December 2005, Volume 47 Issue 12, Pages 1409-1527.

Cover Caption:
C0t-1 DNA banding of Brassica napus root tip metaphase and flower bud metaphase by fluorescence in situ hybridization for its karyotyping. See pages 1479-1484 for more details.


          Research Articles
Discovery of a Homolog of Siderophilin in a Plant
Author: Yun-Biao FEI, Peng-Xiu CAO, Su-Qin GAO, Ling-Bo WEI and Bin WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1409-1411
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00159.x
    Members belonging to the siderophilin family are iron-binding and iron-transporting proteins, which includes transferrin and lactoferrin. They have only been found in animals previously. If siderophilin could be found in and isolated from a plant, its production and subsequent extensive application could be increased. The present study is the first to report the discovery of a homolog of siderophilin in a plant. In order to purify antifreeze proteins from Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim.) Cheng f., the authors processed the proteins from the leaves using techniques such as column chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose-52, gel filtration via Sephacryl S-100 HR medium, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectroscopy was performed on the three proteins purified and the sequence of one of the proteins (containing 32 amino acids) was found to have 97% homology with the corresponding part of one type of human lactoferrin. Moreover, one of the two peptides belongs to an iron-binding domain. So, it is possible that siderophilin also exists in plants and plays a role as an antibacterial and antifungal, among other actions.
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Seek and Ye Shall [eventually] Find: The End of the Search for the Auxin Receptor
Author: Lawrence HOBBIE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1412-1417
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00218.x
    The mechanism by which the plant hormone auxin regulates gene expression has been shown to involve regulated degradation, through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, of transcriptional repressor proteins. However, the key first component in this pathway, the receptor that binds auxin and initiates auxin signaling, has remained a mystery. Two recent papers identify the F-box protein TIR1, part of the complex that attaches ubiquitin to its targets, as an auxin receptor. This breakthrough reveals a new mode of signal transduction and lays the groundwork for a more complete understanding of auxin physiology.
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Sequence Divergence of Microsatellites and Phylogeny Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton Species and Their Putative Diploid Ancestors
Author: Wang-Zhen GUO, Dong FANG, Wen-Duo YU and Tian-Zhen ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1418-1430
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00157.x
    To determine the level of microsatellite sequence differences and to use the information to construct a phylogenetic relationship for cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium spp.) species and their putative diploid ancestors, 10 genome-derived microsatellite primer pairs were used to amplify eight species, including two tetraploid and six diploid species, in Gossypium. A total of 92 unique amplicons were resolved using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each amplicon was cloned, sequenced, and analyzed using standard phylogenetic software. Allelic diversities were caused mostly by changes in the number of simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif repeats and only a small proportion resulted from interruption of the SSR motif within the locus for the same genome. The frequency of base substitutions was 0.5%每1.0% in different genomes, with only few indels found. Based on the combined 10 SSR flanking sequence data, the homology of A-genome diploid species averaged 98.9%, even though most of the amplicons were of the same size, and the sequence homology between G. gossypioides (Ulbr.) Standl. and three other D-genome species (G. raimondii Ulbr., G. davidsonii Kell., and G. thurberi Tod.) was 98.5%, 98.6%, and 98.5%, respectively. Phylogenetic trees of the two allotetraploid species and their putative diploid progenitors showed that homoelogous sequences from the A- and D-subgenome were still present in the polyploid subgenomes and they evolved independently. Meanwhile, homoelogous sequence interaction that duplicated loci in the polyploid subgenomes became phylogenetic sisters was also found in the evolutionary history of tetraploid cotton species. The results of the present study suggest that evaluation of SSR variation at the sequence level can be effective in exploring the evolutionary relationships among Gossypuim species.
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Altitudinal Pattern of Plant Species Diversity in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China  
Author: Chang-Ming ZHAO, Wei-Lie CHEN, Zi-Qiang TIAN and Zong-Qiang XIE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1431-1449
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00164.x
    One hundred and sixty plots, approximately every 100 m above sea level (a.s.l.) along an altitudinal gradient from 470 to 3 080 m a.s.l. at the southern and northern watershed of Mt. Shennongjia, China, were examined to determine the altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity. Mt. Shennongjia was found to have high plant species diversity, with 3 479 higher plants recorded. Partial correlation analysis and detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) based on plant species diversity revealed that altitude was the main factor affecting the spatial pattern of plant species diversity on Mt. Shennongjia and that canopy coverage of the arbor layer also had a considerable effect on plant species diversity. The DCCA based on species data of importance value further revealed that altitude gradient was the primary factor shaping the spatial pattern of plant species. In addition, the rule of the ※mid-altitude bulge§ was supported on Mt. Shennongjia. Plant species diversity was closely related to vegetation type and the transition zone usually had a higher diversity. Higher plant species diversity appeared in the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest zone (900每1 500 m a.s.l.) and its transition down to evergreen broadleaved forest zone or up to deciduous broadleaved forest zone. The largest plant species diversity in whole communities on Mt. Shennongjia lay at approximately 1 200 m a.s.l. Greatest tree diversity, shrub diversity, and grass diversity was found at approximately 1 500, 1 100, and 1 200 m a.s.l., respectively. The southern watershed showed higher plant species diversity than the northern watershed, with maximum plant species diversity at a higher altitude in the southern watershed than the northern watershed. These results indicate that Mt. Shennongjia shows characteristics of a transition region. The relationship between the altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity and the vegetation type in eastern China are also discussed and a hypothesis about the altitudinal pattern of plant species diversity in eastern China is proposed.
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Responses of Caryopsis Germination, Seedling Emergence, and Development to Sand Water Content of Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and Bromus inermis Leyss.
Author: Hui-Ling YANG, Xuan-Wei ZHU, Ming DONG, Zhen-Ying HUANG and Zhi-Ping CAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1450-1458
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00170.x
    Responses of caryopsis germination, seedling emergence, and development of Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (Gramineae) and Bromus inermis Leyss. (Gramineae), two dominant perennial grasses in the Otindag Sandland of China, to different sand water content (SWC; 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 12%, 16%, and 20%) were studied comparatively. The results showed that the germination responses of the two grasses to SWC were similar (i.e. caryopses could not germinate when the SWC was below 3%; at SWC ranging from 3% to 12%, the higher the SWC, the higher the germination percentage; and at a SWC of 12%每20%, germination reached similarly high percentages). At a sand burial depth of 0.5 cm, the threshold of SWC for seedling emergence was 6% for A. cristatum and 8% for B. inermis; at 12%每20% SWC, the seedling emergence of both species reached similarly high percentages. The seedling growth responses of these two species to SWC gradients were different. For A. cristatum, the biomass of seedlings increased with SWC from 6% to 12%, and decreased with SWC from 12% to 20%. For B. inermis, the biomass of seedlings always increased with SWC from 8% to 20%. The results also showed that the seedlings of both species allocated more biomass to the roots with decreases in SWC. The SWC changes from April to October in natural microhabitats of both species suggested that the SWC may play an important role in caryopsis germination, seedling emergence, and the growth characteristics of the two grasses. The responses of caryopsis germination, seedling emergence, and the growth characteristics of these two species to SWC may determine their distribution patterns in the Otindag Sandland.
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Seasonal Variation of 13C of Four Tree Species: A Biological Integrator of Environmental Variables
Author: Hai-Tao LI, Jun XIA, Le XIANG, Tao LIANG and Qi-Jing LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1459-1469
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00184.x
    Foliar 汛13C values, an indicator of long-term intercellular carbon dioxide concentration and, thus, of long-term water use efficiency (WUE) in plants, were measured for Pinus massoniana Lamb., P. elliottii Engelm., Cunninghamia laceolata (Lamb.) Hook., and Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. in a restored forest ecosystem in the Jiazhu River Basin. Seasonal variation and the relationship between the foliar 汛13C values of the four species and environmental factors (monthly total precipitation, monthly average air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and monthly total solar radiation and evaporation) were investigated. The monthly 汛13C values and WUE of the four species increased with increasing precipitation, air temperature, solar radiation, and evaporation, whereas 汛13C values of the four species decreased with increasing relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. Despite significant differences in 汛13C seasonal means for the four species, our results demonstrate a significant convergence in the responses of 汛13C values and WUE to seasonal variations in environmental factors among the species investigated and that the 汛13C signature for each species gives a strong indication of environmental variables.
Abstract (Browse 2546)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photosynthetic, Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Tomato Plants to Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Water Deficit
Author: Hatem ZGALLAÏ, Kathy STEPPE and Raoul LEMEUR
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1470-1478
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00193.x
    Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000)-induced water deficit causes physiological as well as biochemical changes in plants. The present study reports on the results of such changes in hydroponically grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Nikita). Plants were subjected to moderate and severe levels of water stress (i.e. water potentials in the nutrient solution of 每 0.51 and 每1.22 MPa, respectively). Water stress markedly affected the parameters of gas exchange. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased with the induction of water stress. Accordingly, a decrease in the transpiration rate (E) was observed. The ratio of both (Pn/E) resulted in a decrease in water use efficiency. One of the possible reasons for the reduction in Pn is structural damage to the thylakoids, which affects the photosynthetic transport of electrons. This was indicated by an increase in non-photochemical quenching and a reduction in the quantum yield of photosystem II. Furthermore, a decrease in both leaf water potential and leaf osmotic potential was observed, which resulted in a significant osmotic adjustment during stress conditions. Analysis of the physiological responses was complemented with a study on changes in proline content. In stressed plants, a 10-fold increase in proline content was detected compared with control plants. It is clear that water stress tolerance is the result of a cumulative action of various physiological and biochemical processes, all of which were affected by PEG 6000-induced water stress.
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Karyotyping of Brassica napus L. Based on C0t-1 DNA Banding by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
Author: Wen-Hui WEI, Wan-Peng ZHAO, Li-Jun WANG, Bo CHEN, Yun-Chang LI and Yun-Chun SONG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1479-1484
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00186.x
    In order to precisely recognize and karyotype Brassica napus L. chromosomes, C0t-1 DNA was extracted from its genomic DNA, labeled with biotin-11-dUTP and in situ hybridized. The hybridized locations were detected by Cy3-conjugated streptavidin. Specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) signal bands were detected on all individual chromosome pairs. Each chromosome pair showed specific banding patterns. The B. napus karyotype has been constructed, for the first time, on the basis of both C0t-1 DNA FISH banding patterns and chromosome morphology.
Abstract (Browse 2827)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
DNA Polymorphism Among Yewei B, V20B, and Oryza minuta J. S. Presl. ex C. B. Presl.  
Author: Bing-Ran ZHAO, Quan-Hua XING, Hong-Ai XIA, He-Hua YANG, De-Min JIN, Xia LIU, Song-Wen WANG, Bin WANG and Long-Ping YUAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1485-1492
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00122.x
    The new cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line Yewei A and its maintainer line Yewei B, with better agronomic characteristics, have been developed from a mutant of V20B (a rice maintainer line) through transformation of genomic DNA of wild rice (Oryza minuta J. S. Presl. ex C. B. Presl.). Analysis of molecular markers, DNA sequences, and Southern blot revealed that high DNA polymorphism exists between the mutant and its receptor, indicating that the special DNA fragment from O. minuta may be integrated into the genome of Yewei B. Therefore, transformation of genomic DNA from distant relatives to the plant of a target receptor may open an avenue for creating a new rice germplasm.
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Identification and Validation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Poplar Using Publicly Expressed Sequence Tags
Author: Bo ZHANG, Yan ZHOU, Liang ZHANG, Qiang ZHUGE, Ming-Xiu WANG and Min-Ren HUANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1493-1499
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00136.x
    By using assembled expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from 14 different cDNA libraries that contain 84 132 sequences reads, 556 Populus candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Because traces were not available from dbEST (, stringent filters were used to identify reliable candidate SNPs. Sequences analysis indicated that the main types of substitutions among candidate SNPs were A/G and T/C transitions, which accounted for 22.0% and 30.8%, respectively. One hundred and ten candidate SNPs were tested. As a result, 38 candidate SNPs were confirmed by directed sequencing of PCR products amplified from six different individuals. Thirteen new SNPs in intron regions were found and multiple SNPs were found to be located in both intron and exon regions of four contigs. Heterozygosis was found in all 47 candidate sites and five SNP sites were heterozygous in all six samples. This is the first report of SNP identification in a tree species which reveals that assembled ESTs from multiple libraries of the public database may provide a rich source of comparative sequences for an SNP search in the poplar genome.
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Transgenic Paulownia Expressing shiva-1 Gene Has Increased Resistance to Paulownia Witches* Broom Disease
Author: Tao DU, Yao WANG, Qin-Xue HU, Jie CHEN, Sheng LIU, Wen-Jin HUANG and Mu-Lan LIN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1500-1506
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00168.x
    Stem segments from diseased Paulownia tomentosa℅P. fortunei and leaves from healthy control were transformed with the expression vector p438PRSI via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The p438PRSI vector contained shiva-1 gene, which encodes an antibacterial peptide under the control of a CaMV35S promoter. The regenerated plants from transformed explants were planted in a greenhouse and nursery. PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that the shiva-1 gene was successfully integrated into the Paulownia genome. Transcription of the integrated shiva-1 gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. Bioassay in the green house and phytoplasma DNA-dot blotting demonstrated that resistance to Paulownia witch*s broom disease (PWB) increased significantly in shiva-1-transgenic Paulownia. Further investigations indicated that higher Shiva-1 expression correlated with fewer phytoplasma and less symptoms in diseased transgenic Paulownia. Together, our findings strongly suggest that breeding shiva-1-Paulownia is an effective strategy to control PWB disease.
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Isolation and Characterization of Copia-like Retrotransposons from 12 Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) Cultivars
Author: Neng-Guo TAO, Juan XU, Yun-Jiang CHENG, Liu HONG, Wen-Wu GUO, Hua-Lin YI and Xiu-Xin DENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1507-1515
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00188.x
    As the largest transposable element in the plant genome, retrotransposons are thought to be involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution, especially in sweet orange, which is prone to bud mutation. In the present study, the presence of copia-like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity, genomic distribution, and transcriptional activities in Citrus were investigated in 12 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) cultivars using a PCR assay designed to detect copia-like reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences. Twelve amplification products from each cultivar were cloned and sequenced. The cloned sequences showed great heterogeneity, except ※Dream§ navel and ※Hamlin§, both of which shared the same sequence. Frame shifting, termination, deletion, and substitution accounted for the heterogeneity of RT sequences. Southern blot hybridization using the RT1 clone from the ※Cara Cara§ navel as a probe showed that multiple copies were integrated throughout the sweet orange genomes, which made the retrotransposon possible an effective molecular marker to detect citrus evolution events and to reveal its relationship with bud mutation. No transcriptional activities of the retrotransposon were detected by RT-PCR and Northern analysis in the fruits and leaves of either ※Cara Cara§ or ※Seike§ navels.
Abstract (Browse 2870)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Projects Funded by the Division of Botany (NSFC) in 2005: Retrospect and Prospect
Author: Ming-Zhang WEN, Yue CHEN, Qin-Li WANG and Sheng-Ming DU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(12): 1516-1527
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00070.x
    The present paper briefly introduces information about proposals received and funded, statistics and analysis of evaluation of peer review, and supporting strategies and reforms in program reviewing and administration in the Division of Botany at the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) in 2005. A list of general programs and the abstract of key programs funded by this Division in 2005 are also provided.
Abstract (Browse 3118)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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