November 2005, Volume 47 Issue 11, Pages 1281-1408.

Cover Caption:
The Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb shrubs grew orderly on the slop of the beach bar in Lake West-Juyan. The period of its establishment directs the final retreat of the lake water level on this position in the history. The tree-ring photos of T. ramosissima display that tamarisk is a potential dendrochronological species. See pages 1303-1314 for more details.


          Research Articles
Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (Juglandaceae) from the Hunchun Formation (Eocene), Jilin Province, China
Author: Tong-Xing SUN, Albert G. ABLAEV, Yu-Fei WANG and Cheng-Sen LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1281-1287
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00132.x
    The leaflet architecture of Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja from the Hunchun Formation (Middle Eocene) shows similarity to that of modern C. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja and the specimen is the oldest fossil record in Europe and Asia. The distributions of C. cf. paliurus and other fossil records, such as Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Nyssa, and Liquidambar, in Hunchun flora show that it would have been a warmer-temperature to subtropical climate in Hunchun District during the Eocene period.
Abstract (Browse 3232)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Does a General Temperature-Dependent Q10 Model of Soil Respiration Exist at Biome and Global Scale?
Author: Hua CHEN and Han-Qin TIAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1288-1302
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00211.x
    Soil respiration (SR) is commonly modeled by a Q10 (an indicator of temperature sensitivity) function in ecosystem models. Q10 is usually treated as a constant of 2 in these models, although Q10 value of SR often decreases with increasing temperatures. It remains unclear whether a general temperature-dependent Q10 model of SR exists at biome and global scale. In this paper, we have compiled the long-term Q10 data of 38 SR studies ranging from the Boreal, Temperate, to Tropical/Subtropical biome on four continents. Our analysis indicated that the general temperature-dependent biome Q10 models of SR existed, especially in the Boreal and Temperate biomes. A single-exponential model was better than a simple linear model in fitting the average Q10 values at the biome scale. Average soil temperature is a better predictor of Q10 value than average air temperature in these models, especially in the Boreal biome. Soil temperature alone could explain about 50% of the Q10 variations in both the Boreal and Temperate biome single-exponential Q10 model. Q10 value of SR decreased with increasing soil temperature but at quite different rates among the three biome Q10 models. The k values (Q10 decay rate constants) were 0.09, 0.07, and 0.02/⊥ in the Boreal, Temperate, and Tropical/Subtropical biome, respectively, suggesting that Q10 value is the most sensitive to soil temperature change in the Boreal biome, the second in the Temperate biome, and the least sensitive in the Tropical/Subtropical biome. This also indirectly confirms that acclimation of SR in many soil warming experiments probably occurs. The k value in the ※global§ single-exponential Q10 model which combined both the Boreal and Temperate biome data set was 0.08/⊥. However, the global general temperature-dependent Q10 model developed using the data sets of the three biomes is not adequate for predicting Q10 values of SR globally. The existence of the general temperature-dependent Q10 models of SR in the Boreal and Temperate biome has important implications for modeling SR, especially in the Boreal biome. More detail model runs are needed to exactly evaluate the impact of using a fixed Q10 vs a temperature-dependent Q10 on SR estimate in ecosystem models (e.g., TEM, Biome-BGC, and PnET).
Abstract (Browse 3926)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Lake Level Changes Recorded by Tree Rings of Lakeshore Shrubs: A Case Study at the Lake West-Juyan, Inner Mongolia, China
Author: Sheng-Chun XIAO, Hong-Lang XIAO, Jian-Hua SI, Xi-Bin JI and Fa-Min LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1303-1314
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00190.x
    Variation in water resources is a main factor influencing ecohydrological processes and sustainable development in arid regions. Lake level changes are a useful indicator of the variability in water resources. However, observational records of changes in lake levels are usually too short to give an understanding of the long-term variability. In the present study, we investigated the tree rings of shrubs growing on the lakeshore of Lake West-Juyan, the terminus of the Heihe River in western China, and found that Lake West-Juyan had undergone degradation three times over the past 200 years. The lake level decreased from 904.3 to 896.8 m above sea level (a.s.l.) during the period 1800每1900, to 892.0 m a.s.l. from around 1900 to the late 1950s, and the lake dried out in 1963. The trend for changes in lake levels, which was represented by the composite chronology of three beach bars, showed that the phases of increasing lake levels over the past 150 years were during the periods 1852每1871, 1932每1952, 1973每1982, and 1995每1999. Comparison with the history of regional economic development showed that human activity has played an important role in regulating the water resources of the lower reaches of the Heihe watershed over the past 200 years.
Abstract (Browse 2746)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Presowing Seed Treatment with Cytokinins and Its Effect on Growth, Photosynthetic Rate, Ionic Levels and Yield of Two Wheat Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance
Author: Muhammad IQBAL and Muhammad ASHRAF
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1315-1325
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00163.x
    The effects of presowing seed treatment with different concentrations of cytokinins (kinetin and benzylaminopurine; 100, 150, and 200 mg/L) on growth, photosynthetic capacity, and ion homeostasis were investigated in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely MH-97 (salt sensitive) and Inqlab-91 (salt tolerant). Primed and non-primed seeds were sown in a field in which NaCl salinity of 15 dS/m was developed. Of the different concentrations of priming agents tested, the effect of a moderate concentration of kinetin (150 mg/L) was very pronounced, particularly in improving growth and grain yield, in both cultivars. In addition, priming with kinetin alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on gaseous exchange characteristics (net CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency) in both cultivars. Seed priming with a moderate concentration of kinetin also altered the pattern of accumulation of Na+ and Cl每 in the shoots, irrespective of the wheat cultivar, under conditions of salt stress. However, all other priming agents at the different concentrations tested did not show any consistent effect on ion levels, except hydropriming, which increased K+ levels in the shoots of both cultivars under salt stress. In conclusion, a moderate concentration of kinetin showed a consistent effect in altering the growth and grain yield of both wheat cultivars, which was related to the beneficial effects of kinetin priming on water use efficiency and photosynthetic rate under conditions of salt stress.
Abstract (Browse 2919)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Production of Polyamines Is Enhanced by Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Maize Seedlings Subjected to Salt Stress
Author: Jun LIU, Ming-Yi JIANG, Yi-Feng ZHOU and You-Liang LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1326-1334
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00183.x
    It is known that salt stress and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) can enhance the polyamine content in plants and that salt stress itself can lead to an increase in endogenous ABA production. In the present study, the relationships between salt-induced ABA and polyamine accumulation were investigated using ABA-deficient mutant (vp5/vp5) maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and ABA and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors. The results show that reduced endogenous ABA levels, as a result of either the mutation or by using a chemical inhibitor (sodium tungstate), also reduced the accumulation of polyamines in salt-stressed leaves of maize seedlings. The polyamine synthesis inhibitors D-arginine and 汐-difluoromethylornithine also reduced the polyamine content of the leaves of maize seedling under salt stress. Both ABA and polyamine enhanced the dry weight accumulation of salt-stressed seedlings and also increased the activities of the two dominant tonoplast membrane enzymes, H+-ATPase and H+-PPase, when plants were under salt stress. The results suggest that salt stress induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which then enhances polyamine synthesis. Such responses may increase a plant*s tolerance to salt.
Abstract (Browse 3294)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Regulation of Water Deficit-Induced Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Apoplastic Ascorbic Acid in Maize Seedlings
Author: Jian-Fang HU, Gui-Fen LI, Zhi-Hui GAO, Lin CHEN, Hui-Bo REN and Wen-Suo JIA
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1335-1344
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00165.x
    Water deficit-induced abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation is one of the most important stress signaling pathways in plant cells. Redox regulation of cellular signaling has currently attracted particular attention, but much less is known about its roles and mechanisms in plant signaling. Herein, we report that water deficit-induced ABA accumulation could be regulated by ascorbic acid (AA)-controlled redox status in leave apoplast. The AA content in non-stressed leaves was approximately 3米mol/g FW, corresponding to a mean concentration of 3 mmol/L in a whole cell. Because AA is mainly localized in the cytosol and chloroplasts, the volume of which is much smaller than that of the whole cell, AA content in cytosolic and chloroplast compartments should be much higher than 3 mmol/L. Water deficit-induced ABA accumulation in both leaf and root tissues of maize seedlings was significantly inhibited by AA and reduced glutathione (GSH) at concentrations of 500米mol/L and was completely blocked by 50 mmol/L AA and GSH. These results suggest that the AA-induced inhibition of ABA accumulation should not occur at sites where AA exists in high concentrations. Although water deficit led to a small increase in the dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) content, no significant changes in AA content were observed in either leaf or root tissues. When compared with the whole leaf cell, the AA content in the apoplastic compartment was much lower (i.e. approximately 70 nmol/g FW, corresponding to 0.7 mmol/L). Water deficit induced a significant decrease (approximately 2.5-fold) in the AA content and an increase (approximately 3.4-fold) in the DHA content in the apoplastic compartment, thus leading to a considerably decreased redox status there, which may have contributed to the relief of AA-induced inhibition of ABA accumulation, alternatively, promoting water deficit-induced ABA accumulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) could not mimic water deficit in inducing ABA accumulation, suggesting that the inhibition of ABA accumulation by AA or GSH was not related to their ROS-scavenging ability. The results of the present study suggest that the redox status in the apoplastic compartment, as determined by AA and DHA, may play a vital role in the regulation of the signaling process for water deficit-induced ABA accumulation.
Abstract (Browse 3123)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Heterozygosity of Knob-Associated Tandem Repeats and Knob Instability in Mitotic Chromosomes of Zea (Zea mays L. and Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley)
Author: Zhi-Yong XIONG, Yong LIU, Yong-Gang HE, Yun-Chun SONG, Ke-Xiu LI and Guan-Yuan HE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1345-1351
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00156.x
    Knobs are blocks of heterochromatin present on chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) and its relatives that have effects on the frequency of genetic recombination, as well as on chromosome behavior. Knob heterozygosity and instability in six maize inbred lines and one Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley line were investigated using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with knob-associated tandem repeats (180 bp and 350 bp (TR-1)) as probes. Signals of seven heterozygous knobs containing 180-bp repeats and of one heterozygous knob containing TR-1 were captured in chromosomes of all materials tested according to the results of FISH, which demonstrates that the 180-bp repeat is the main contributor to knob heterozygosity compared with the TR-1 element. In addition, one target cell with two TR-1 signals on one homolog of chromosome 2L, which was different from the normal cells in the maize inbred line GB57, was observed, suggesting knob duplication and an instability phenomenon in the maize genome.
Abstract (Browse 2781)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cleavage of the Carboxyl-Terminus of LEACS2, a Tomato 1-Aminocycl-opropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase Isomer, by a 64-kDa Tomato Metalloprotease Produces a Truncated but Active Enzyme  
Author: Jian-Feng LI, Robert QI, Liang-Hu QU, Autar K Mattoo and Ning LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1352-1363
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00162.x
    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) is the principal enzyme in phytohormone ethylene biosynthesis. Previous studies have shown that the hypervariable C-terminus of ACS is proteolytically processed in vivo. However, the protease responsible for this has not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the processing of the 55-kDa full-length tomato ACS (LeACS2) into 52-, 50- and 49-kDa truncated isoforms in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Cooperation 903) fruit using the sodium dodecyl sulfate-boiling method. Meanwhile, an LeACS2-processing protease was purified via multi-step column chromatography from tomato fruit. Subsequent biochemical analysis of the 64-kDa purified protease revealed that it is a metalloprotease active at multiple cleavage sites within the hypervariable C-terminus of LeACS2. N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis indicated that the LeACS2-processing metalloprotease cleaves at the C-terminal sites Lys438, Glu447, Lys448, Asn456, Ser460, Ser462, Lys463, and Leu474, but does not cleave the N-terminus of LeACS2. Four C-terminus-deleted (26每50 amino acids) LeACS2 fusion proteins were overproduced and subjected to proteolysis by this metalloprotease to identify the multiple cleavage sites located on the N-terminal side of the phosphorylation site Ser460. The results indisputably confirmed the presence of cleavage sites within the region between the -helix domain (H14) and Ser460 for this metalloprotease. Furthermore, the resulting C-terminally truncated LeACS2 isoforms were active enzymatically. Because this protease could produce LeACS2 isoforms in vitro similar to those detected in vivo, it is proposed that this metalloprotease may be involved in the proteolysis of LeACS2 in vivo.
Abstract (Browse 3329)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification of Contaminations Hiding Beneath the汐- and 汕-Subunits of Partially Purified Nitrogenase MoFe Protein on the Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gel  
Author: Hui-Na ZHOU, Ying ZHAO, Shao-Min BIAN, Jian-Feng ZHAO, Fei REN, Huang-Ping WANG and Ju-Fu HUANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1364-1371
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00153.x
    To identify the unknown proteins that would contaminate the 汐- and 汕-subunits of nitrogenase MoFe protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the partially purified MoFe protein (Av1) preparation was obtained from Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann OP by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (DE52) and Sephacryl S-200 columns and analyzed by PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The Av1 preparation was shown to have two main bands at the position of the 汐- and 汕-subunits of crystalline Av1 on the SDS gel. However, on the anoxic native PAGE, in addition to the Av1 band, the preparation was shown to have three other main bands that migrated slower than Av1. Of these three main bands, the protein with the fastest migration was identified as bacterioferritin elsewhere. The proteins on the other two bands, termed Upper and Middle, were suggested to be two different homopolymers with the same apparent subunit electrophoretic mobilities as the 汐- and 汕-subunits of Av1, respectively. By analysis of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the Upper was identified as GroEL, which belongs to the heat shock protein 60 family, and the Middle was identified as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). In our preparation, anoxic native electrophoresis indicated that GroEL was composed of 14 identical subunits and that PGI was composed of 10 identical subunits. This is the first report of PGI, with so many subunits. The contaminating proteins in the Av1 preparation, mainly GroEL and PGI, could be totally or partially removed from Av1 if the shoulders and center of the elution peak were collected separately from the Sephacryl S-200 column and the center fraction was purified further by Q-Sepharose developed with an NaCl concentration gradient. Thus, Av1 with more than 90% purity was obtained. Obviously, this modified method is useful for the purification of mutant MoFe proteins with a high purity.
Abstract (Browse 3109)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Group 3 LEA Genes of Wheat and Their Functional Analysis in Yeast
Author: Jia-Ning YU, Jin-Song ZHANG, Lun SHAN and Shou-Yi CHEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1372-1381
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00126.x
    The group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are thought to protect cells from stresses associated with dehydration during periods of water deficit. To investigate the functions of different members of the group 3 LEA genes, we isolated and characterized two new group 3 LEA genes, namely TaLEA2 and TaLEA3, from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and introduced TaLEA2 and TaLEA3 into Saccharmyces cerevisiae to examine the effect of these genes on yeast cell tolerance to osmotic, salt, and cold stresses. The TaLEA2 gene encoded a protein of 211 amino acids and possessed five repeats of 11-mer amino acid motifs. The TaLEA3 gene encoded a polypeptide of 211 amino acids with nine repeated units. Overexpression of TaLEA2 and TaLEA3 improved stress tolerance in transgenic yeast cells when cultured in medium containing sorbitol, salt and 每20 ∼C freezing treatments respectively. However, the yeast transformants with TaLEA2 seemed to be more tolerant to hyperosmotic and freezing stress than transformants with TaLEA3. This implies that a close relationship exists between function and the number of repeats of the 11-mer amino acid motif in the group 3 LEA protein.
Abstract (Browse 2940)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton
Author: Xian-Liang SONG, Wang-Zhen GUO, Zhi-Guo HAN and Tian-Zhen ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1382-1390
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00172.x
    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G. barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method. Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content, were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD≡3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.
Abstract (Browse 3186)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Appearance and Milling Quality Using a Doubled-Haploid Rice Population
Author: Gong-Hao JIANG, Xue-Yu HONG, Cai-Guo XU, Xiang-Hua LI and Yu-Qing HE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1391-1403
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00089.x
    Improving grain quality, which is composed primarily of the appearance of the grain and its cooking and milling attributes, is a major objective of many rice-producing areas in China. In the present study, we conducted a marker-based genetic analysis of the appearance and milling quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains using a doubled-haploid population derived from a cross between the indica inbred Zhenshan 97 strain and the japonica inbred Wuyujing 2 strain. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a mixed linear model approach revealed that the traits investigated were affected by one to seven QTLs that individually explained 4.0%〞30.7% of the phenotypic variation. Cumulatively, the QTL for each trait explained from 12.9% to 61.4% of the phenotypic variation. Some QTLs tended to have a pleiotropic or location-linked association as a cause of the observed phenotypic correlations between different traits. Improvement of the characteristics of grain appearance and grain weight, as well as an improvement in the milling quality of rice grains, would be expected by a recombination of different QTLs using marker-assisted selection.
Abstract (Browse 2838)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A New Isoflavonoid from Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.
Author: Min-Jian QIN, Wen-Liang JI, Zheng-Tao WANG and Wen-Cai YE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(11): 1404-1408
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00142.x
    A new isoflavonoid, 5, 6, 7, 3∩-terahydroxy-8, 4∩, 5∩-trimethoxyisoflavone (1), along with 10 known isoflavonoids, namely 5, 6, 7, 4∩-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxyisoflavone (2), irilone (3), genistein (4), tectorigenin (5), irigenin (6), irisflorentin (7), dichotomitin (8), dimethyltectorigenin (9), iridin (10), and tectoridin (11), was isolated from the alcohol extract of the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of results of spectroscopic analysis.
Abstract (Browse 3435)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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