September 2003, Volume 45 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
A Novel Flavane from Carapa guianensis
Author: QI Shu-Hua, WU Da-Gang, MA Yun-Bao, LUO Xiao-Dong*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1129-1133
      
    

Seven compounds were isolated from the EtOH extraction of the twig of Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic methods, their structures were elucidated as (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″, 5″-di-O-methyl) gallate (1), (-)-catechin (2), sciadopitysin (3), cleomiscosin B (4), photogedunin (5), chisocheton compound F (6) and odoratone (7), respectively. Among them compound 1 was a new flavane, compounds 2-7 were firstly obtained from this plant, and compound 5 was assigned the 13C-NMR data for the first time.Compound 7 exhibited strong antifeedant activity against Pieris brassicae, and compound 2 exhibited moderate activity, while the n-BuOH portion showed weak activity.

酸渣树中一个新的黄烷类化合物
漆淑华 吴大刚 马云保 罗晓东
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所植物化学与西部植物资源持续利用国家重点实验室,昆明 650204)

摘要: 从酸渣树(Carapa guianensis Aubl.)枝条的乙醇提取物中首次分离到7 个化合物,通过波谱方法鉴定,
它们分别是:(-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″,5″-di-O-methyl) gallate (1)、(-)-catechin (2)、sciadopitysin (3)、
cleomiscosin B (4)、photogedunin (5)、chisocheton compound F (6)和odoratone (7)。其中,化合物1
为新黄烷类化合物,2~7 为首次从该植物中分离得到。补充了化合物5 的13C-NMR 谱数据。活性测定显示,化合物7 对大菜粉蝶(Pieris brassicae)三龄幼虫具有较强的杀虫活性,化合物2 有一定的活性,而正丁醇部分只有很弱的活性。
关键词: 酸渣树;楝科;(-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″,5″-di-O-methyl) gallate;杀虫活性

通讯作者。Tel: 0871-5223421; Fax: 0871-5150227; E-mail: <xdluo@mail.kib.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2279)  |  Full Text PDF       
Combination of Homoeologous Pairing Gene phKL and Ph2-deficiency in Common Wheat and Its Meiotic Behaviors in Hybrids with Alien Species
Author: LIU Deng-Cai*, ZHENG You-Liang, YAN Ze-Hong, ZHOU Yong-Hong, WEI Yu-Ming, LAN Xiu-Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1121-1128
      
    

The combined lines having both phKL and Ph2-deficiency were obtained in the genetic back-ground of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landrace. These lines had normal fertility. In the wheat combined lines ×Aegilops variabilis (or rye), a significant increase in the chiasmata of homoeologous pairing was shown by the phKL+Ph2- plants with respect to their phKL+Ph2 sibs, which indicates that Ph2-deficiency and phKL showed an additive effect on promoting pairing. The effects were shown in the increment of rod bivalents, ring bivalents and trivalents and reduction of univalents. Of which, reduction of univalents was mainly due to the increment of rod bivalents. The combined lines are probably more desir-able materials for alien gene transferring than phKL or Ph2- lines alone. In comparison with that of ph1b Ae. variabilis (or rye), phKL+Ph2-×Ae. variabilis (or rye) show higher (or similar) numbers of rod bivalents, while the total chromosome pairing level significantly reduced that ascribed to the decrement in ring bivalents and multivalents. These results probably indicate the different genetic mechanism for Ph1 and Ph2 or phKL on controlling homoeologous pairing.

p h K L 基因和P h 2 基因缺失重组体的创制及其与小麦外源物种
杂种的染色体减数分裂观察
刘登才  郑有良 颜泽洪 周永红 魏育明 兰秀锦
(四川农业大学小麦研究所,都江堰市 611830)

摘要: 以小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)双端体3DL 为细胞学标记,用具有phKL 基因的小麦地方品种“开县罗汉
麦”为受体连续回交,将促进小麦外源部分同源染色体配对的phKL 基因和Ph2 基因缺失重组在一起获得了重组体phKL + Ph2 -。这种重组体有正常的育性。与只有phKL 基因的小麦材料相比,重组体与外源物种Aegilopsvariabilis Eig.或黑麦(Secale cereale L.)杂种的部分同源染色体配对水平显著增加,表明Ph2 基因的缺失体与phKL 基因可能存在加性效应。部分同源染色体配对水平的增加表现在棒状二价体、环状二价体和三价体的数量变多而单价体数量减少。单价体的减少主要是由于棒状二价体的增加所造成的。在小麦外源遗传转移中,运用重组体phKL+Ph2 - 可能比单纯应用Ph2 缺失或phKL 基因材料更理想。当与具有ph1b 基因的材料比较时发现,重组体phKL+Ph2 - 与Ae. variabilis(或黑麦)杂种的部分同源染色体配对水平显著降低,这主要是由环状二价体和多价体的减少造成的,但是棒状二价体数量表现增加(与Ae. variabilis 杂种)或达到类似水平(与黑麦杂种),这一有趣的发现从表现型上证明了Ph1 基因与Ph2phKL 基因在诱导部分同源染色体配对时的遗传作用机制存在差异。
关键词: 小麦; 同源染色体配对; Ph 基因; 中期Ⅰ配对; 种间杂种
通讯作者。Tel: 028-87283949; Fax: 028-87271867; E-mail: <dcliu7@public.cd.sc.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2327)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Isogenic Lines of Morphological Markers in indica Rice
Author: ZENG Da-Li, QIAN Qian, DONG Guo-Jun, ZHU Xu-Dong, DONG Feng-Gao, TENG Sheng, GUO Long-Biao, CAO Li-Yong, CHENG Shi-Hua, XIONG Zhen-Min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1116-1120
      
    

A total of 28 accessions of rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasms were collected from International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippine and Gene Pool of China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI). These germplasms were attributed as a Donor Gene Pool, consisting of 27 diverse morphological marker lines with each having a unique valuable trait (gene), and the recurrent parent Zhefu 802, an early-season indica cultivar in South China in 1980s and 1990s. A set of 27 isogenic lines with 2-3 markers on every chromosome were obtained after more than 10 successive backcrosses. Moreover, 15 accessions of double-marker isogenic lines were developed by further pyramiding markers on the same chromosome. Key agronomic traits such as heading date, plant height, tillering number and panicle length in this set of lines were similar to that of Zhefu 802 except the marker traits.

籼稻标记性状等基因系的构建
曾大力 钱 前  董国军 朱旭东 董凤高 滕 胜 郭龙标
曹立勇 程式华 熊振民
(中国水稻研究所农业部水稻生物学重点实验室,杭州 3 1 0 0 0 6 )

摘要: 选用涉及水稻(Oryza sativa L.)全部12 条染色体的、表现简单遗传且易于识别的形态标记材料27 份,以早籼品种浙辐802 为轮回亲本,经10余次回交,转育成一套籼型标记等基因系。在此基础上,对同一染色体上的标记进行聚合,育成了15 份双标记等基因系。该套材料除所带标记性状外,生育期、株高、分蘖力和穗子大小等主要农艺性状与轮回亲本基本相仿。
关键词: 籼稻;农艺性状;形态标记;等基因系
通讯作者。 Tel:0571-63370537。

Abstract (Browse 2021)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological and Molecular Identification of Alien Chromatin in Giant Spike Wheat Germplasm
Author: DOU Quan-Wen, CHEN Pei-Du, XIE Jun-Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1109-1115
      
    

Alien chromosomes of twelve giant spike wheat germplasm lines were identified by C-banding, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). All lines showed a chromosome number of 2n=42, five of them carried both a pair of wheat-rye (Triticum aestivum-Secale cereal) 1BL/1RS translocation chromosomes and a pair of Agropyron intermedium (Ai) chromosomes, three carried a pair of Ai chromosomes only, three others carried a pair of 1BL/1RS chromosomes only, and one carried neither 1BL/1BS nor Ai chromosome. Further identification revealed that the identical Ai chromosome in these germplasm lines substituted the chromosome 2D of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), designated as 2Ai. The genetic implication and further utilization of 2Ai in wheat improvement were also discussed.

巨穗小麦种质中外源遗传物质的细胞遗传学和分子生物学鉴定
窦全文 陈佩度  解俊峰

(1.南京农业大学农业部作物细胞遗传重点实验室,南京 210095;2.中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008)
摘要: 利用C 分带、基因组原位杂交并结合分子生物学手段,对12 份巨穗小麦种质材料中的外源遗传物质进行了检测。结果表明,12 份材料染色体数均为42,其中5 份材料均具有一对小麦- 黑麦(Triticum aestivum -Secalecereal)1BL/1RS 易位染色体和一对中间偃麦草(Agropyron intermedium Garten)染色体、3 份材料只具有一对中间偃麦草染色体、3 份材料只具一对1BL/1RS 染色体、1 份材料无1BL/1RS 和中间偃麦草染色体。进一步细胞学分析表明,此中间偃麦草染色体代换了普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)中的2D 染色体,因其良好的同源补偿性,表示为2Ai。同时对2Ai 在巨穗小麦种质中存在的遗传学意义及小麦遗传改良中的应用进行了讨论。
关键词: 巨穗小麦种质;1BL/1RS;中间偃麦草;C - 分带;基因组原位杂交;特异序列扩增区域;随机扩
增多态DNA

通讯作者。Tel: 025-4396026; E-mail: <pdchen@njau.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Generating Marker-Free Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation with Double T-DNA Binary Vector
Author: ZHOU Hong-Yan, CHEN Song-Biao, LI Xu-Gang, XIAO Gui-Fang, WEI Xiao-Li, ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1103-1108
      
    

We have developed a double T-DNA binary vector system for generating selectable marker-free transgenic plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The double T-DNA binary vectors pDLBRBbarm which carried two independent T-DNAs, one containing a selectable marker nptⅡ gene and the other a bar gene, was constructed. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were then produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with this vector. Frequency of the primary transformants co-integrated with nptⅡ gene and bar gene was 59.2%. Segregation of two T-DNA regions was found in 3 out of 4 T1 lines from co-transformed T0 plants with nptⅡ and bar. PPT resistant and kanamycin sensitive plants were in approximate 19.5% of the T1 plants. The result indicated that this double T-DNA vector system could be a workable approach to generate transgenic plants free from selectable marker genes. Co-transformation of nptⅡ gene and bar gene to plants with mixtures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing single T-DNA vectors was also tested. Frequency of co-transformed plants was 20.0%-47.7% and relatively low as compared with that of double T-DNA vector system.

利用双T -D N A 载体系统培育无选择标记转基因烟草
周红艳 陈松彪 李旭刚  肖桂芳 魏晓丽 朱 祯1

(1.中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所, 北京 100101; 2.北京师范大学细胞研究所, 北京 100875)
摘要: 建立了一种利用双T-DNA 载体培育无选择标记转基因植物的方法。通过体外重组构建了双T-DNA 双元载体pDLBRBbarm。载体中,选择标记nptⅡ基因和另一代表外源基因的bar 基因分别位于2 个独立的T-DNA。利用农杆菌介导转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.),在获得的转化植株中,同时整合有npt Ⅱ基因和bar 基因的频率为59.2%。对4 个同时整合有nptⅡbar 基因植株自交获得的T1 代株系进行检测分析,发现在3 个T1 代株系2 个TDNA可以发生分离,其中约19.5% 的转基因T1 代植株中只存在bar 基因而不带选择标记nptⅡ。这一结果说明双TDNA载体系统能有效地用于培育无选择标记的转基因植物。研究还利用位于2 个不同载体上的nptⅡ基因与bar 基因通过农杆菌介导共转化烟草,获得共转化植株的频率为20.0% ~ 47.4%,低于使用双T-DNA 转化的共转频率。
关键词: 植物转化;无选择标记;双T-DNA 载体;烟草
通讯作者。 Tel(Fax): 010-64852890; E-mail: <zzhu@genetics.ac.cn>。

 

Abstract (Browse 2218)  |  Full Text PDF       
Identification of Wheat-Barley 2H Alien Substitution Lines
Author: YUAN Ya-Ping, CHEN Xiao, XIAO Shi-He, A K M R ISLAM, XIN Zhi-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1096-1102
      
    

The genetic constitution of fifteen materials derived from the cross wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring (CS))× barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. "Betzes ) was analyzed, and six disomic alien substitution lines were screened by GISH. The chromosome configurations in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphaseⅠ(PMCs MⅠ) of F1 from each disomic substitution line respectively crossed with double ditelocentric lines 2A, 2B and 2D of Chinese Spring were observed, and a set of wheat-barley disomic alien substitution lines 2H(A), 2H(B) and 2H(D) were obtained. The RFLP analysis with the probe psr131 on the short arm of wheat homeologous group 2 combining with four restriction enzymes were carried out. The results indicated that the probe psr131 could be used as molecular marker to tag the barley chromosome 2H. The barley chromosome 2H had good genetic compensation ability for wheat chromosomes 2B and 2D in vitality and other agronomic characters. The result of testing seed was that the wheat appearance starch quality had been changed from the half-farinaceous of CS to the half-cutin of substitution lines by transferring the barley chromosome 2H to wheat.

小麦-大麦2 H 异代换系的鉴定
原亚萍  陈 孝  肖世和  A.K.M.R.ISLAM  辛志勇
(1.中国农业科学院作物育种栽培研究所,农业部作物遗传育种重点开放实验室,北京 100081;
2.长春农牧大学,长春 130062; 3.澳大利亚阿德莱德大学植物科学系,澳大利亚)
 

摘要: 通过基因组原位杂交、重双端体测交及RFLP分析,解析了来自小麦品种 “中国春” (Triticum aestivum L. cv. “Chinese Spring” (CS))×大麦品种 “Betzes” (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. “Betzes”)杂种后代15份材料的遗传组成,鉴定出6个二体异代换系;对与 “中国春” 重双端体DDT2A、DDT2B及DDT2D测交的F1代花粉母细胞减数分裂中期染色体构型进行观察,同时以小麦第二部分同源群短臂探针psr131进行RFLP分析,鉴定出一套遗传稳定的小麦-大麦2H二体异代换系2H(A)、2H(B)和2H(D)。小麦第二部分同源群短臂探针psr131可作为追踪大麦2H染色体的RFLP标记。从代换系的生长势及其他农艺性状看,大麦2H染色体对小麦染色体2B和2D的补偿作用较好。通过考种观察到携带大麦a淀粉酶抑制蛋白基因的2H染色体导入小麦后,淀粉品质发生了改变,外观品质由原来“中国春” 的半粉质转变为代换系的半角质。
关键词: 小麦; 大麦; 代换系; 基因组原位杂交(GISH); RFLP

Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation, Expression Characteristics and Chromosomal Locations of Three cDNA Fragments Under Salt Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa)
Author: QIAN Qian, Seiji YANAGIHARA, TENG Sheng, ZENG Da-Li, ZHU Li-Huang, CHEN Shou-Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1090-1095
      
    

cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaves of a rice salt tolerance variety Tesan’ai 2 growing in solutions with 150 mmol/L NaCl for 3 h or without salt stress. Three salt-responsive cDNA clones, Ts1, Ts2 and Ts3 were isolated by differential screening. Northern blotting analysis showed that the transcription levels of Ts1 and Ts2 increased within 3 h salt stress and kept on increasing within 24 h, while the transcription level of Ts3 reached its peak within 3 h. Sequence analysis indicated that there were no homologies between the three cDNA clones and any known gene. The three cDNA clones were mapped using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from an indica variety ZYQ8, which was a salt tolerance parent of Tesan’ai 2, with a japonica variety JX17. Ts1, Ts2 and Ts3 were located on chromosomes 1, 3, and 7, respectively. It was noted that Ts1, Ts2, and Ts3 were in or near the regions of major or minor salt tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTLs), which were mapped in the same DH population in a parallel study.

水稻盐胁迫应答c D N A 的克隆、表达和染色体定位
钱 前 柳原城司 滕 胜  曾大力 朱立煌  陈受宜

(1.中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京 100101;2.中国水稻研究所农业部水稻生物学重点实验室,杭州 310006; 3. Okinawa Subtropical Station, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Ishigaki 907, Okinawa, Japan)


摘要: 从150 mmol/L 盐胁迫3 h 和没有胁迫的耐盐水稻(Oryza sativa L.)品种特三矮2 号叶片中提取mRNA,构建cDNA 文库。通过示差筛选,得到3 个盐胁迫应答cDNA 克隆Ts1、Ts2 Ts3。Northern 分析表明,3 h 的盐胁迫可使Ts1、Ts2 Ts3 的转录水平明显上升;3~24 h 期间,Ts1Ts2 的转录水平继续上升,而Ts3 的转录水平则下降。序列分析表明,这3 个cDNA 克隆与已知功能的基因没有同源性。利用特三矮2 号的耐盐亲本ZYQ8 和粳稻JX17 组合构建了DH 群体和分子标记连锁图谱,将Ts1、Ts2 Ts3 分别定位在第1、3 和7 染色体上。值得注意的是,Ts1、Ts2 Ts3 与用同一群体定位的主效和微效耐盐QTL 位于同一或相邻区域。
关键词: 水稻;示查筛选;盐胁迫应答基因;定位

通讯作者。Tel:010-64886859;E-mail:<sychen@genetics.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2018)  |  Full Text PDF       
Increasing Accumulation Level of Foreign Protein in Transgenic Plants Through Protein Targeting
Author: DENG Chao-Yang, Song Gui-Sheng, XU Jun-Wang, ZHU Zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1084-1089
      
    

Targeting of the synthesized polypeptide in the cells is an important research field in modern cell biology. Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (cpti ) gene has been modified and a fusion protein gene (sck) was produced by fusing a signal peptide sequence at cpti 5'' end and an endoplasm reticulum (ER) retention signal peptide at cpti 3'' end respectively. The signal peptide can direct the newly synthesized polypeptide into ER, while ER retention signal can make the protein retained in the ER and its derivative protein body. ELISA test indicated that the accumulation level of foreign CpTI protein in sck transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was two times higher than cpti transgenic tobaccos and some individuals were four times higher. At the same time, sck transgenic tobacco has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pest due to the increased accumulation level of foreign CpTI protein. The strategy of foreign protein targeting can be used to increase the accumulation level of foreign protein in transgenic plants and can be widely applied to other related research field in plant genetic engineering.

通过细胞内的靶向定位大幅度提高外源蛋白在转基因植株的积累水平
邓朝阳  宋贵生  徐军望 朱 祯

(中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京 1 0 0 1 0 1 )
 

摘要: 通过体外操作,对豇豆胰蛋白酶抑制剂(cpti)基因进行修饰,获得了一个融合蛋白基因(sck)。该基因是在
cpti基因的基础上,在其5'端添加了信号肽编码序列,在3'端添加了内质网滞留信号编码序列,旨在引导基因转译产物进入细胞内质网,并最终滞留在内质网及其衍生的蛋白体内。用sck基因转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum L.),对获得的转基因植株进行ELISA检测。结果表明,含有修饰基因的转基因烟草CpTI蛋白含量有明显提高,比转未修饰cpti基因烟草平均高出2倍,最高单株可达4倍以上,同时转基因植株的抗虫性也有了显著的提高。结果表明,采用外源蛋白靶向定位的策略,可大幅度提高外源蛋白在转基因植物细胞内的积累量,在植物基因工程研究中具有广泛的借鉴意义。
关键词: 靶向蛋白;内质网定位;修饰基因;豇豆蛋白酶抑制剂;转基因烟草;抗虫分析

通讯作者。 E-mail: <zzhu@genetics.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2133)  |  Full Text PDF       
Diurnal Changes of Rubisco and RCA Activities and Their Cellular Localization in Rice
Author: WANG Ni-Yan, JIANG De-An, HONG Jian, ZHANG Feng, WENG Xiao-Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1076-1083
      
    

The cellular localization of Rubisco and Rubisco activase (RCA) in rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica cv. Zhenong 952) leaf was investigated with immunogold-labeled electron microscope techniques on the basis of determining the diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco and RCA activities, and quantifying two enzyme contents in the leaf with immuno-diffusion method in order to understand why RCA activity decreased in the midday when its contents was high. The results showed that Rubisco mainly was located in chloroplast, and RCA were found both in chloroplast and mitochondria. The lowering of Rubisco in chloroplast as well as Rubisco activity at noon could be one of good reasons to explain the photosynthetic midday depression in leaf. The density of RCA in chloroplast reached the maximum at 14:00 and a valley at 11:00. The result much coincided with the activity of RCA in leaf. In mitochondria, the density of RCA changed abruptly in one day with the highest at 13:00 and it can well elucidate why the activities of Rubisco declined at noon when its amount was increasing. Therefore the cellular localization and/or distribution of Rubisco and RCA during a day is more important for Pn , Rubisco and RCA activities.

水稻Rubisco 和RCA 的日变化及其细胞定位
王妮妍  􊎠蒋德安  洪 健 􊎠张 峰  􊎠翁晓燕

(1. 浙江大学生命科学学院植物生理生化国家重点实验室, 杭州 310029;2.浙江大学生物技术研究所, 杭州 310029)
摘要: 采用免疫胶体金标记电镜技术对水稻(Oryza sativa subsp. indica cv. 浙农952)叶片中的Rubisco 及
其活化酶(RCA)进行细胞器定位和定量, 同时用免疫扩散法进行叶片含量分析, 研究了这两种酶含量及活力的日变化。结果表明Rubisco 主要分布于叶绿体,RCA 分布于叶绿体和线粒体中;光合速率(Pn)、Rubisco 初始活力和RCA活力与光合日变化密切相关;在光照最强的13 时, 出现光合“午休”, 叶绿体中Rubisco 的密度有一定程度降低,而全叶的总Rubisco 保持稳定, Rubisco 初始活力也有明显的“午休”, 这意味着体内Rubisco 的活力除受RCA 调节外, 可能还与叶绿体中Rubisco 的分布有关。RCA 活力变化与叶绿体中RCA 含量变化较为一致, 表明RCA 在叶绿体中的分布对调节其本身活力和Rubisco 活性有重要作用。
关键词: 日变化; Rubisco;Rubisco 活化酶(RCA);定位;叶绿体;线粒体

 通讯作者。 电话: 0571-86971381; E-mail: <dajiang@cls.zju.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2260)  |  Full Text PDF       
Expression of a Wheat S-like RNase (WRN1) cDNA During Natural- and Dark-induced Senescence
Author: CHANG Sheng-He, YING Jia, ZHANG Ji-Jun, SU Jun-Ying, ZENG Ya-Juan,TONG Yi-Ping, LI Bin, LI Zhen-Sheng*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1071-1075
      
    

An S-like RNase cDNA had been isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The transcription of WRN1 mRNA was down-regulated by natural- and dark-induced senescence. But it was not senile-tissue-specific. As the two key histidine residues were replaced, WRN1 may not be active as RNase. Southern blotting analysis showed that WRN1 exists as one of a small gene family in common wheat genome.

小麦类核糖核酸酶基因(WRN1)cDNA 在自然衰老和黑暗诱导衰老条件下的表达
常胜合  英 加  张吉军  苏俊英  曾雅娟  童依平  李 滨  李振声

(1.中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所,北京 100101;2.中国科学院生态环境研究中心,北京 100101)
摘要: 从普通小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)中分离了一个类核糖核酸酶(WRN1)基因的cDNA。WRN1的转录受自然衰老和黑暗诱导衰老的负调控。在幼嫩组织中WRN1也有表达。由于在两个保守的位置上组氨酸被替换,WRN1很可能已经失去了核糖核酸酶的活性。 Southern分析表明,在普通小麦基因组中,WRN1以一个小基因家族的形式存在。
关键词: 小麦类核糖核酸酶(WRN1);叶片衰老;普通小麦

通讯作者。E-mail:<zsli@genetics.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Violaxanthin Deepoxidase Activity and Unsaturation of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids in Indica and Japonica RiceUnder Chill and Strong Light
Author: JI Ben-Hua, CAO Yun-Ying, XIE Huan-Song, ZHU Su-Qin, MA Qiang, JIAO De-Mao*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1063-1070
      
    

To explore the differences of sesitivities to chill and strong light in indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa), the changes in unsaturation of thylakoid membrane lipids and xanthophyll cycle were studied under Chill condition and strong light. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids of thylakoid membrane lipids decreased and that of the saturated ones increased with the time of Chill- and strong lighttreatment, resulting in the reduction of the index of unsaturation of fatty acids (IUFA). The activities of violaxanthin deepoxidase (VDE), a key enzyme of xanthophyll cycle, also reduced. The content of violaxanthin (V) increased, and the contents of antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) decreased, the ratio of (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) decreased correspondingly. Arrhenius analysis showed that VDE was sensitive to both chill and unsaturation level of thylakoid membrane lipids. Correlation analysis showed that there was distinctly positive relationships between IUFA of thylakoid membrane lipids and the activity of VDE, Fv/Fm, and D1 protein content. Lower IUFA values, less fluidity and stability of thylakoid membrane lipids, lower VDE activity and (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) ratio were found in indica rice cv. Shanyou 63 than in japonica rice cv. 9516 under chill and strong light.

低温强光下籼粳稻紫黄质脱环氧化酶活性和类囊体膜脂不饱和度的变化
季本华  曹云英  谢焕松  朱素琴 马 强 焦德茂

(1.江苏农业科学院农业生物遗传生理研究所, 南京 210014;2.南通师范学院生命科学与技术系, 南通 226007)
摘要: 为了阐明籼稻(Oryza sativa L. spp. indica)、粳稻(O. sativa L. spp. japonica)对低温强光敏感性
的差异,着重研究了低温强光下水稻类囊体膜脂不饱和度与叶黄素循环的变化。随着低温强光处理时间的延长,类囊体膜脂不饱和脂肪酸含量降低,饱和脂肪酸含量增加,因而膜脂不饱和指数(IUFA)下降。同时,叶黄素循环的关键酶——紫黄质脱环氧化酶(VDE)活性降低,叶黄素循环组分中紫黄质(V)含量增加,而单环氧玉米黄质(A)和玉米黄质(Z)的含量减少,表现为(A+Z)/(A+Z+V)比值下降。Arrhenius分析证明,VDE对低温和膜脂不饱和度都敏感。相关分析表明,类囊体IUFA分别与VDE活性、(A+Z)/(A+Z+V)和D1蛋白量呈显著的正相关。与粳稻9516相比,籼稻汕优63类囊体膜的IUFA较低,低温下类囊体膜脂流动性和稳定性较差,VDE活性和(A+Z)/(A+Z+V)比值较低。
关键词: 类囊体膜脂;叶黄素循环;紫黄质脱环氧化酶;Arrhenius作图;水稻

通讯作者。E-mail: <photosyn@public1.ptt.js.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of Nitric Oxide on the Aging Process of Wheat Leaves
Author: TU Jie, SHEN Wen-Biao*, XU Lang-Lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1055-1062
      
    

When the first fully expanded leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings with two leaves were treated with different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mmol/L) of nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced by the lower concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mmol/L), but enhanced by the higher concentration of SNP (0.5 mmol/L). The protective effect of 0.1 mmol/L SNP was the most obvious. Furthermore, the treatment with 0.1 mmol/L SNP on the above seedlings until the fourth leaves were fully expanded attenuated the accumulation of H2O2, superoxide anion radical (O2-. ) and MDA, also counteracted the degradation of chlorophyll and soluble proteins, especially rubisco, both leading to the effective delay of aging process in wheat leaves. The effects of different SNP concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mmol/L) also displayed a dual role in an aging experiment of chloroplasts in vitro, one of which, 0.2 mmol/L SNP treatment, protected the membrane structure and attenuated the degradation of rubisco effectively. Based on the present results, it was inferred that lower concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) might play a role in delaying aging process in wheat leaves, i.e., might attribute to the decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the alleviation of further oxidative damage caused by ROS.

一氧化氮对小麦叶片老化过程的调节
屠 洁 沈文飚  徐朗莱
(南京农业大学生命科学学院,南京 2 1 0 0 9 5 )
 

摘要: 用不同浓度(0.05、0.10、0.20、0.50 mmol/L)的外源一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)供体硝普钠(sodiumnitroprusside,SNP)处理正常生长小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)叶片(二叶一心期时全展第一叶)。结果显示低浓度SNP(0.05、0.10、0.20 mmol/L)可以明显降低叶片H2O2 和MDA 的水平,其中0.10 mmol/L SNP 的作用最为明显;而较高浓度SNP(0.50 mmol/L)则作用相反。进一步采用0.10 mmol/L SNP 处理不同叶位的小麦叶片(四叶一心期),结果表明低浓度NO 对不同老化阶段中叶片的H2O2、O2-.和MDA 累积都有缓解作用,并明显减缓叶绿素、可溶性叶蛋白尤其是Rubisco 的降解,有效延缓了叶片的老化进程。在完整叶绿体体外老化实验中也发现,不同浓度SNP(0.05、0.10、0.20、0.50、1.00、5.00 mmol/L)的作用同样表现双重性,其中0.20 mmol/L SNP 对膜结构及Rubisco保护作用最明显。上述结果证实,低浓度外源NO可延缓小麦叶片的老化过程,并可能与其降低叶片活性氧(ROS)水平及缓解氧化损伤有关。
关键词: 一氧化氮;小麦叶片;老化;活性氧

通讯作者。 Tel: 025-4396671; Fax: 025-4396671; E-mail: < wbshenh@sohu.com>。

Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characterization of Endopeptidases in Wheat Leaves During Dark-induced Senescence
Author: RUI Qi, XU Lang-Lai*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1049-1054
      
    

The characterization of senescence-associated endopeptidase (EP) isoenzymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Yangmai 158) leaves during dark-induced senescence was performed. It was found that there was much higher endoproteolytic activity in dark-induced wheat leaves than in control. Six endopeptidase isoenzymes (EP1-EP6) were identified by natural gradient杙olyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) co-polymerized gelatin in the gel, five of which (EP1, EP2, EP4, EP5 and EP6) were only detected in senescing leaves. Treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) delayed the expression of these EP isoenzymes and abscisic acid (ABA) accelerated it. The activity of EP3 could be detected at a wider range of pH and temperature levels while EP4, EP5 and EP 6 could be only detected at pH 4-5 and 30 45 ℃, EP1 and EP2 at pH 3 5 and 30 ℃ 45 ℃. All of the EP isoenzymes showed high thermal stability, especially EP3, EP5 and EP6 which still had activities even by incubation at 55 ℃ for 1 h. By using different class-specific inhibitors, EP1 and EP2 were characterized as metal-dependent cysteine-proteases, EP4 as a serine-protease.

小麦叶片暗诱导衰老期间内肽酶的特性
芮 琪 徐朗莱
(南京农业大学生命科学学院, 南京210095)
 

摘要: 研究了小麦 (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yangmai 158)叶片暗诱导衰老期间内肽酶同工酶的变化及其部
分生化特性,发现叶片衰老期间,内肽酶活性升高,同时出现5种新的内肽酶同工酶(EP1、EP2、EP4、EP5、EP6)。6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)处理能延缓这些同工酶的出现,而脱落酸(ABA)处理则加速它们的表达。衰老期间小麦叶片内的6种内肽酶同工酶(EP1-EP6)中的EP1、EP2、EP4、EP5、EP6呈现活性的pH及温度范围较窄,而EP3有活性的pH范围和温度范围均较宽,且EP3在嫩叶、老叶中均有活性。另外,EP3、EP5、EP6对热不太敏感。蛋白酶抑制剂实验表明,EP1、EP2 是需金属离子的半胱氨酸型内肽酶,EP4是丝氨酸型内肽酶。
关键词: 内肽酶;叶衰老;小麦

Abstract (Browse 1991)  |  Full Text PDF       
Crystal Growth of Nitrogenase CrFe Protein and MnFe Protein in Space
Author: ZHAO Ying, ZHAO Jian-Feng, LÜ Yu-Bing, HUANG Ju-Fu, WANG Yao-Ping,
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1043-1048
      
    

Nitrogenase CrFe protein and MnFe protein were purified from a mutant strain UW3 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann grown on a medium containing Cr and Mn, respectively. In order to meet the requirement for crystal growth of O2-susceptible proteins including nitrogenase in space, crystalliza-tion conditions were optimized for the proteins using a simple and suitable device, as a replacement for the cumbersome anaerobic box (dry box), for anaerobic addition of the protein samples. In all used precipitant and protein solutions added in the simplified plexi glass box, CrFe protein and MnFe protein could be crystallized on the spacecraft in one week by the liquid/liquid diffusion method and vapor diffusion by the sitting drop method, respectively. All formed crystals were single on the spacecraft, but under the same condition twin crystals appeared on the ground. The size of the largest crystal grown in space from CrFe protein was 2-fold larger than that on the ground by the liquid/liquid diffusion method. But the size of the largest crystal grown in space from MnFe protein was not larger than that on the ground by the sitting drop method. The difference in crystal growth in space between CrFe protein and MnFe protein could be resulted from the crystallization method, rather than the kind of protein.

固氮酶CrFe 蛋白和MnFe 蛋白的空间晶体生长
赵 颖  赵剑峰 吕玉兵  黄巨富 王耀萍 仓怀兴  毕汝昌

(1.中国科学院植物研究所光合作用与环境分子生理学重点实验室,北京100093;
2.中国科学院生物物理研究所,北京100101)
 

摘要: 从分别生长于含Mn和Cr培养基中的棕色固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann)突变种UW3分离纯化出MnFe和CrFe蛋白。为适应包括固氮酶在内的氧敏感蛋白的空间晶体生长的要求,应用简易而适用的厌氧加样装置代替固氮酶实验室所用的笨重厌氧箱(dry box),在地面进行厌氧加样。在充满氮气的简便有机玻璃箱内厌氧加样的所有样品中,分别用液/液扩散法和汽相扩散的坐滴法都可在一周内使MnFe和CrFe蛋白在宇宙飞船上从溶液中结晶出来。在所用的数种蛋白沉淀剂中,飞船上形成的所有晶体都为单晶,而地面上在多数沉淀剂中都生成大量孪晶。在相同沉淀剂中用液/液扩散法,飞船上生成CrFe蛋白的最大晶体比地面生成的最大晶体大1倍。而在相同沉淀剂中用汽相扩散的坐滴法,飞船上生成的MnFe蛋白最大晶体却没有地面生成的最大晶体大。这种差异也许是由不同结晶方法而不是不同蛋白所引起的。
关键词: 棕色固氮菌(Azotobacter vinelandii) UW3;氧敏感蛋白;固氮酶MnFe蛋白和CrFe蛋白;空间晶体生长

Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phosphorus Starvation-induced Expression of Leaf Acid Phosphatase Isoforms in Soybean
Author: TIAN Jiang, LIAO Hong, WANG Xiu-Rong, YAN Xiao-Long*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1037-1042
      
    

Leaf acid phosphatase (APase) activities of 274 soybean genotypes were surveyed under field conditions with two levels of P supplies, and a nutrient solution culture experiment with eight selected genotypes was subsequently conducted under greenhouse conditions to further characterize APase activity and its isoform expression induced by P starvation. Results from the field experiment showed that there was a great genotypic variation for leaf APase activity among the tested soybean genotypes from different origins, and APase activity in many of the tested genotypes (about 60%) was generally increased in the treatment without P fertilizer addition. Results from the nutrient solution culture experiment showed that APase activity in all the eight tested genotypes was generally enhanced by P starvation. Six isoforms of APases were detected in isoelectric focusing gels with samples from both young and old leaves. The activity of all the six isoforms was increased by P starvation, but no new APase isoform was induced. Our results suggest that leaf APase activity could serve as an enzymatic indicator of P starvation for soybean; the increase in leaf APase activity under low P stress was mainly caused by the increase in the activity of existing isoforms but not by the induction of new isoforms.

磷胁迫诱导大豆叶片酸性磷酸酶同工酶的表达
田 江 廖 红 王秀荣 严小龙
(华南农业大学植物营养遗传研究室根系生物学研究中心,广州 510642)


摘要: 通过田间试验对两种磷处理的274个大豆基因型叶片酸性磷酸酶活性进行筛选,并将其中8个进行营养液栽培试验以研究磷胁迫对其叶片酸性磷酸酶同工酶表达的影响。结果表明,大豆叶片酸性磷酸酶活性存在着明显的基因型差异,不施磷处理提高了大部分(约60%)供试基因型叶片酸性磷酸酶的活性。营养液栽培试验表明,低磷处理普遍提高了所有8个供试大豆基因型叶片酸性磷酸酶的活性。等电聚焦电泳结果表明,供试大豆基因型的老叶和新叶中均有6条酸性磷酸酶的同工酶带。低磷处理显著增加了叶片酸性磷酸酶酶带的活性,但是没有诱导新的酸性磷酸酶酶带产生。研究发现叶片酸性磷酸酶活性可作为反映大豆磷胁迫的酶学指标;磷胁迫诱导大豆叶片酸性磷酸酶活性的增加是由于已有同工酶活性的提高而不是由于特异性酶带的产生。
关键词:酸性磷酸酶活性;磷胁迫;等电聚焦;酸性磷酸酶同工酶;大豆

通讯作者。 Tel: 020-85283380;E-mail: <xlyan@scau.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 1993)  |  Full Text PDF       
Growth Response and Metal Accumulation of Sedum alfredii to Cd/Zn Complex-Polluted Ion Levels
Author: YE Hai-Bo, YANG Xiao-E, HE Bing, LONG Xin-Xian, SHI Wei-Yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1030-1036
      
    

Sedum alfredii Hance has been identified as a new Zn-hyperaccumulator native to China. In this study, responses and metal accumulation of S. alfredii were examined under Zn/Cd complex polluted conditions. The results showed that optimal growth of S. alfredii in terms of the maximum dry matter yield was observed at Zn/Cd complex level of 500/100 祄ol/L. Plant cadmium (Cd) or zinc (Zn) concentrations increased with increasing Cd or Zn supply. During the 20 d treatment, the highest Cd concentration in the leaves reached 12.1 g/kg at Zn /Cd level of 50/400 祄ol/L and that of Zn in the stems was 23.2 g/kg at Zn/Cd level of 1 000/50 祄ol/L. The distribution of Cd in different plant parts decreased in the order: leaf > stem≥ root, whereas that of Zn was: stem > leaf ≥ root. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in the shoots and roots of S. afredii increased with the increasing of Zn/Cd supply levels, peaked at Zn/Cd levels of 250/400 and 500/100 祄ol/L, respectively. The highest Cd and Zn uptake by the shoots was approximately 5 and 11 mg/plant, and was over 20 and 10 times higher than those in the roots, respectively. Zn supply at levels ≤ 500 祄ol/L increased plant Cd concentrations, whereas high Zn supply decreased root Cd but did not affect leaf Cd concentrations in S. alfredii. Low Cd supply increased Zn concentration in the leaves, but Cd supply higher than 50 祄ol/L considerably reduced root Zn concentrations, especially at low Zn level. These results indicate that S. alfredii can tolerate high Zn/Cd complex levels and has an extraordinary ability to hyperaccumulate not only Zn but also Cd. It could provide a new valuable plant material for understanding the mechanisms responsible for co-hyperaccumulation of Zn and Cd as well as for phytoremediation of the Cd/Zn complex polluted soils.

东南景天对锌、镉复合污染的反应及其对锌、镉的吸收和积累特性
叶海波  杨肖娥  何 冰  龙新宪  石伟勇
(1.浙江大学环境与资源学院, 杭州 310029;2.广西大学农学院, 南宁 530005)


摘要: 东南景天(Sedum alfredii Hance)已被鉴定为一种中国原生的新的锌超积累植物。 本文主要研究了锌(Zn)、镉(Cd)复合处理水平对东南景天的生长及其对锌、镉的吸收积累特性的影响。 结果表明,在Zn/Cd复合水平为500/100 μmol/L时,植物生长最佳。Zn/Cd在东南景天叶片、茎部和根系中含量随着Zn/Cd处理水平的提高而增高。在Zn/Cd 复合水平为50/400 μmol/L时茎叶中Cd含量达最高,其中叶片Cd含量达12.1 g/kg;在Zn/Cd 复合水平为1 000/50 μmol/L时茎叶中Zn含量达最高, 其中茎中Zn含量达 23.2 g/kg。 植株各部位Cd含量的分布为:叶片>茎>>根系,而Zn在体内的分布为: 茎>叶片>>根系。 Zn、Cd在地上部和根部的积累量也随着处理水平的提高而增加,分别在Zn/Cd复合水平为250/400和500/100 μmol/L下达高峰值。 东南景天地上部积累最高Zn和Cd的量分别达11和5 g/plant, 其比根系的积累量分别大10和25余倍。 Zn、Cd对东南景天的生长、吸收积累的相互作用依赖于Zn/Cd复合水平和植物部位。 在适宜Zn/Cd 处理水平范围内,Zn和Cd的吸收和积累具有相互促进作用。 高Zn或高Cd处理均抑制了植物对Zn和Cd的吸收和积累。 本研究结果表明,东南景天不仅具有忍耐高Zn/Cd复合污染,而且具有超量积累Zn和Cd的特异能力。 它为进一步研究植物Zn、Cd超积累的机理和Zn/Cd复合污染土壤的植物修复提供了一种新的材料。
关键词: 复合污染; 镉; 锌; 超积累; 东南景天

通讯作者。 E-mail: <xyang@zju.edu.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2591)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Soil Respiration in Two Grass-Dominated Communities in the Xilin River Basin: Correlations and Controls
Author: ZHANG Yan, LI Ling-Hao, WANG Yan-Fen, TANG Fang, CHEN Quan-Sheng, YANG Jing, YUA N Zhi-You, DONG Yun-She
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1024-1029
      
    

A comparative study of soil respiration was conducted between in a semi-arid steppe community and in a wet meadow community in the Xilin River Basin of Nei Mongol. The seasonal pattern, the climatic controls, and the correlations of soil respiration with plant biomass components were examined for each community. The main results are reported as follows: (1) The seasonal changes in soil respiration in the two communities had similar dynamic patterns (both being of two peaks), ranging from 312.8 to 1 738.9 mg C·m-2·s-1 and from 354.6 to 2 235.6 mg C·m-2·s-1 in the growing season for the steppe plot and the meadow plot respectively. The soil respiration rate of the meadow plot was distinctly higher than that of the steppe plot, with the daily averages being 1 349.6 mg C·m-2·s-1 and 785.9 mg C·m-2·s-1 respectively. (2) The correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture was much more significant than with temperature for the steppe community, and being on the contrary for the meadow community, reflecting the different effects of the two climatic factors in different habitats. Based on these regressive relations, the total CO2 efflux rate in the growing season in 2001 was estimated as 142.4 g C/m2 in the steppe plot, and 236.1 g C/m2 in the meadow plot. (3) There was no evident relation between the total canopy biomass and CO2 evolution rate, but a significant power function relation between the live canopy biomass and CO2 evolution rate in the meadow plot was detected. In the steppe plot, there existed only a weak relation between soil respiration and either live or total canopy biomass.

锡林河流域两类植物群落土壤呼吸特征的比较
张 焱  李凌浩 王艳芬 唐 芳  陈全胜  杨 晶  袁志友  董云社

(1.中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室,北京 100093; 2.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101)


摘要: 采用碱液吸收法对锡林河流域一个半干旱典型草原群落的土壤呼吸进行了5个月的野外测定,并对其与气候因子和生物量之间的关系进行了分析。另选择了锡林河岸边的一个沼泽化草甸群落作为对比来研究土壤湿度和植被类型对土壤呼吸的影响。主要结果包括:1)两个群落土壤呼吸的季节动态基本一致,均出现了两个峰值,其中草原群落和草甸群落土壤呼吸速率的变化范围分别为312.8~1 738.9 mg C·m-2·d-1 和354.6~2 235.6 mg C·m-2·d-1。草甸群落的土壤呼吸速率明显高于草原群落,它们的日平均土壤呼吸速率分别为1 349.6 mg C·m-2·d-1和785.9mg C·m -2·d -1; 2)在草原群落中,土壤呼吸速率与土壤湿度的相关性比其与温度的关系更加显著,而在草甸群落正好相反, 反映出这两种气候因子在不同生境中起着不同的作用。根据土壤呼吸与气温之间的回归关系外推出2001年生长季草原群落和草甸群落的土壤呼吸量分别为142.4 g C/m2 和 236.1 g C/m2;3)在草甸群落中,地上总生物量与土壤呼吸速率之间没有显著的相关关系,而地上部活体生物量与土壤呼吸速率之间则存有很显著的幂函数关系。在草原群落中,土壤呼吸速率与地上活体生物量或地上总生物量的相关性均很弱。
关键词: 土壤呼吸;温度;土壤水分;地上生物量;典型草原;草甸

通讯作者。 E-mail:<LLinghao@ns.ibcas.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2353)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on Pollination Biology of an Endangered Orchid, Changnienia amoena, in Shennongjia
Author: SUN Hai-Qin, LUO Yi-Bo, GE Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1019-1023
      
    

Changnienia amoena Chien is a monotypic species and endemic to China, and was listed on the Chinese Red Book in 1992. The species was once abundant but has become rare and endangered in recent years because of the habitat fragmentation and unduly commercial collections. Previous observation showed that this species has very low and even no fruit set, and the pollinators are not observed before this report. The present observation was conducted at the Shennongjia, Hubei Province during the spring of 2002. The results showed that Bombus (Diversobombus) trifasciatus Smith¡, B. imitator Pittion and one species of Apis sp. visited the flowers of the orchid, but only B. trifasciatus could carry pollinaria on its body and was the legitimate pollinators of C. amoena. During 113 h of observation, only 9 visitations were recorded. The bumblebees mainly appeared during 12:00-15:00 during the day. Bumblebees stayed only a few seconds and never more than ten seconds in a flower. The flowers would persist in fresh about three weeks when they were not pollinated, but in three or four days after pollinated, the pollinated flowers underwent a series of color and morphological changes including stalk elongation and ovary swelling. Therefore, stalk elongation can be considered an index of fruits set. Artificial pollination indicated that C. amoena is a highly self-compatible and outcrossing species, but dependent on pollinators for fruit set. Based on these observations, we concluded that pollination system of C. amoena is deceptive. The fruit set in nature is not very low (26.98% on average) compared to other deceptive orchids, which may be related to small population sizes. The number of pollinia removal is much higher than that of fruit set, indicating that there are some degrees of pollinia wasting in C. amoena.

濒危植物独花兰的传粉生物学初步观察
孙海芹 罗毅波 葛 颂
(中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学重点实验室,北京 1 0 0 0 9 3)


摘要: 独花兰(Changnienia amoena Chien)为我国特有的单种属植物,近年因生境破碎化和过度采挖,其野生资源日渐减少。迄今对独花兰极为有限的研究表明,其结实率很低或根本不结实,其传粉媒介也一直未被发现。2002年3~4 月,我们对神农架2 个移植居群和5 个天然居群进行了传粉生物学的定点观察,发现雌性三条熊蜂(Bombus(Diversobombus) trifasciatus Smith)、仿熊蜂(Bombus (Tricornibombus) imitator Pittion)和蜜蜂均访问独花兰,但只有三条熊蜂身体粘有花粉块,是独花兰的有效传粉者。三条熊蜂的访问频率很低,在113 h的观察中只有9次访问,但在一个天然居群 (population 3) 中曾观察到一天4次的最高访问频率;访问主要在12:00~15:00出现,但在花上停留时间很短,不超过10 s。在未被授粉的情况下,独花兰花朵大约3周后自然枯萎,但受粉后3、4 d内即出现一系列形态和颜色的变化,包括花梗逐渐伸长,子房在花梗逐渐停止伸长后开始膨大等,表明花梗伸长可作为结实(授粉成功)的指标。人工授粉实验表明,自花、异花受粉后花梗均伸长,而套袋隔离花的则花梗不伸长,说明独花兰是自交亲和的异交种,需要昆虫传粉。根据传粉者的访问频率、居群中果实的分布,尤其是花距内无花蜜等特征,我们认为独花兰是一种欺骗性传粉的兰花。相对于其他欺骗性传粉的兰花,独花兰的自然结实率并不很低(26.98%),这与居群规模小会提高欺骗性传粉兰花结实率这一观点吻合。花粉块的输出数远高于结实数,这说明独花兰存在一定的花粉浪费。
关键词: 独花兰;三条熊蜂;欺骗性传粉;长梗伸长

通讯作者。 E-mail: <gesong@ns.ibcas.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2497)  |  Full Text PDF       
Application of N: P Stoichiometry to Ecology Studies
Author: ZHANG Li-Xia, BAI Yong-Fei, HAN Xing-Guo*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(9): 1009-1018
      
    

Stoichiometry has long been addressed in the studies of ecosystem ecology, but it was almost ignored for a long time. Until recently, ecologists have become ware that stoichiometry could provide a new tool to study ecology from genes to the biosphere. Among this trend, N:P stoichiometry is used actively in ecological interactions since nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important elements in most ecosystems. This article reviews the application of N:P stoichiometry to the studies of ecological problems at different levels, including ecosystem, community and species. Meanwhile, we also provide the cellular basis of N:P stoichiometry, identify the shortages in the use of N:P stoichiometry theory, and put forward some perspectives for future research to be conducted.

N : P 化学计量学在生态学研究中的应用
张丽霞 白永飞 韩兴国
(中国科学院植物研究所植被数量生态学重点实验室, 北京 100093)


摘要: 化学计量学很早就被应用于生态学研究中, 但长期以来几乎被生态学家所忽视。近年来, 由于认识到化学计量学研究可以把生态实体的各个层次在元素水平上统一起来, 因此元素化学计量学成为近年来新兴的一个生态学研究领域。氮磷作为植物生长的必需矿质营养元素和生态系统常见的限制性元素, 在植物体内存在功能上的联系, 二者之间具有重要的相互作用。近年来由于人类活动的强烈影响, 这两种元素的循环在速度和规模上都发生了前所未有的改变, 导致一系列环境问题的出现, 因此N:P化学计量学研究就显得极为重要。本文论述了N:P化学计量学在物种、群落、生态系统等各层次的应用现状, 同时从分子生物学角度分析了应用N:P化学计量学的可行性, 并指出了N:P化学计量学研究的应用前景和存在的缺陷。

关键词: 营养相互作用;营养动态;生态相互作用;限制性养分

通讯作者。E-mail: <xghan@ns.ibcas.ac.cn>。

Abstract (Browse 2162)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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