3个拷贝的紫黄质脱环氧化酶基因.Northern杂交结果表明它在绿色叶片中特异表达,在黄化小麦幼苗变绿过程中其mRNA水平受光诱导,并且强光增加了其mRNA在成熟叶片中的表达.

关键词:紫黄质脱环氧化酶;叶黄素循环;光保护;小麦

通讯作者。E-mail: <zsli @ genetics.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1710)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Expression Pattern Analysis of Nitrogen-Starvation-induced Genes in Rice
Author: CHEN Qing-Shuang, YI Ke-Ke, HUANG Guo, WANG Xiao-Bing, LIU Fei-Yan, WU Yun-Rong, WU Ping*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 974-980
      
    

To understand the regulation system of nitrogen (N)-starvation in higher plants, a cDNA library from N-starved rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings was constructed using rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) procedure. Through reverse Northern analysis and Northern blotting, 18 unique known genes and two unique unknown genes were identified, which were up-regulated by N-starvation in rice. The known genes are involved in several metabolisms including carbon metabolism, secondary metabolite synthesis, ubiquitylation and protein degradation, phytohormone metabolism, signal transduction, growth regulator and transcription factors. Different induced expression patterns based on spatial and temporal express ions were found for these genes. The results indicate the cross-talks between N-starvation response and various metabolisms in plants.

水稻氮饥饿诱导基因的克隆与表达分析

陈青爽 易可可 黄帼 王小兵 刘非燕 吴运荣 吴平

浙江大学生命科学学院植物生理学与生物化学国家重点实验室,杭州310029

摘要: 为了解水稀(Oryza sativa L.)对氮饥饿反应的分子与基因背景,利用RaSH策略构建了水稻氮(N)饥饿诱导cDNA文库。通过反向Northern筛选该文库,获得氮饥饿诱导的18个功能已知基因和2个功能未知基因。这些已知基因涉及碳代谢、次生代谢产物合成、蛋白质分解代谢、激素代谢、信号转导、生长调控过程及转录因子。这些基因表现出不同的时空表达模式。研究结果表明了植物对氮饥饿反应涉及互相关联的多种生理与分子机理,提供了相关的一些基因信息。
关键词: 水稻;RaSH;基因表达;氮饥饿

通讯作者。Tel :0571-86971130;Fax: 0571-86971323;E-mail: <docpwu @ cls.zju.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1680)  |  Full Text PDF       
Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Kentucky Bluegrass
Author: CHAI Bao-Feng*, LIANG Ai-Hua, WANG Wei, Hu Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 966-973
      
    

Embryogenic calli of Kentucky bluegrass, named Md, were induced from mature seeds and embryos, and proliferated on medium K3 containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 10.0 μmol/L), 6-benzylaminopurine ( BAP, 0.5 μmol/L) and K5 which was the K3 medium supplemented with cupric sulfa (0.5 μmol/L) under dim-light condition ( 20-30 μmol·m-2·s-1, 16 h light) at 24 ℃. Embryogenic calli were transformed with plasmids pDM805 Carring bar and gus genes, Which was mediated by an Agrobacterium strain AGL1, four transgenic lines were obtained. The important factors that affect the transformation efficiency and obtain desirable number of transgenic plants included: (1) the quality of embryogenic calli; (2) light condition and time of co-cultivation; (3) concentration of antibiotics used for suppressing the overgrowth of Agrobacterium in the course of transformed plant regeneration; (4) selection pressure, etc. The micro nutrient of cupric had significant influence on the quality of embryogenic calli. This pre-sentation is the first successful protocol of Kentucky bluegrass transformation mediated by Agrobacterium.

农杆菌介导的单子叶植物早熟禾的转化

柴宝峰 梁爱华 王伟 胡炜

(1.中国科学院水生生物研究所,武汉430072;2.山西大学生物技术研究所,太原 030006)

摘要: 利用种子和胚分别在两种培养基K3和K5诱导产生了早熟禾(Poa pratensis L.)一个品种Mado的胚性愈伤组织.K3培养基含有10.0μmol/L的二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)、0.5μmol/L的苄氨基嘌呤(BAP).K5培养基是K3另加0.5μmol/L的硫酸铜.光照条件为20~30 μmol.m-2.s-1、16 h光照、8 h黑暗.温度保持在24℃.用携有bar基因和gus基因的pDM805质粒转化的农杆菌AGL1对胚性愈伤组织进行转化.共得到4个转基因株系.影响转基因效率的主要因素有愈伤组织的胚性、光照条件、共转化时间、抗生素浓度、选择压力.本研究建立了单子叶早熟禾农杆菌介导的转基因方案.

关键词: 单子叶植物愈伤组织农杆菌介导; Poa pratensis

通讯作者。T el: 0351-7016125;E-mail: <bfchai @ sxu.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
F-Actin Visualization in Generative and Sperm Cells of Living Pollen of Rice Using a GFP-Mouse Talin Fusion Protein
Author: XU Shi-Xiong (S Y Zee), YE Xiu-Lin, WANG Ling-Jian, QIU Zhi-Ping (C P Yau), YE Yong-Jian (W K Yip)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 949-958
      
    

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the F-actin binding domain of mouse talin labels the actin cytoskeleton in the living generative and sperm cells of a third generation transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant, A005-G-T1-2. Observations were made on pollen at four major developmental stages, viz. Ⅰ. uni-nucleate microspore stage; Ⅱ. early bi-cellular pollen stage; Ⅲ. late bi-cellular pollen stage; and Ⅳ. tri-cellular pollen stage. At each of these developmental stages vegetative nucleus, generative nucleus/cell, and sperm cells were seen undergoing continuous and coordinated motion and migration. These movements seemed to be influenced by associated microfilament networks existing in the pollen. Based on these observations we propose that it is the interaction between the microfilament networks (usually one existing in the central cytoplasm and another in the cortex) that controls the dynamic movement of the vegetative nucleus, generative nucleus/cell and sperm cells. Furthermore, we have also observed that there is an array of microfilaments (oriented mostly parallel to the long axis of the cell) existing in the generative and sperm cells. As far as we are aware, this is the first report showing the existence of microfilaments in living generative and sperm cells of rice pollen. The implication and significance of the existence of microfilaments in generative and sperm cells in rendering self-propelled motion of these cells in relation to their passage and movement in the pollen tube and embryo sac for fertilization were discussed.

绿色荧光蛋白基因结合鼠Talin 基因蛋白标记转基因水稻活体生殖细胞及精细胸的微丝骨架

徐是雄 叶秀麟 王凌健 丘志平 叶永健

(1. 香港大学植物系,香港 2. 中国科学院华南植物研究所,广州510650 3. 中国科学院上海植物生理生态研究所,植物分子遗传国家重点实验室,上海2OOO32)

摘要: 利用绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)基因结合鼠Talin基因表达技术及水稻(Oryza sativa L.)转基因技术,筛选出表达稳定和具等位基因型的第三代转基因水稻。在其活体花粉的4个发育阶段(Ⅰ.小孢子晚期;Ⅱ.二细胞早期;Ⅲ.二细胞晚期;Ⅳ.三细胞阶段),观察了细胞内微丝骨架的分布和结构形态的变化。发现在这4个花粉发育阶段,花粉内的营养核、生殖核、生殖细胞和精细胞都在不同的发育阶段出现位移。而这些位移与微丝骨架的结构变化和运动有密切关系。在胞质中央的微丝网络以及细胞周质的网络不断变化和互动,导致营养核、生殖核或生殖细胞和精细胞的定向位移。在活体生殖细胞和精细胞内,存有一股与细胞纵轴平行排列的微丝骨架。这些微丝骨架对生殖细胞及精细胞可以提供移动的动力,这对生殖细胞或精细胞在花管内以及胚囊内的运动(包括独自游动)提供了依据。

关健词: 水稻; 花粉;绿色荧光蛋白;微丝;生殖细胞;精细胞

Abstract (Browse 1572)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning of Potato POTHR-1 Gene and Its Expression in Response to Infection by Phytophthora infestans and Other Abiotic Stimuli
Author: TIAN Zhen-Dong, Liu-Jun, XIE Cong-Hua*, SONG Bo-Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 959-965
      
    

A complete cDNA of potato Phytophthora infestans-induced hypersensitive response-related protein gene ( POTHR-1) was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy according to a fragment sequence which we had cloned using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The potato POTHR-1 gene encodes a protein of 225 amino acids, which shares 81% identity with tobacco hin1 gene-enoded protein (harpin-induced protein). Southern blot revealed that there are two to three copies of POTHR-1 in potato genome. The POTHR-1 gene expression in potato leaves showed that its transcripts accumulated remarkably in leaves after 36 h inoculation with P. infestans. Mechanical wounding and jasmonic acid (JA) could induce the POTHR-1 gene expression and osmotic stress just induce a slight accumulation of POTHR-1 gene mRNA, while salicylic acid (SA) had no detectable function on the induction accumulation of POTHR-1 gene transcripts. The potato POTHR-1 gene may preferentially associate with hypersensitive response (HR) or biotic cell death during interaction between host and pathogen.

马铃薯 POTHR-1 cDNA 的克隆及晚疫病菌和其他非生物因子诱导表达分析

田振东 柳俊 谢从华 宋波涛

(1.华中农业大学园世林学学院,武汉430070;2.华中农业大学生命科学技术学院,武汉430070)

摘要: 利用RACE和重叠延伸相结合的方法,从经晚疫病菌接种诱导的马铃薯水平抗性材料叶片中克隆了一个POTHR-1基因(potato Phvtophthora infestans-induced hypersensitive response related protein gene)的全长cDNA。序列分析表明,该基因编码225个氨基酸,与烟草harpin诱导蛋白基因hinl有很高的同源性(编码区核苷酸和氨基酸序列分别为83%和81%)。Southern杂交结果显示在马铃薯基因组中有2~3个拷贝。对其诱导表达模式研究表明:晚疫病病原菌接种36h后,该基因表达迅速增加;机械伤害及茉莉酸(JA)处理能够诱导表达;渗透胁迫(NaCl浸泡)能够诱导其微弱表达;但水杨酸(SA)不能诱导表达。该基因可能和病原与寄主互作时寄主产生过敏反应及细胞生理性死亡有关。

关健词: cDNA克隆;POTHR-1基因;马铃薯;Phytophthora infestans

通讯作者。Tel:027-87282727;E-mail:<Xiech@ public.wh.hb.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1657)  |  Full Text PDF       
Flow Cytometric Evidence for Hydroxyl Radical-induced Apoptosis in Tobacco Protoplasts
Author: LEI Xiao-Yong, LIAO Xu-Dong, ZHANG Gui-You, DAI Yao-Ren*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 944-948
      
    

Protoplasts prepared from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cultivar BY-2) suspension cells have similar morphological characteristics to those in animal cells. The hallmarks of apoptosis such as conden-sation and peripheral distribution of nuclei, TUNEL positive reaction, and DNA ladders were observed when tobacco protoplasts were treated with the hydroxyl radical generating system (1.0 mmol/L FeSO4/0.5 mmol/L H2O2). In animals, the loss of transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and the exposure of phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) are believed to be the main apoptosis events. To test whether these significant processes take place in plants, flow cytometry was used to detect annexin V binding and changes in ΔΨ m . Results showed that the PS turned out from inner membrane and ΔΨ m gradually decreased during the apoptosis. All these apoptotic characteristics proved that hydroxyl radicals can cause typical programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco protoplasts and this design can be served as an effective experiment system to explore the mechanism of plant apoptosis.

羟自由基诱导的烟草原生质体的凋亡:流式细胞法的新证据

雷晓勇; 廖旭东; 张贵友; 戴尧仁;

(1.清华大学生物科学与技术系,北京时间100084;2.中国科学院动物研究所,北京时间100080)

摘要: 用1.0mmol/L FeSO4/0.5mmol/L H2O2处理烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.,cultivar BY-2)原生质体,发现羟自由基能够诱导烟草原生质体的凋亡。具体表现为细胞核皱缩、DNA Ladder、TUNEL阳性反应等典型的凋亡特征。在动物细胞凋亡过程中,线粒体起着非常重要的作用,其中膜电位(ΔΨm)的变化以及由其引起的位于线粒体膜上的通透性孔(PTP)的开放与Cyt c的释放有关。另外,在动物凋亡细胞中,磷脂酰丝氨酸(phosphatidylserine,PS)会从细胞膜内侧向外翻转。为了判断植物细胞凋亡过程中膜电位的变化情况以及PS的外翻程度,我们采用了流式细胞法。结果表明,随着处理时间的延长,烟草原生质体线粒体的膜电位逐渐降低;膜内PS大量外翻。说明由羟自由基和烟草原生质体组成的凋亡体系是一种可靠的凋亡组合,可以用来对植物细胞凋亡机理做进一步研究。

关健词: 烟草原生质体;流式细胞法;调亡;程序性细胞死亡;羟自由基

Abstract (Browse 1623)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison on Responses of Different Phosphorus-Efficient Wheat Varieties to Phosphorus-Deficiency Stress
Author: LI Chun-Jian*, PANG Xin, ZHANG Fu-Suo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 936-943
      
    

Six wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with different phosphorus (P) efficiency, selected according to their relative yield in P-deficient soil to that in P sufficient soil, were used to compare their responses to P deficiency in growth, root and shoot P content and P concentration in leaf phloem exudates in solution culture. Results showed that P deficiency repressed shoot growth, whereas stimu-lated root growth. Accordingly, root-shoot dry weight ratio of the P deficient plants was relatively larger than that of the P-sufficient plants. Comparing with P-inefficient varieties, the growth rate of shoot and roots of P-efficient varieties was relatively low both under P-sufficient and -deficient conditions. Phospho-rus deficiency also resulted in decrease in shoot and root P content. The rate of decrease in shoot was faster than in root. Difference in P partitioning in shoot and root between P-efficient and -inefficient varieties could not be observed. However, a negative relationship between P concentration in leaf phloem exudates of nine-day-old seedlings of these wheat varieties and their degrees of P efficiency were found under the P-sufficient condition, with higher in P-inefficient varieties but lower in P-efficient varieties. The reduce rate of P concentration in leaf phloem exudates of P-efficient varieties was rather slower than that of P-inefficient varieties, showing higher relative P concentration in leaf phloem exudates. The rela-tive P concentration in leaf phloem exudates under P deficiency ranged from 35.9% of the P-sufficient controls in P-inefficient varieties to 59.0% in P-efficient varieties on the 10th day after the treatments.

不同磷效率小麦品种对缺磷胁迫反应的比较

李春俭 庞欣 张福锁

(中国农业大学植物营养系农业部植物营养学重点开放实验室,北京,100094  )

摘要: 在营养液培养条件下,以根据相对产量为指标筛选出的6个不同磷效率的小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)品种为材料,对其苗期在缺磷条件下生长、根冠磷含量及其分配,以及叶片韧皮部汁液中磷浓度等进行了比较研究.结果表明,缺磷抑制植株地上部生长,但刺激根系生长,导致植株根/冠比增加.无论在供磷或缺磷条件下,磷高效品种的根冠生长速率都低于磷低效品种.缺磷导致植株体内的磷含量下降与根系相比,地上部磷含量的下降速率更快.但在缺磷条件下,不同磷效率的小麦品种根冠间的磷分配变化没有差异.研究发现,在正常供磷条件下,磷高效小麦品种的叶片韧皮部汁液中磷浓度较低,而磷低效品种的叶片韧皮部汁液中磷浓度较高.但开始缺磷后,磷高效品种的叶片韧皮部汁液中的磷浓度下降较慢,使其相对磷浓度较高.缺磷后1 0天,磷低效品种叶片韧皮部汁液中的磷浓度为供磷对照的35.9%,而磷高效品种叶片韧皮部汁液中的磷浓度为供磷对照的59%.

关键词:磷效率;缺磷;小麦

通讯作者。E-mail :<lichj@ maul.cau.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1526)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between PSⅡExcitation Pressure and Content of Super High-Yielding Hybrid Rice
Author: OU Zhi-Ying, PENG Chang-Lian*, LIN Gui-Zhu, YANG Cheng-Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 929-935
      
    

The changes in photochemical features of PhotosystemⅡ(PSⅡ) and contents of Rubisco large subunit (RLS) and small subunit (RSS) in flag leaf from 75DAS to 113DAS (from filling to harvesting stages) were investigated in two hybrid rices (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Liangyoupeijiu and cv. Shanyou 63 grown in the field. Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yielding rice and Shanyou 63 has widely been planted in China in these years. The results indicate that soluble protein and chlorophyll in both cultivars degraded slowly at first and dramatically thereafter. The degradation speed of soluble protein in Shanyou 63 was faster than that in Liangyoupeijiu. Both Fv/Fm and qP decreased in parallel with leaf senescence, whereas qN fell at first and then rose. No significant change in excitation pressure (1-qP ) was found before 89DAS but a sharply increase in both cultivars after it occurred. Excitation pressure rose more rapidly in Shanyou 63 than that in Liangyoupeijiu. The changes of RLS and RSS content exhibited the same trend as that of soluble protein content. A better linear correlation between RLS, RSS degradation and elevation of (1-qP ) were shown in both cultivars. We suggest that the increase in PSⅡ excitation pressure possibly induced the quick senescence process in rice flag leaf. The high-yielding of Liangyoupeijiu may be due to its maintenance of stronger photosynthetic capacity, longer and more stable photosynthetic functional du-ration than that of Shanyou 63.

超高产水稻剑叶衰老过程中PSII激发压与Rubisco大、小亚基含量的相关性

欧志英 彭长连 林桂珠 阳成伟

(中国科学院华南植物研究所,广州市510650)

摘要: 研究了大田生长条件下两系超高产杂交水稻(Oryza sativa L.)“两优培九”和我国大面积推广的三系杂交水稻“汕优63”从灌浆期到收获期剑叶PSⅡ光化学特性和Rubisco大、小亚基含量的变化。结果表明:可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量随剑叶生长时间的延长先缓慢下降,后期有一个快速降解的过程,“汕优63”降解的速率高于“两优培九”;Fv/Fm和qP都呈下降的趋势,qN则是先降然后上升。激发压(1-qP)在前期的变化较为平稳,后期则急剧增加,“汕优63”较“两优培九”增加快。Rubisco大、小亚基的含量与叶绿素、可溶性蛋白含量一样在前期下降比较慢,后期也有一个快速降解的过程,“汕优63”比“两优培九”降解快。激发压的增加与Rubisco大、小亚基的降解呈显著的线性相关性。我们推测PSⅡ激发压的急剧增加可能诱发了水稻剑叶的快速衰老过程。“两优培九”高产的重要生理原因之一,可能是它比“汕优63”有更强的光合能力并能维持更持久和较高的光合功能期。

关键词:激发压,水稻,剑叶,Rubisco,衰老
通讯作者。E-mail:<pengchl@ scib.ac.cn>。
Abstract (Browse 1553)  |  Full Text PDF       
Subcellular Distribution of Cadmium in Mining Ecotype Sedum alfredii
Author: NI Tian-Hua, WEI You-Zhang*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 925-928
      
    

The mining ecotype Sedum alfredii Hance could tolerate and grow normally in a nutritive solution containing cadmium (Cd) as high as 400 µmol/L. Under such a high Cd concentration, the subcel-lular accumulation of Cd in root, stem and leaf of this plant was found to be the highest in the cell wall, less in the soluble fraction and lowest in the cell organs. The mode of subcellular distribution of Cd in the mining ecotype S. alfredii was similar to other hyper accumulators of heavy metals, in which Cd was distributed more in the aerial part of plant. The results suggest that the mining ecotype S. alfredii is a new species of Cd hyperaccumulator.

镉在东南景天中的亚细胞分配

倪天华 魏幼璋

(浙江大学华家池校区环境资源学院,杭州310029)

摘要:采用差速离心技术,比较研究了Cd在矿山生态型东南景天(Sedum alfredii Hance)根、茎、叶中的亚细胞分布.结果表明:矿山生态型东南景天对Cd具有很好的忍受耐和累积能力,非矿山生态型东南景天则不具有这种能力.Cd在矿山生态型东南景天根、茎、叶各部分的亚细胞分配满足F1(细胞壁部分)>F3(可溶部分)>F2(细胞器及膜)规律,且Cd在细胞壁部分的分配占绝对优势;同时矿山生态型东南景天地上部有很好的Cd累积能力.与众多超累积植物相似的Cd亚细胞分配规律和地上部的良好的Cd累积能力.对此植物的Cd亚细胞分布完全不同于非矿山生态型东南景天的情况作了比较分析,结果显示矿山生态型东南景天很可能是一种新的镉超累积种质资源.

关键词: 镉;东南景天;亚细胞分配

通讯作者。Tel:0571-86971907;E-mail:<yzhwei@ zju.edu.cn>。

 

Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Primary Succession of Algal Community Structure in Desert Soil
Author: HU Chun-Xiang, LIU Yong-Ding*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 917-924
      
    

The microbiotic crust study is among new focuses in investigating on the desertification control. Based on determination of algal crusts with different successive ages (4-, 8-, 17-, 34-, 42-year-old) and unconsolidated sand in the desert area, species composition and clustering analyses were carried out in this study. Results on successional orientation revealed that (1) the abundance of Cyanophyta, spe-cially of Scytonema javanicum gradually decreased; (2) the abundance of Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and a species of Cyanophyta, Phormidium tenue increased; (3) the biodiversity increased gradually with the community succession; and (4) biomass of microalgae increased at the early stage, but decreased at the later stage due to the abundance of lichens and mosses. But, the speed of natural succession was so slow that the community-building species was still the first dominant species after 42 years, except that its dominant degree decreased just slightly. However, successive speed and trend were affected by water, vegetation coverage, terrain, time and soil physico-chemical properties as well, especially Mn content in the soil appeared to have a threshold effect.

荒漠土壤藻群落结构的原生演替

胡春香 刘永定

(1.西北师范大学生命科学学院,兰州 730070;2.中国科学院水生生物研究所,武汉430072)

摘要: 微生物结皮是荒漠化治理中新的热点之一,但其关键形成生物--微型藻类如何通过群落结构的变化向地衣结皮、藓类结皮转变的机理仍是未知的.本文以时空替代法,将沙坡头流沙,4、8、17、34及42龄结皮当作同一群落演替进程中的6个阶段,通过系统聚类、丰分量分析的方法首次对这一问题进行了研究,结果显示该地荒漠藻群落的原生演替朝着蓝藻总丰度和爪哇伪枝藻(Scytonema javanicum)丰度逐渐下降,纤细席藻(Phormidiumtenue)、绿藻、硅藻丰度逐渐增加的方向进行;多样性随群落演替的发展而增高;生物量在初期呈正向演替,后期随地衣、藓类的入侵逐渐下降;演替速度非常缓慢,高龄结皮中的优势种仍是建群种,只是优势度略有下降;水分、植被覆盖、地形、时间,土壤理化性质都影响演替途径和速度,特别是Mn含量对演替有重要的阈值作用.

关键词: 荒漠土壤;藻类;群落结构;原生演替

通讯作者。E-mail:<liuyd@ ihb.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1667)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Record of Surface Sediments from Vertical Forest Zones of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China and Their Relations to the Modern Vegetation
Author: SUN Xiang-Jun, LUO Yun-Li*, TIAN Jun, WU Yu-Shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 910-916
      
    

Twenty-nine surface samples (mosses) from five vertical distribution vegetation zones in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China have been palynologically analyzed and the results were tested by correspondence analysis. The results show that, except a few samples, arboreal pollen is predominant in almost all pollen assemblages; Pinus and Betula are the main pollen types in quantities and they are found in all vegetation zones of Changbai Mountain. The highest pollen proportion of Pinus occurs in the mixed conifer and broadleaved forest where Pinus koraiensis is the main component; Betula pollen is found in high percentage in both subalpine B. ermanii forest and broadleaved deciduous forest predominated by Betula and Quercus ; in the former Betula pollen is accompanied by cold-tolerant shrub such as Rhodo-dendron ; whereas in the latter it appears a large amount of fern spores. Pollen assemblage of broadleaved deciduous forests is marked by high diversity and proportions of deciduous trees and a large number of fern spores. Subalpine conifer forest is distinguished by high percentage of Picea pollen. Although tree pollen is slightly dominated, very few or absent of fern spores and increasing of herb and small shrub pollen proportions, particularly predominance of Rhododendron in herbaceous pollen and occurrence of tundra indicator type—Dryas pollen distinguish pollen assemblages of alpine tundra.

东北长白山垂直林带下现代表土花粉与植被关系

孙湘君 罗运利 田军 吴玉书

(1.中国科学院植物研究所北京时间100093; 2.同济大学海洋地质教育部重点实验室,上海市200092)

摘要: 在长白山北坡5个垂直植被带的林下采集29个表土(苔藓)样品进行孢粉分析,同时将其结果作对应分析.结果表明,除个别样品,在长白山垂直植被带的孢粉组合中乔木花粉占优势,其中以松属和桦木属最多,在各植被带均有分布.松属花粉最高含量出现在以红松为主的针阔混交林带的孢粉组合中;桦木属花粉则大量见于亚高山岳桦林带和以栎桦为主的阔叶落叶林带,但前者伴有耐寒、早的小灌丛杜鹃花属花粉,而在后者中则见有大量蕨类孢子.阔叶落叶林带的孢粉组合是以类型多、百分含量高的落叶乔木花粉和大量蕨类孢子为特征.亚高山针叶林带的孢粉组合中出现数量众多的云杉属花粉.在高山苔原带孢粉组合中虽然乔木花粉略占优势,但极少或不见蕨类孢子,与其他植被带比较,草本植物和小灌丛花粉明鲜较多,其中杜鹃属花粉含量在草本中占优势,其中出现苔原带的指示花粉--仙女木属.

关键词: 长白山;现代表土花粉;中国东北

Abstract (Browse 1599)  |  Full Text PDF       
cpSSR: a New Tool to Analyze Chloroplast Genome of Citrus Somatic Hybrids
Author: CHENG Yun-Jiang, GUO Wen-Wu, DENG Xiu-Xin*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 906-909
      
    

Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers in Citrus were developed and success-fully used to analyze chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids. Twenty-two previously reported cpSSR primer pairs from pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were tested in Citrus, nine of which could amplify intensive PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. Chloroplast genome inheritance of Citrus somatic hybrids from nine fusions was then analyzed, and five of the nine pre-screened primer pairs showed polymorphisms by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results revealed the random inheritance nature of chloroplast genome in all analyzed Citrus somatic hybrids, which was in agreement with previous reports based on RFLP or CAPS analyses. It was also shown that cpSSR is a more efficient tool in chloroplast genome analyses of somatic hybrids in higher plants, compared with the conventional RFLP or CAPS analyses.

叶绿体SSR标记:柑橘体细胞杂种胞质遗传分析的一种新方法

程运江 郭文武 邓秀新
(华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室,武汉字430070

摘要:从水稻(Oryza sativa L.)、烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.)和黑松(Pinus thunbergii Parl.)等植物的22对叶绿体SSR引物中筛选出5对能用于柑橘叶绿体SSR分析的引物,应用这5对引物对9个组合的柑橘体细胞杂种的叶绿体遗传进行了分析。结果表明:这些组合再生的杂种中叶绿体都呈现随机分离,该现象与以前报道的RFLP分析结果一致,而且其可靠性已被CAPS分析所证实。表明柑橘叶绿体SSR同RFLP及CAPS一样可靠,并且更简单高效、易于操作,特别适合对柑橘等植物体细胞杂种进行早期胞质遗传组成分析。
关键词: 柑橘;体细胞杂种;微卫星序列;简单序列重复(SSP);叶绿体基因组
通讯作者。Tel:027-87281712;Fax:027-87280016;E-mail: <dxxwwlj@ public.wh.hb.cn>。
Abstract (Browse 1696)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Nitric Oxide on the Germination of Wheat Seeds and Its Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolisms Under Osmotic Stress
Author: ZHANG Hua, SHEN Wen-Biao* #, XU Lang-Lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 901-605
      
    

Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, on the germination and metabolism of reactive oxygen species were surveyed in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds. Germination of wheat seeds and even the elongation of radicle and plumule were dramatically promoted by SNP treat-ments during the germination under osmotic stress. Meanwhile, activities of amylase and EP were enhanced, thus leading to the degradation of storage reserve in seeds. After osmotic stress was removed, higher viability of wheat seeds was also maintained. In addition, the activities of CAT, APX and the content of proline were increased by SNP treatment simultaneously, but activities of LOX were inhibited, and both of which were beneficial for improving the antioxidant capacity during the germination of wheat seeds under osmotic stress. It was also shown that the increase of the activity of amylase induced by SNP in embryoless half-seeds of wheat in the beginning period of germination (6 h) might be indirectly related to GA3.

一氧化氮对渗透肋迫下小麦种子萌发及其活性氧代谢的影响

张华 沈文飚 徐朗莱

(南京农业大学生命科学学院,南京 210095)

摘要: 化氮供体硝普钠(Sodium nitroprusside,SNP)能明显地促进渗透胁迫下小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)种子萌发、胚根和胚芽伸长,提高萌发过程中淀粉酶和内肽酶的活力,加速贮藏物质的降解;胁迫解除后,仍能使种子维持较高的活力。此外,SNP还能显著诱导渗透胁迫下CAT、APX活力的上升和脯氨酸含量积累,抑制LOX活力,从而提高渗透胁迫下小麦种子萌发过程中抗氧化能力。进一步研究还发现,SNP诱导切胚半粒小麦种子萌发早期(6h)的淀粉酶活力上升可能与GA3无直接关系。
关键词: 一氧化氮;小麦种子萌发;渗透肋迫;贮藏物质降解;活性氧代谢;赤霉素

通讯作者。Tel: 025-4395057;E-mail:<wbshenh@ sohy.com>。

Abstract (Browse 3611)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of ε-Subunit of ATP Synthase in Higher Plant Chloroplast
Author: NI Zhang-Lin, SHI Xiao-Bing, SHEN Yun-Kang, WEI Jia-Mian*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 896-900
      
    

Theε-subunit is the smallest subunit of chloroplast ATP synthase, and is known to inhibit ATPase activity in isolated CF1-ATPase. As a result ε is sometimes called an inhibitory subunit. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, theε-subunit is essential for the coupling of proton translocation to ATP synthesis (as proton gate). The relation between the structure and function ofε-subunit of ATP synthase in higher plant chloroplast has been studied by molecular biological methods such as site-directed mu-tagenesis and truncations for C- or N-terminus ofε-subunit. The results showed that: (1) Thr42 ofε-subunit is important for its structure and function; (2) compared with theε-subunit in E.. coli, theε-subunit of chloroplast ATP synthase is more sensitive to C- or N-terminus truncations.

高等植物叶绿体A T P 合酶ε亚基的结构与功能

倪张林   石晓冰 沈允钢 魏家绵

(中国科学院上海生命科学研究院上海植物生理研究所, 上海 200032)

摘要: ε基是叶绿体ATP合酶最小的一个亚基,有阻塞ATP合酶的质子通道和抑制其水解ATP活力的两种功能.用定点突变和缺失等分子生物学方法对ε亚基的结构功能进行了研究,结果表明:ε亚基42位上的苏氨酸(Thr42)对维持其结构和功能都很重要.与大肠杆菌ATP合酶相比,叶绿体ATP合酶ε亚基C端和N端的氨基酸残基缺失对其结构功能的影响更为敏感。

关键词: 叶绿体;ATP合酶;ε-亚基;光合磷酸化;点突变;酵母双杂交

通讯作者。Tel:021-64042090 ext.4519;Fax:021-64042385;E-mail: <wjm @ iris.sipp.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1575)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Scheme of Vegetation Classification of Taiwan, China
Author: SONG Yong-Chang, XU Guo-Shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(8): 883-895
      
    

The complexity of natural conditions leads to the complexity of vegetation types of Taiwan of China, which has both tropical and cold-temperate vegetation types, and could be depicted as the vegetation miniature of China or even for the world. The physiognomic-floristic principle was adopted for the vegetation classification of Taiwan. The units of rank from top to bottom are: class of vegetation-type, order of vegetation-type, vegetation-type, alliance group, alliance and association. The high-rank units (class , order and vegetation-type) are classified by ecological physiognomy, while the median and lower units by the species composition of community. At the same time the role of dominant species and character species will also be considered. The dominant species are the major factor concerned with the median ranks (alliance group, and alliance) because they are the chief components of community, addition-ally their remarkable appearance is easy to identify; the character species (or diagnostic species) are for relatively low ranks (association) because they will clearly show the interspecies relation-ship and the characteristics of community. According to this principle, vegetation of Taiwan is classified into five classes of vegetation-types (forests, thickets, herbaceous vegetation, rock fields vegetation, swamps and aquatic vegetation) , 29 orders of vegetation-types (cold-temperate needle-leaved forests, cool-temperate needle-leaved forests, warm-temperate needle-leaved forests, warm needle-leaved forests, deciduous broad-leaved forests, mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests, evergreen mossy forests, evergreen sclerophyllous forests, evergreen broad-leaved forests, tropical rain forests, tropical monsoon forests, coastal forests, warm bamboo forests, evergreen needle-leaved thickets, sclerophyllous thickets, deciduous broad-leaved thickets, evergreen broad-leaved thickets, xerothermic thorn-succulent thickets, bamboo thickets, meadows, sparse shrub grasslands, savannahic grasslands, sparse scree communities, chasmophytic vegetation, woody swamps, herbaceous swamps, moss bogs, fresh water aquatic vegetation, salt water aquatic vegetation) and 53 vegetation-types. The main alliances of each vegetation-type are described.

台湾植被分类方案

宋永昌   徐国士

(1.华东师范大学环境科学系,上海 200062;2.东华大学自然资源管理研究所,台湾花莲974)

摘要: 的自然条件导致面积仅为36000多平办公里的台湾兼有热带和寒温带的群落类型,堪称中国乃至世界植被之缩影。它的植被分类也是对中国乃至世界植被分类的补充。台湾植被分类采用的是外貌-区系原则,分类单位和系统自上而下是:植被型纲、植被型目、植被型、群团组、群团和群丛。高级单位(植被型纲、植被型目和植被型)以群落的生态外貌为依据;中、低级单位主要依据种类组成,兼顾优势种和标志种的指示意义。在中级单位中(群团组、群团),重视优势种的作用,在低级单位中(群丛)更重视特征种(或标志种)的意义。按此原则将台湾植被划分为5个植被型纲(森林、灌丛、草本植被、岩原植被、沼泽和水生植被),29个植被型目(寒温性针叶林,凉温性针叶林,暖温性针叶林,暖性针叶林、落叶阔叶林、常绿阔叶落叶阔叶混交林、常绿苔藓林、常绿硬叶林、常绿阔叶林、热带雨林、热带季雨林海岸林、暖性竹林、常绿针叶灌丛、革叶灌从、落叶阔叶灌丛、常绿阔叶灌丛、刺肉灌从、竹灌丛、草甸、疏灌草地、干热旱生草地、岩屑堆稀疏群落、石隙植被、木本沼泽、草本沼洋、藓类沼泽、淡水水生植被和成水水生植被),53个植被型。列举了各个植被型中的重要群团。

关键词:植被分类,外貌-区系原则,外貌分类法,优势度类型,布朗-布朗凯分类法,台湾
 

 

Abstract (Browse 2040)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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