October 2005, Volume 47 Issue 10, Pages 1153-1275.


Cover Caption:
Comparison of leaves and flowers between the wild type and transgenic 35S:: Pttkn1 petunia. The top left image shows a leaf and a flower with smooth margin and 5 red regular stripes from wild type petunia. The bottom right image shows a lobed leaf without petiole and a flower with serrated margin, irregular and increased red region, and spikes on its adaxial surface from the transgenic 35S::Pttkn1 petunia. See pages 1153-1158 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Ectopic Expression of the Pttkn1 Gene Induces Alterations in the Morphology of the Leaves and Flowers in Petunia hybrida Vilm.
Author: Xin HU, Qing-Feng WU, Ya-Hong XIE, Hong RU, Feng XIE, Xin-Yu WANG and Chong-Ying WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1153-1158
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00166.x
      
    A novel knotted1-like homeobox (knox) gene, Pttkn1 (Populus tremula℅tremuloides knotted1), isolated from the cambial region of hybrid aspen, was introduced into Petunia hybrida Vilm. using the leaf-disc method mediated by Agrobacterium. A series of novel phenotypes was observed in transgenic petunia plants, including the formation of ectopic spikes on the adaxial surface of corollas and small petals on the abaxial surface of corollas, fusion of floral organs, shortening of corolla midribs, the formation of tumor-like knots along the midrib on the abaxial surface and serrated lobs of corolla margins, and alterations in petal color; except for changes in the leaves and plant architecture, RT-PCR showed that the Pttkn1 gene was expressed in the leaves of different petunia transgenic plants, whereas no signal was detected in wild-type plants. The possible function of Pttkn1 in leaf and flower development is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3752)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Regulation Mechanisms of Stomatal Oscillation
Author: Hui-Min YANG, ﹛Jian-Hua ZHANG and Xiao-Yan ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1159-1172
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00146.x
      
    Stomata function as the gates between the plant and the atmospheric environment. Stomatal movement, including stomatal opening and closing, controls CO2 absorption as the raw material for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration. How to reduce water loss and maintain enough CO2 absorption has been an interesting research topic for some time. Simple stomatal opening may elevate CO2 absorption, but, in the meantime, promote the water loss, whereas simple closing of stomatal pores may reduce both water loss and CO2 absorption, resulting in impairment of plant photosynthesis. Both processes are not economical to the plant. As a special rhythmic stomatal movement that usually occurs at smaller stomatal apertures, stomatal oscillation can keep CO2 absorption at a sufficient level and reduce water loss at the same time, suggesting a potential improvement in water use efficiency. Stomatal oscillation is usually found after a sudden change in one environmental factor in relatively constant environments. Many environmental stimuli can induce stomatal oscillation. It appears that, at the physiological level, feedback controls are involved in stomatal oscillation. At the cellular level, possibly two different patterns exist: (i) a quicker responsive pattern; and (ii) a slower response. Both involve water potential changes and water channel regulation, but the mechanisms of regulation of the two patterns are different. Some evidence suggests that the regulation of water channels may play a vital and primary role in stomatal oscillation. The present review summarizes studies on stomatal oscillation and concludes with some discussion regarding the mechanisms of regulation of stomatal oscillation.
Abstract (Browse 3263)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl.
Author: Jing-Kui TIAN, Zhong-Mei ZOU, Li-Zhen XU and Shi-Lin YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1271-1275
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00110.x
      
    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., two new saponins, named capilliposide E (1) and capilliposide F (2), were isolated. The structures of the new saponins were elucidated as 3汕, 22汐-dihydroxy-16汐-acetat-28↙13-lactone-oleanane-3-O-[汕-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↙2)-汐-L-arabinpyranoyl]-22-O--D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3汕, 22汐-dihydroxy-16汐-acetat-28↙13-lactone-oleanane-3-O-{[汕-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↙2)-汕-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↙4)]-汐-L-arabinpyranoyl}-22-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 3269)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China
Author: Zai-Quan CHENG, Xing-Qi HUANG, Yi-Zheng ZHANG, Jun QIAN, Ming-Zhi YANG, Cheng-Jun WU and Jia-Fu LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1260-1270
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00130.x
      
    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O. rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (㊣ SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ㊣ 0.6)%, (16.3 ㊣ 1.1)%, and (15.3 ㊣ 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis III originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%每50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%每209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%每17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%每158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits, especially high protein and ideal amylose content, of Yunnan wild rice species may be useful in improving the nutritional value of rice. This is the first report regarding the amino acid, mineral element, protein and amylose content of husked seeds of some Yunnan wild rice species that have important genetic characteristics for rice quality and nutritional value.
Abstract (Browse 3455)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Functional Analysis of Nodulin-like Promoter in Transgenic Cotton Plants  
Author: Mao-Zhi REN, Quan-Jia CHEN, Li LI, Rui ZHANG and San-Dui GUO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1254-1259
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00120.x
      
    For the first time, a nodulin-like gene promoter was isolated from Gossypium hirsutum L. Guo Y18 by means of inverse PCR. Three plant expression vectors were constructed for functional identification of the promoter. These vectors were different only in promoter regions; three truncations of the nodulin-like promoter took the place of the CaMV35S promoter in the pBI121 plant expression vector. Then, the three vectors were introduced into cotton plants via the pollen tube pathway. The expression patterns of the gus gene driven by nodulin-like promoter truncations were investigated in the offspring of transgenic cotton plants. Histochemical GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analysis were performed to achieve this goal. The results showed that the nodulin-like promoter was a strong, highly reproductive organ-specific promoter, which demonstrated a much higher driver activity than the CaMV35S promoter did in cotton reproductive organs, but relatively lower activity in vegetation. Identification of the speciality and strength-determining regions of the nodulin-like promoter was also undertaken.
Abstract (Browse 3732)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers Linked to Sex Determination in Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei.
Author: Hua YANG, Si-Ming GAN, Guang-Tian YIN and Huang-Can XU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1249-1253
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00113.x
      
    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker technique was used to determine the sex of Calamus simplicifolius C. F. Wei. In the present study, DNA samples were extracted individually from 10 male and 10 female plants. After a total of 1 040 decamer primers had been tested, an approximate 500-bp male-specific DNA fragment was generated with the S1443 primer. It is feasible to identify sex at the early stages of plant life, which is beneficial for improving breeding programs of this dioecious species. In addition, we have obtained a proper RAPD protocol that is useful for other species of rattan.
Abstract (Browse 3184)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation of a Tomato Protease that May Be Involved in Proteolysis of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase
Author: Jian-Feng LI, Liang-Hu QU and Ning LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1220-1227
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00149.x
      
    1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase is a principal enzyme that catalyses the committed step in phytohormone ethylene biosynthesis. Previous evidence indicates that the hypervariable C-terminus of ACC synthase is most likely to be processed proteolytically in vivo. However, the protease responsible has not been identified thus far. In the present study, we detected proteolytic activity against ACC synthase (LeACS2) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit extract based on a newly established in vitro assay system. Purification of the protease through DEAE, gel filtration and MonoQ chromatography resulted in considerable enrichment of a 64-kDa protein species. Subsequent biochemical analysis of the purified tomato protease revealed that the optimal conditions for its proteolytic activity were at pH 8.0 and at 37 ∼C. In addition, the protease activity was blocked completely by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. The present study represents the first report on the isolation of an ACC synthase-processing protease from plant tissues.
Abstract (Browse 2981)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Chlorophyll Fluorescence Detected Passively by Difference Reflectance Spectra of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Leaf
Author: Yong-Jiang ZHANG, Chun-Jiang ZHAO, Liang-Yun LIU, Ji-Hua WANG and Ren-Chao WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1228-1235
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00154.x
      
    The chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) signature emitted from vegetation provides an abundance of information regarding photosynthetics activity and has been used as a powerful tool to obtain physiological information of plant leaves in a non-invasive manner. CF is difficult to quantify because the CF signal is obscured by reflected light. In the present study, the apparent reflectance spectra of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves were measured under illuminations with and without filtering by three specially designed long-wave pass edge filters; the cut-off wavelengths of the three filters were 653.8, 678.2, and 694.1 nm at 50% of maximum transmittance. The CF spectra could be derived as the reflectance difference spectra of the leaves under illuminations with and without the long wave pass edge filters. The ratio of the reflectance difference at 685 and 740 nm (Dif685/Dif740) was linear correlated with the CF parameters (maximal photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, and the yield of quantum efficiency) measured by the modulated fluorometer. In addition, the ratio reflected the water stress status of the wheat leaf, which was very high when water deficiency was serious. This method provides a new approach for detecting CF and the physiological state of crops.
Abstract (Browse 3219)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Brassica napus L. Homeodomain Leucine-Zipper Gene BnHB6 Responds to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses  
Author: Shun-Wu YU, Li-Da ZHANG, Kai-Jing ZUO, Dong-Qin TANG, Xiao-Fen SUN and Ke-Xuan TANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1236-1248
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00100.x
      
    A homeodomain leucine-zipper (HD-Zip) gene BnHB6 (GenBank accession No. AY336103) was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following drought treatment through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of BnHB6 was 1 611 bp and contained a 936-bp open reading frame encoding 311 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that BnHB6 belonged to the HD-Zip I subfamily. High-stringency Southern boltting analysis showed that BnHB6 appeared in rape as a single copy but had homologous genes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed in several tissues tested under control conditions, but that expression was significantly upregulated in shoots by mannitol, NaCl, cold treatment, anaerobic culture, wounding, H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) treatments, but not by ultraviolet treatment. Further RT-PCR analysis revealed that BnHB6 was a late-responsive gene, the expression of which was not activated by NaCl, cold treatment, H2O2, ABA, and SA at an early time point (20 min) of treatment in the shoot. However, after a certain period of treatment, the induced expression culminated and then declined until the next peak occurred. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed at certain levels in the roots, shoots, and flowers, and the roots were found to respond to the osmotic stimuli more rapidly than shoots to increase the expression of BnHB6. The present study implies that BnHB6 plays a positive role as a regulator of biotic and abiotic stresses on growth during seedling establishment.
Abstract (Browse 3423)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Possible Involvement of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes in the Cross-Tolerance of the Germination/Growth of Wheat Seeds to Salinity and Heat Stress
Author: Yan-Bao LEI, Song-Quan SONG and Jia-Rui FU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1211-1219
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00152.x
      
    The germination/growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Zimai 1) seeds and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), as well as in the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), in response to salt and heat stress, as well as cross-stress, were investigated in the present study. With increasing temperature and decreasing water potential caused by NaCl solution, the germination percentage of seeds and the fresh weight of seedlings decreased markedly, SOD activity increased, activities of APX and CAT decreased distinctly, and the TBARS content increased gradually. Seeds pretreated at 33 ∼C for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent salt stress, enhanced SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and decreased TBARS content. Seeds pretreated at 每0.8 MPa NaCl for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent heat stress and marked increases in SOD, APX, and CAT activities, which were associated with decreased TBARS content. It is considered that the common component in the cross-tolerance of the germination and growth of wheat seeds to salinity and heat stress is the anti-oxidant enzyme system.
Abstract (Browse 3181)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Multivariate Analysis, Description, and Ecological Interpretation of Weed Vegetation in the Summer Crop Fields of Anhui Province, China
Author: Sheng QIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1193-1210
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00131.x
      
    Two surveys were conducted to investigate weed vegetation in a 153-hm2 sampling area of summer crop fields from Anhui Province, China, through visual scoring of the level of weed infestation compared with summer crops on a seven-class scale. In total, 155 sampling sites were selected in the field based on crops, tillage, rotation systems, geographical regions, and soil types across the province. Data on weed communities and environmental factors were collected and analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), and the output was interpreted ecologically. Results showed that the main factors influencing the structure and distribution of weed communities in summer crop fields were the soil submersion period, latitude, and soil type and pH. The CCA indicated a significant relationship between weed dominance and soil submersion duration, latitude, and soil pH. From the result of the PCA and CCA ordination, the 155 sampling sites could be divided into three groups based on geographic and floristic composition, as well as weed abundance. The southern dry land group, which was characterized by a double-cropping system in the hilly regions of southern and central Anhui Province with a continuous summer crop and an autumn dry land crop, was dominated by Galium aparine Linn. var. tenerum (Gren. et Godr) Robb., Avena fatua L., and Veronica persica Poir. The northern dry land group, which had the same cropping system as the southern dry land group, was dominated by G. aparine var. tenerum, Galium tricorne Stokes, Descurainia sophia (L.) Schur., and Lithospermum arvense L. in the North Anhui Province, China. These two dry land groups could be combined into one large dry land group, in which the Galium weed vegetation type dominated. The third group was the paddy soil group, which was characterized by a continuous summer crop and double- or triple-cropping systems of rice, and prevailed in the south and central areas of Anhui Province; Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. was the dominant weed in this group. Other main weeds in this group included Malachium aquaticum (L.) Fries, Stellaria alsine Grimm, Alopecurus japonicus Steud., and Lapsana apogonoides Maxim. Thus, the weed community distributions in this group were described as the Alopecurus weed vegetation type. The paddy soil group could be divided into two subgroups, one southern and one central paddy soil subgroup. A strategy for integrated weed management is suggested according to the weed distribution pattern. The present study serves as a good example of how a quantitative research method was used to associate a visual estimate of weed infestation with multivariate analyses, such as PCA and CCA, and how this method can be applied to the study of weed vegetation on arable land.
Abstract (Browse 3686)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Logging on the Genetic Diversity of Quercus tiaoloshanica Chun et Ko in a Tropical Montane Forest of Hainan Island, Southern China
Author: Jian-Wei ZHENG, Shu-Qing AN, Lin CHEN, Xin LENG, Zhong-Sheng WANG and Hua-Jun XIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1184-1192
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00143.x
      
    Quercus tiaoloshanica Chun et Ko, which has a narrow range of distribution, is one of the important endemic species of the tropical montane rain forest on Hainan Island, southern China. Long-term logging and habitat destruction have resulted in population decline and distribution retreat of Q. tiaoloshanica. To determine the impact of logging on the genetic diversity of Q. tiaoloshanica, the authors investigated the genetic structures using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers in four regenerated stands after logging and in one unlogged stand. Compared with the unlogged stand, the effective number of alleles per locus dropped by 1% in selective logging stands and by 2.0% in clear logging stands, corresponding to reductions of 3.8% and 5.2%, respectively, in mean Nei*s gene diversity and 2.9% and 3.5%, respectively, in mean Shannon diversity index. No substantial genetic erosion was detected in any of the regenerated stands owing to the high tree density and high heterogeneity of the Q. tiaoloshanica stands investigated. Meanwhile, there was no natural regeneration of the species observed in a Dacrydium pierrei Hickel plantation 700 m away from the regenerated stands, suggesting the limited ability of seed dispersal of Q. tiaoloshanica. Clear logging should be undertaken cautiously because the total number of plant species dropped by 15.2% in the clear-logged stands compared with the unlogged stand. To conserve the genetic diversity of this species, as well as the plant biodiversity of tropical forests, the habitats of Q. tiaoloshanica should be protected against exploitation in terms of agricultural or other forms of land use, and some mature trees should be preserved as seed sources to maintain an adequate regeneration base for this species in the management of logging.
Abstract (Browse 3050)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Lack of Evidence for 3/4 Scaling of Metabolism in Terrestrial Plants
Author: Hai-Tao LI, Xing-Guo HAN and Jian-Guo WU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(10): 1173-1183
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00167.x
      
    Scaling, as the translation of information across spatial, temporal, and organizational scales, is essential to predictions and understanding in all sciences and has become a central issue in ecology. A large body of theoretical and empirical evidence concerning allometric scaling in terrestrial individual plants and plant communities has been constructed around the fractal volume-filling theory of West, Brown, and Enquist (the WBE model). One of the most thought-provoking findings has been that the metabolic rates of plants, like those of animals, scale with their size as a 3/4 power law. The earliest, single most-important study cited in support of the application of the WBE model to terrestrial plants claims that whole-plant resource use in terrestrial plants scales as the 3/4 power of total mass, as predicted by the WBE model. However, in the present study we show that empirical data actually do not support such a claim. More recent studies cited as evidence for 3/4 scaling also suffer from several statistical and data-related problems. Using a forest biomass dataset including 1 266 plots of 17 main forest types across China, we explored the scaling exponents between tree productivity and tree mass and found no universal value across forest stands. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to support the existence of a single constant scaling exponent for the metabolism-biomass relationship for terrestrial plants.
Abstract (Browse 3289)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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