October 2003, Volume 45 Issue Suppl.

 

          Research Articles
Advances in Phytoecology in China i. Progress in Plant Population Ecology During the Last Decade in China
Author: WANG Ren-Zhongㄛ LIU Xiao-Qiangㄛ MA Ke-Ping炙
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    Studies on plant population ecology have greatly expanded in China during the past decade. Most of the studies were focused on the traditional population demography, life history patterns, genetic diversities, adaptations and population dynamic modeling. The most outstanding trait in the studying progress of plant population ecology in past ten years was to cross and mergence with other relevant biological disciplines, as well as to apply the theories and study methods of the other disciplines in plant population researches. In addition, there has been a trend in transforming the study of population demography into testing population changes mechanisms in plant population studies.
Abstract (Browse 1983)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Plant Resource Conservation in China:Sustainable Development of Plant Resources in China
Author: LI Zhen-Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    China is one of the richest developing countries in biodiversity in the world. Plant resources play an important role in its economic development. China has 43 000 known plant species; among them many are endemic genera or species that form a unique flora. The history of using plant resources in China can be traced up to the New Stone Age. Through their long-term cultivation, Chinese people have bred important plants such as rice, common buckwheat, soybean, tea, peach, persimmon, and created the refulgent agriculture civilization. Since the 1980s, under the influence of ※nature regression§, research on medicine, perfume, pigment, sweetness additive, agricultural medicine plants, as well as plant gum''s wild vegetables, wild fruits and wild flowers, has greatly advanced, paving the way for better use of plant resources. In the 20th century, due to plant resources overuse and increased habitat fragmentation, many species went extinct and can now only be seen in literature. For example, 物Dalbergia sacerdotum物 has disappeared for one century. The wild ancestor, Yinpingmudan, of 物Paeonia suffruticosa物''s 〞 has only two individuals left. Like many other developing countries, plant resources in China have been threatened by vegetation destruction, environmental pollution and biological invasion. In this paper, some proposals concerning sustainable development of plant resources in China are provided.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Plant Structural and Reproductive Biology in China: A Survey of Progress Made in the Field of Plant Structural and Reproductive Biology in the Past Ten Years in China
Author: LIN Jin-Xing, Sodmergen, SUN Meng-Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    Plant structural and reproductive biology is a principal division of plant science, about which several papers have been published dealing with its research history and development in China. This paper presents a survey of progress made by Chinese researchers in the past 10 years, focusing on main achievements in this field contributed by 26 laboratories of 11 universities and four institutes of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Moreover, the problems of resisting this discipline from fast development have also been analyzed.
Abstract (Browse 1842)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Biotechnology and Plant Cell Biology in China j. Advances in Research and Development of Plant Genetic Engineering in China
Author: XIAO Xing-Guo, BAI Shu-Nong, QI Dong-Mei, LIU Gong-She
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    A great progress has been made in the research and development of plant genetic engineering in China since last decade. Diverse methods and systems for gene transfer into plants have been developed and optimized, and the research emphasis has been shifted from establishment of the genetic transformation system to introduction of genes responsible for new economic and/or agronomic trails into targeted plants. More than 145 genes, single or combined, have been transferred into no less than 90 crop species including rice, wheat, maize, rape, soybean, cotton, etc., and expressed in the transgenic plants. More than 90% of the genes used were of economic and/or agronomic importance and distributed in nine major sections: pest-resistance, disease56-resistance, stress-resistance or tolerance, herbicide-resistance, quality and productivity improvement, artificial male sterility, factory plant (bio-reactor), environment protection and GMO safety. Up to now, 10 species of transgenic crops have been released to environment testing and 4 to commercial production. The total commercially cultivated area of transgenic crops reaches 1 500 000 ha/year, which takes the 5th position in the world. Based on these progresses, prospective achievements for next five years in the research and development of plant genetic engineering are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2003)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Biotechnology and Plant Cell Biology in China i. A Brief Survey of the Plant Cell Biology and Cell Engineering in China
Author: LIU Gong-Sheㄛ BAI Shu-Nong, XIAO Xing-Guo, SHU Qing-Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    A brief retrospect on the development and main achievement at the field of plant cell biology and cell engineering in China was given in this review. During the last decade Chinese scientists built up notable contributions to the flourish of the theoretical study of cell biology. Especially, the study of cell signal transduction resulted in the discovery of G-protein and its function. In the field of plant cell engineering, Chinese scientists put great efforts on expression of cell totipotency at the level of plant species, organ, tissue, cell and chromosome, among which some special research work such as the technique of isolation of sexual cells, regeneration of sexual organs, design of the N6 basal medium and large scale production of medicaments via cell culture were accepted or referenced by the international colleagues.
Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Phytoecology in China k. Progress in Plant Molecular Ecology in China During the Last Decade
Author: WEI Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    The birth of the journal of Molecular Ecology in 1992 symbolized the beginning of a new discipline, the molecular ecology. Earlier than that, many Chinese scientists who have involved in the study of genetic diversities had also initiated great interests in molecular ecology. This review provided progress in six aspects of studies that covered nearly all investigation areas in molecular ecology during the past ten pears. The main aspect of study was on population and conservation genetics that covered more than half of academic researches achieved in China. The plant species investigated included cultivated, wild and endangered plants. Study on phylogeography, speciation and hybridization and that on kinship, parentage and breeding system had been paid enough attention. In contrast, there were fewer studies on ecological genetics and molecular adaptation. Since the latter is the main interests of most ecologists and also a priority research topic of molecular ecology, it should be strengthened by intimate collaborations between ecologists and molecular biologists. Although there were quite a number of studies on ecological effects of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), yet their ecological nature was usually being ignored as there were fewer ecologists involved in such study at present. It was proposed that investigation on the interaction between GMOs/other organisms with known genetic characters and environment would probably unveil the gene (genome) function in respect to ecology and in turn would promote the advance of molecular ecology in theory.炊
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Palaeobotany in China炊l. Metasequoia, a Living Fossil Plant
Author: LIU Yan-JuㄛLI Cheng-Sen, WANG Yu-Fei, Nan Crystal ARENS
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    Some less-known facts on living fossil plant〞Metasequoia are introduced as related to its discovery and contributions human beings had made to Metesequoia*s save on earth. The update research progress of this plant is also provided.
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Palaeobotany in China炊k. Advances on Cenozoic Plants in China
Author: WANG Yu-Feiㄛ LI Cheng-Senㄛ SUN Qi-Gaoㄛ GENG Bao-Yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    This paper gives a brief review on the research history of Cenozoic plants in China and introduce some important advances on both fossil plant biology and palaeoclimate reconstruction within the recent decade.炊
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Palaeobotany in China﹛j. Investigation on Fossil Filicopsida in the Past Seventy Years in China
Author: DENG Sheng-Hui狀, LI Cheng-Sen炙
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    The history of fossil Filicopsida investigation in China can be divided into three stages: (1) The stage of primarily studies on fossil ferns (1930-1949). Chinese palaeobotanists, instead of foreigners, began to study fossil plants including ferns in China. (2) The stage of morphological description of fossil ferns (1950-1989), during which a great number of megafossils of Filicopsida were found from all over China in various geological ages and described morphologically. Some important research works were published in the 1980''s and some dealt with the anatomic features of fossil ferns. (3) The stage of anatomic and reproductive 版researches牧 on fossil ferns (1990-), with studies focusing mainly on the taxonomic, anatomic and reproductive aspects. The microstructures and ultrastructures of the rhizomes, stems and especially the reproductive organs are examined under a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The present paper is a brief review of the main progress of the investigation on the fossil Filicopsida in China during the past 70 years.炊
Abstract (Browse 1940)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Palaeobotany in China炊i. Origin and Early Evolution of Lycophytes
Author: LI Cheng-Sen, GENG Bao-Yin, Francis M. HUEBER
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    The new concept of lycophytes (sense lato) is introduced in this paper, and includes zosterophyllophytes and lycopsids (sense stricto). The Lycophytina contains two classes: Zosterophyllopsida and Lycopsida. Recent researches on the origin and early evolution of lycophytes are also explained.炊
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Some Plant Groups in China k. Progress of the Bryology in China (1993-2003)
Author: JIA Yu狀, WU Peng-Cheng炙
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    The authors try to give a brief review to the research on bryology in China in recent ten years. The study on the taxonomy of bryophytes, one of the main branches of bryology, has nowadays approached international level. Meanwhile, other fields of bryology such as morphology, cytology, palaeobotany, pollen, phytochemistry and ecology are being introduced to China, and the Chinese bryologists have obtained many new achivements on the above fields. The research on the molecular systematics, however, is still very weak in China, we should pay great attention to it. Concerning the future prospects, we suggest three urgent research orientation.炊
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Some Plant Groups in China j. Advances in Research and Conservation of Cycads in China
Author: CHEN Jia-Rui, LI Nan狀
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    Cycads are an ancient lineage of seed plants that appeared ca. 320 million years ago. They are highly valuable to horticulture, and are extensively cultivated. As a result of over-collecting for flower market, as well as habitat destruction, cycad plants have become threatened and endangered species. Since the founding of Cycad Society of China subordinating to Botanical Society of China in 1994, research and conservation of cycads in China has been rapid and fruitful and the major achievements are summarized as follows: (1) Since 1992, much field work has been carried out in China. Now, ca. 24 species have been recognized in China (but only 7 species in 1978). In particular, significant discoveries of 物Cycas multipinnata物 and 物C. debaoensis物 with tripinnately compound leaves have demonstrated that Chinese cycads are extremely diverse and interesting. Chinese cycads account for ca. 25% of the total known species, and represent 4 out of the 5 sections in the genus. (2) A series of studies on cycads in China have been undertaken in regards to taxonomy, ecology, paeleobotany, anatomy, and cytology. (3) The Fourth International Conference on Cycad Biology was successfully held in Panzhihua, Sichuan under the auspices of Cycad Society of China in May 1996. (4) There has been a new classification system of 物Cycas物 proposed by D.Y. Wang (1996, 2000) principally based on seed structure. (5) CHEN Chia-Jui 物et al.物 (2003) first made comments on 物Epicycas物 de Laubenfels (1998) and 物Dyerocycas物 Nakai (1943), and expounded their generic concept of Cycadaceae. They pointed out that 物Epicycas物 must be a superfluous and illegitimate name, and 物Dyerocycas物 should be reset as a section of 物Cycas.物 (6) The Panzhihua Cycad reserve and 物ex situ物 Cycad Conservation Center in Shenzhen Fairy Lake Botanical Garden have been launched. In the first ten years of 21th century, it is necessary to constantly link our research closely with the nalional cycad protection engineering project in China and to carry out more comprehensive field studies as well as multi-disciplinary comprehensive studies on cycads.
Abstract (Browse 2286)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Some Plant Groups in China炊i.A Retrospect and Prospect of Orchidology in China
Author: CHEN Sing-Chi, LUO Yi-Bo炙
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    China is rich in orchid resources and has a long history of orchid appreciation and cultivation. In Chinese ancient literary and artistic works, one can find orchid names as early as about 10th-6th century B. C., orchid paintings in the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1 127) and orchid monographs in the 13th century. Some recent investigations revealed that the cultivation of cymbidiums in China began in the late Tang Dynasty between 860 and 890 A. D. rather than in Confucious times.炙 The first scientific name assigned to Chinese orchids was by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum (1753). Since then many European botanists paid attention to Chinese orchids. Among them R. A. Rolfe, R. Schlechter and recently G. Seidenfaden and P. Cribb are particularly praiseworthy. Their works are considered to be indispensable references until today.炙 In China, H. H. Hu was the first botanist to make a special study on Chinese orchids in 1925, closely followed by S. S. Chien, C. L. Tso, T. Tang and F. T. Wang in the 1930s. After that T. Tang and F. T. Wang continued to study the orchids of China and neighboring areas for decades of years and published many valuable works. They laid a solid foundation for an understanding of the orchid flora of China.炙 At the beginning, the research work was concentrated on the collection, identification and classification of orchids, and then the compilation of the Orchid Flora of China (Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae: Orchidaceae). As a result, a large number of orchid specimens were collected, and nearly ten thousands of colored photographs were taken, and on this ground many books and articles have been published, including three volumes of the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (vol. 17-19).炙 Floristic and phytogeographical studies on orchids were made in some areas or mountain chains, such as Sichuan, Xizang (Tibet), Taiwan, Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan and the Hengduan Mountains. The main achievements include: marking the northern and western limits of lithophytic orchids in China, which almost correspond to those of subtropics; proposing a line, called Kaiyong-Line, separating the Sino-Himalaya and Sino-Japanese Subkingdoms in Sichuan Province; putting forward a suggestion to treat Taiwan as a subdivision of the Malay Subregion of Paleotropical Region floristically; and making a proposal that the proportion of the epiphytic orchid genera amounting to 50% of the total orchid genera might be considered as a symbol of tropical flora.炙 Working on micromorphology of orchids began in the eighties of the last century in China. Nearly 150 species belonging to 40 genera of orchids have been studied cytologically, palynologically, anatomically, embryologically and physiologically. Most of them are natives of China, such as the species of 物Dendrobium, Cymbidium, Bletilla, Vanda, Pleione, Cypripedium. Hemipilia, Neottianthe, Gastrodia, Anoectochilus, Phaius物 and 物Paphiopedilum.物 Only a few are introduced taxa or hybrids, mostly in 物Vanilla, Phalaenopsis, Epidendrum, Cattleya物 and 物Oncidium.物炙 Orchids relate to a thriving industy. Great attention has long been paid to their micropropagation in China. The experiments in tissue culture, seed germination and seedling culture have succeeded in many genera, such as 物Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Anoectochilus, Spathoglottis, Doritis, Vanilla, Phalaenopsis, Cattleya物 and 物Epidendrum.物 Artificial hybrids have been bred in 物Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Phaius物 and 物Calanthe.物 However, a lot of work was done more scientifically than commercially. Only few hybrids have been found in markets.炙 Cymbidiums are among the best of the favorable ornamental orchids in China. In recent years, several hundreds of 物Cymbidium物 plantations, as well as much more private yards, have been set up in China mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Decades of popular books on their cultivars have been published, and the orchid exhibitions are held frequently. Although it is beneficial to millions of orchid amateurs, many species of 物Cymbidium物 have become seriously endangered or quite rare.炙 As a kind of folk drugs, 物Gastrodia elata物 Bl. was used in China some 2 000 years ago, and still occupies an important place in traditional Chinense medicine today. A comprehensive study has been made on this species. Its micropropagation, cultivation and production have succeeded by adding 物Mycena osmundicola 物Lange to its seeds, and then 物Armillariella mellea物 (Vahl. ex Franch.) Karst. to its protocorms.炙 In China, orchid microrrhizae have been studied of 44 species belonging to 20 genera, such as 物Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Bulbophyllum, Liparis, Vanda, Vandopsis, Eria,物 etc. Altogether 13 genera of fungi have been isolated and identified: 物Ceratorhiza, Epulorhiza, Moniliopsis, Fusarium, Mycena, Cylindrocarpon, Myceliophthoreae, Cephalosporium, Ceratorhiza, Chromosporium, Rhizoctomia, Gloiocladium物 and 物Pestalotina.物 The symbiotic germination and growth between 物Gastrodia elata物 and fungi, especially 物Mycena物 and 物Armillariella,物 have been closely investigated.炙 Chinese botanists began to work on pollination biology of orchids in the 1990s. Some species of 物Satysium, Hemipilia, Changnienia, Holcoglossum, Cypripedium物 and 物Paphiopedilum物 have been observed, but only two articles have been publis hed on 物Hemipilia物 and Changnienia until recently. 物Hemipilia flabellate物 Bur. et Franch. was reported relying on deception to attract visitors. Its flowers are similar to those of 物Ajuga forrestii物 Diels (Labiatae). The latter appears to be the main or exclusive subsidiary nectar source for the pollinators.炙 Recently great attention has been paid to orchid conservation in China. General policies have been carried out and some efforts have been made to improve the situation. This is in fact a complicated problem, not only depending on education and economic development, but also to a large extent on the biological characters of the orchids themselves. It needs a comprehensive study of ecology, population biology, pollination biology, breeding biology and other biological branches. In recent years, studies have been made on some species of 物Changnienia, Tangtsinia, Paphiopedilum物 and 物Cypripedium.物 However, we still face having little or limited knowledge of the plants themselves, particularly the biological factors that cause orchids to be endangered.炙 China has made good progress in orchidology since the twenties of the last century. Looking forward to the future, the main target is to make scientifically further and comprehensive studies on those taxa endemic or subendemic to China or distributed mainly in China, and commercially applied studies on those of ornamental or medicinal significance. Among the most important genera, for example, are 物Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, Cypripedium, Cymbidium, Pleione, Holcoglossum, Anoectochilus物 and some taxa in subtribe Orchidinae and those introduced from abroad. Of course, more international collaboration will be needed in the future.炊
Abstract (Browse 4976)  |  Full Text PDF       
Advances in Phytoecology in China炊j. Advances in Plant Synecology in China
Author: MI Xiang-Cheng, MA Ke-Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2003 45(Suppl.)
      
    Several aspects of research advances in plant synecology in China were summarized, including pattern and process, species diversity and mechanism of stability, species coexist and biological invasion, community dynamics and succession. The current advances and trends in the research of plant synecology were also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2116)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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