January 2005, Volume 47 Issue 1, Pages 2-123.

Cover Caption:
A flower of rice fon3 mutant without palea and lemma. (See the text by Li JIANG et al. on pages 100-106)


          Research Articles
Loss of Genetic Diversity of Domesticated Panax notoginseng F H Chen as Evidenced by ITS Sequence and AFLP Polymorphism: A Comparative Study with P. stipuleanatus H T Tsai et K M Feng  
Author: Shi-Liang ZHOU, Gao-Ming XIONG, Zhong-Yi LI and Jun WEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00013.x
    In the present study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Panax notoginseng F H Chen, a domesticated species, and P. stipuleanatus H T Tsai et K M Feng, an endangered wild species in southeastern Yunnan and adjacent areas in Vietnam, using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twenty-four accessions from three plantations of P. notoginseng and 51 samples from eight populations of P. stipuleanatus were assayed. A total of 694 bp of partial sequences of 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and partial sequences of 26S were obtained. No sequence variation was detected within P. notoginseng and nine sites (1.30%) were variable in P. stipuleanatus. Two-thirds of the variable sites were found between Langqiao and other populations. In P. notoginseng, four pairs of AFLP primer combinations generated 312 bands, of which 240 (76.9%) were polymorphic and 60.15% of the polymorphisms were harbored within plantations. Approximately 41.0% and 66.9% of bands were polymorphic in population D7 and 5589, respectively. In P. stipuleanatus, the same four primer combinations produced 346 bands, of which 334 (96.5%) were polymorphic and approximately 62.14% of polymorphisms were maintained within populations. Considerable variations were observed. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 50.2% to 84.9% and the average over populations was 70.9%. Cluster analysis did not show correlation of genetic differentiation with the distinctive leaf morphology of P. stipuleanatus (i.e. one form with bipinnatifid leaflets and the other with undivided leaflets). Because over 40% of genetic variations were maintained among populations and because of the very restricted distribution of P. stipuleanatus, all natural populations of this species should be conserved in situ. Considering that there are variations in P. notoginseng within and among plantations, we suggest establishing a genetic resource conservation garden or reintroducing P. notoginseng into its native habitats in southwestern China. Such reintroduction should be carefully executed after large-scale screening of genetic variation within the species.
Abstract (Browse 3842)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Spiraea japonica L. f. var. fortunei (Planchon) Rehd.  
Author: Li-Ming FAN, Hong-Ping HE, Yue-Mao SHEN and Xiao-Jiang HAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00007.x
    Two new hetisine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids named spiraqine (1) and 6-hydroxylspiraqine (2), and four known alkaloids, namely spiredine (3), spiradine A (4), spiradine B (5), and spirasine V/VI (6), were isolated from Spiraea japonica L. f. var. fortunei (Planchon) Rehd. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC) and mass spectrometry data.
Abstract (Browse 3281)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Triterpenes from the Orchid Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe  
Author: Zhi-Ming BI, Zheng-Tao WANG and Luo-Shan XU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00001.x
    Two novel triterpenes (1 and 2) were isolated from the orchid Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe. Using chemical and spectral analyses (UV, IR, MS,1D-NMR and 2D-NMR), these two triterpenes were established as 25-methylenecyclopholidonyl p-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate (1; named pholidotine A) and 25-methylenecyclopholidonyl p-hydroxy-cis-cinnamate (2; named pholidotine B).
Abstract (Browse 3379)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization of the Rice Floral Organ Number Mutant fon3  
Author: Li JIANG, Qian QIAN, Long MAO, Qing-Yuan ZHOU and Wen-Xue ZHAI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1): 100-106
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00017.x
    A spontaneous rice mutant named floral organ number 3 (fon3) had major mutations in floral organ numbers. Genetic analysis indicated that fon3 acted as a single recessive gene. Microscopic observation showed that the number of floral organs in fon3 increased centripetally. For example, the number of pistils was the more frequently increased than organs in the outer whorls. Homeotic conversion of lodicules and glumes into palea/lemma-like organs was observed in some flowers. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the size of flower meristems was maintained the same or similar until the lemma primordium started to differentiate, at which time the floral meristem became enlarged, suggesting abnormal development of the inner whorls of rice florets. The relationship of fon3 with other similar rice mutants is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 4591)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
OsHT, a Rice Gene Encoding for a Plasma-Membrane Localized Histidine Transporter  
Author: Di LIU, Wei GONG, Yong BAI, Jing-Chu LUO and Yu-Xian ZHU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00016.x
    Using a degenerative probe designed according to the most conservative region of a known Lys- and His-specific amino acid transporter (LHT1) from Arabidopsis, we isolated a full-length cDNA named OsHT (histidine transporter of Oryza sativa L.) by screening the rice cDNA library. The cDNA is 1.3 kb in length and the open reading frame encodes for a 441 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 49 kDa. Multiple sequence alignments showed that OsHT shares a high degree of sequence conservation at the deduced amino acid level with the Arabidopsis LHT1 and six putative lysine and histidine transporters. Computational analysis indicated that OsHT is an integral membrane protein with 11 putative transmembrane helices. This was confirmed by the transient expression assay because the OsHT-GFP fusion protein was, indeed, localized mainly in the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Functional complementation experiments demonstrated that OsHT was able to work as a histidine transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that OsHT is a gene that encodes for a histidine transporter from rice. This is the first time that an LHT-type amino acid transporter gene has been cloned from higher plants other than Arabidopsis.
Abstract (Browse 3567)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization Between Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L.  
Author: You-Ping WANG, Karin SONNTAG, Eicke RUDLOFF and Jian-Min CHEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00009.x
    Electrically induced protoplast fusion was used to produce somatic hybrids between Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L. Seven hybrids were obtained and verified by the simple sequence repeat and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis of the gene fae1, indicating that the characteristic bands from S. alba were present in the hybrids. The hybridity was also confirmed by chromosome number counting because the hybrids possessed 62 chromosomes, corresponding to the sum of fusion-parent chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at meiosis was predominantly normal, which led to high pollen fertility, ranging from 66% to 77%. All hybrids were grown to full maturity and could be fertilized and set seed after self-pollination or back-crosses with B. napus. The morphology of the hybrids resembled characteristics from both parental species. An analysis of the fatty acid composition in the seeds of F1 plants was conducted and the seeds were found to contain different amounts of erucic acid, ranging from 11.0% to 52.1%.
Abstract (Browse 4366)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Subcellular Localization of the S Locus F-box Protein AhSLF-S2 in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Self-Incompatible Antirrhinum  
Author: Hong-Yun WANG and Yong-Biao XUE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00014.x
    The distribution of the S locus F-box (SLF) protein was examined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot techniques using an antibody against the C-terminal part of AhSLF-S2 in self-incompatible lines of Antirrhinum. Abundant gold particles were found where pollen tubes emerge in vitro. With the elongation of pollen tubes, binding sites for the antibody were found in the cytoplasm of the pollen tubes, including the peripheral part of the endoplasmic reticulum. After germination in vitro for 16 h, the product of AhSLF-S2 and possibly its allelic products could still be detectable, implying that the SLF protein has a role in the elongating process of pollen tubes. The present study provides evidence at the protein level that the SLF protein is present in pollen cytoplasm during pollen tube growth. These findings are discussed, as is their potential role in the self-incompatible response in Antirrhinum.
Abstract (Browse 3433)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cis- and Trans-Cinnamic Acids Have Different Effects on the Catalytic Properties of Arabidopsis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases PAL1, PAL2, and PAL4  
Author: Ming-Jie CHEN, Veerappan VIJAYKUMAR, Bing-Wen LU, Bing XIA and Ning LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00002.x
    Cis-cinnamic acid (CA) is a naturally occurring compound, presumably converted from trans-CA in higher plants. To investigate the effect of cis-CA on the activity of Arabidopsis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), AtPAL1, AtPAL2, and AtPAL4 genes were isolated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These genes were fused to a glutathione S-transferase gene and overexpressed in a heterologous prokaryotic system of Escherichia coli. The purified PAL1, PAL2 and PAL4 enzymes were characterized biochemically to determine the effects of cis-CA on the kinetic parameter Km. The results showed that cis-CA is a competitive inhibitor for PAL1, but not PAL2 and PAL4, whereas trans-CA acts as a competitive inhibitor for all three PAL isomers, suggesting that cis- and trans-CA have different effects on the catalytic activity of PAL.
Abstract (Browse 4338)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Purification, Biochemical and Immunological Characterization of Acid Invertases from Apple Fruit  
Author: Qiu-Hong PAN, Ke-Qin ZOU, Chang-Cao PENG, Xiu-Ling WANG and Da-Peng ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00018.x
    The soluble acid invertase (SAI) and cell wall-bound invertase (CWI) were purified from apple fruit to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. Based on sequencing, substrate specificity, and immunoblotting assay, the purified enzymes were identified to be two isoforms of acid invertase (b-fructosidase; EC The SAI and CWI have the same apparent molecular mass with a holoenzyme of molecular mass of 220 kDa composed of 50 kDa subunits. The SAI has a lower Km value for sucrose and higher Km for raffinose compared with CWI. These acid invertases differ from those in other plants in some of their biochemical properties, such as the extremely high Km value for raffinose, no hydrolytic activity for stachyose, and a mixed form of inhibition by fructose to their activity. The antibodies directed against the SAI and CWI recognized, from the crude extract, three polypeptides with a molecular mass of 50, 68, and 30 kDa, respectively. These results provide a substantial basis for the further studies of the acid invertases in apple fruit.
Abstract (Browse 3663)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Dormancy Breaking and Storage Behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. (Guttiferae) Seeds: Implications for Ecological Function and Germplasm Conservation  
Author: Yong LIU, Yu-Ping QIU, Ling ZHANG and Jin CHEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00010.x
    The dormancy breaking and storage behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. seeds were investigated. The seeds of G. cowa had 8C11 months dormancy in their natural habitat. Seeds were matured and dispersed at the end of the rainy season (mid-late August to late September) and were scatter-hoarded by rodents as food for winter after the seeds had fallen to the ground. Seedlings often emerged in the forest during the rainy season (May to August) the following year. Intact seeds of G. cowa failed to germinate after being sown at 30 C for 120 d and the mean germination time (MGT) of seeds cultured in a shade (50% sunlight) nursery was 252 d. The most effective method of breaking dormancy was to remove the seed coat totally, which reduced the MGT to 13 d at 30 C. Germination was also promoted by partial removal of the seed coat (excising the hilum and exposing the radicle) and chemical scarification (immersion in 1% H2O2 for 1 d). Unscarified seeds take up water rapidly in the first 96 h, but water was absorbed by the outside seed coat, without penetrating through it. The moisture content (MC) of G. cowa seeds was high (50% in fresh weight) at shedding. The seeds could tolerate desiccation to some extent, until the MC reached approximately 40%; below that, the viability decreases rapidly and all seeds died at approximately 17% of MC. Seed viability decreased rapidly when seeds were chilled at 4 C; germination was 2% after storage for 1 week. Even stored at 10 C, seeds began to be damaged after 4 weeks. Seed storage for 1 yr revealed that in both dry (relative humidity (35 5)%) and moist (wet sand) storage conditions, seed viability declined, but germination percentages for seeds stored under moist conditions are better than for seed stored under dry conditions. Because of their low tolerance to desiccation, marked chilling sensitivity and relatively short lifespan, G. cowa seeds should be classified into the tropical recalcitrant category. The ecological implications of dormant recalcitrant seeds and cues on storing recalcitrant seeds were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 4274)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Degradation of the Large Subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase in Wheat Leaves  
Author: Lie-Feng ZHANG, Qi RUI and Lang-Lai XU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00011.x
    The degradation of the large subunit (LSU) of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yangmai 158) leaves was investigated. A 50 kDa fragment, a portion of the LSU of Rubisco, was detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with antibody against tobacco Rubisco in crude enzyme extract of young wheat leaves. The appearance of the 50 kDa fragment was most obvious at 30C35 C and pH 5.5. The LSU and its 50 kDa fragment both existed when the crude enzyme extract was incubated for 60 min. The amount of LSU decreased with incubation time from 0 to 3 h in crude enzyme extract. However, the 50 kDa fragment could not be found any pH from 4.5 to 8.5 in chloroplast lysates of young wheat leaves. In addition, through treatment with various inhibitors, reactions were inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64 or leupeptin.
Abstract (Browse 3042)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Structure of the Phytoplankton Community and Its Relationship to Water Quality in Donghu Lake, Wuhan, China  
Author: An-Ping LEI, Zhang-Li HU, Jian WANG, Zhi-Xin SHI and Fung-Yee Nora TAM
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00020.x
    The phytoplankton community structure, in terms of species composition, total standing crop, and abundance of the dominant algal species, at four stations in Donghu Lake, Wuhan, China, was investigated monthly from January 1994 to December 1996. A total of 260 taxa was observed, of which Chlorophyta (106 taxa) contributed the highest portion of the total number of taxa, followed by Bacillariophyta (82 taxa) and Cyanophyta (32 taxa). The total standing crop measured by means of chlorophyll a content, cell density, and cell biovolume, as well as the abundance of the dominant species, declined in the order of Station I to Station IV. Seasonal changes of the standing crop varied greatly among the four stations. Although the cell density at the four stations showed a single peak within a year, the peak density varied from July to November, dependent on the sampling year and the station. For chlorophyll a content and cell biovolume, multiple peaks were observed at Stations I and II, but a single peak was found at Stations III and IV. The phytoplankton community structure indicated that the trophic status was the highest at Station I (most eutrophic), followed by Station II; Stations III and IV were the least trophic areas. The long-term changes in phytoplankton community structure further suggested that changes in phytoplankton community structure were correlated with water quality, and eutrophication of Donghu Lake had been aggravated since the 1950s.
Abstract (Browse 3616)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Fragmentation Effects on Diversity of Wasp Community and Its Impact on Fig/Fig Wasp Interaction in Ficus racemosa L.  
Author: Rui-Wu WANG, Cheng-Yun YANG, Gui-Fang ZHAO and Jun-Xing YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00003.x
    Habitat fragmentation usually results in alteration of species composition or biological communities. However, little is known about the effect of habitat fragmentation on the fig/fig wasp system. In this study, we compared the structure of a fig wasp community and the interaction between figs and fig wasps of Ficus racemosa L. in a primary forest, a locally fragmented forest and a highly fragmented forest. Our results show that, in the highly fragmented forest, the proportion of pollinator wasps is lower and the proportion of non-pollinator wasps is higher compared with the primary forest and locally fragmented forest. The proportion of fruits without pollinator wasps in mature fruits is also greatly increased in the highly fragmented forest. The proportion of galls in all female flowers increases in the highly fragmented forest, whereas the proportion of viable seeds does not change considerably. The disruption of groups of fig trees results in a decrease in pollinator wasps and even might result in the extinction of pollinator wasps in some extreme cases, which may transform the reciprocal interaction between figs and fig wasps into a parasite/host system. Such an effect may lead to the local extinction of this keystone plant resource of rain forests in the process of evolution, and thereby, may change the structure and function of the tropical rain forest.
Abstract (Browse 3750)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variations in the Volatile Organic Compound Emission Potential of Plant Functional Groups in the Temperate Grassland Vegetation of Inner Mongolia, China  
Author: Nian-Peng HE, Xing-Guo HAN and Qing-Min PAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00004.x
    The biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by the vegetation of a terrestrial ecosystem play a key role in both regional air quality and tropospheric chemistry. To describe the general emission properties of VOC of different plant functional groups (PFG) in a typical temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, we randomly selected 175 plant species and measured the quantities of isoprene and monoterpene in situ. Results showed that most plants had low VOC emission potential at the species level, especially for some dominant plants, such as Leymus chinensis Tzvel., Stipa grandis Smirn., and Agropyron cristatum Gaertn. At the PFG level, the lowest VOC emission potential was found for perennial rhizome grasses, a major PFG in a typical temperate grassland ecosystem. The effects of overgrazing and subsequent vegetation succession on the emission of VOC by different plant life form functional groups (PLFG) were also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3927)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pollen Morphology of Parnassia L. (Parnassiaceae) and Its Systematic Implications  
Author: Ding WU, Hong WANG, De-Zhu LI and Stephen BLACKMORE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(1): 2-12
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00008.x
    The pollen morphology of 28 species of Parnassia L. was investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The shape of pollen grains in this genus varies from subspheroidal to prolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in the polar view. Pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, tricolporate or syntricolporate, with reticulate sculpture. The pollen characteristics among species are fairly similar to each other. Morphological information regarding the pollen grains shows that Parnassia is a natural genus. Based on exine ornamentation observed under SEM, three types of pollen grains were recognized: (i) type I, with foveolate-reticulate sculpture; (ii) type II, with a finely reticulate sculpture; and (iii) type III, with a coarsely reticulate sculpture. Most sections of this genus have one type of sculpture of pollen morphology, but Sect. Nectarotrilobos has three types of sculpture and Sect. Saxifragastrum has two types of sculpture. All three types of sculpture can be found in Southwest China, with species with the longest (Parnassia delavayi Franch.) and shortest (Parnassia faberi Oliv.) colpi, implying that Southwest China is the center of diversification of the genus.
Abstract (Browse 4450)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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