February 2005, Volume 47 Issue 2, Pages 129-256.

Cover Caption:
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) epitopes recognized by JIM 8 (recognized as a subset of AGP epitopes) was localized in the anther of male flower and the anther-like portion of stagnant stamen of female flower. JIM 8 might play an important role in the stamen formation of cucumber during its development.(See the text by Yi-Ben PENG et al. on pages 194-200)


          Research Articles
Two New Triterpenoids from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L.
Author: Fan ZHANG, Tie-Jun FU, Shu-Lin PENG, Zhong-Rong LIU and Li-Sheng DING
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00038.x
    Two new triterpenoids, octanordammar-1,11,13(17)-trien-17-ol-3,16-dione (1) and lup-12-en-15a,19b-diol-3,11-dioxo-28-oic acid (4), as well as 13 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods.
Abstract (Browse 3129)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Expression of Brassica napus L. g-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase and Low- and High-Affinity Sulfate Transporters in Response to Excess Cadmium
Author: Xin SUN, Xue-Mei SUN, Zhi-Min YANG, Shao-Qiong LI, Jin WANG and Song-Hua WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00047.x
    In both the roots and leaves of Brassica napus L. cv. Youyan No. 8 under treatment with 30 mmol/L Cd, massive production of non-protein thiols (NPT; mainly containing glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs)) was induced, together with an increase in g-glutamylcysteine synthetase (g-ECS) mRNA transcripts. Because g-ECS is the key enzyme catalyzing the first step in GSH biosynthesis, which, in turn, is converted to PCs, the Cd-induced increase in g-ECS expression may be responsible for the observed increase in the production of NPT. Using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, the expression of genes encoding a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter (LAST) and a putative high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) was determined at the transcriptional level. The RT-PCR analysis of relative transcript amounts indicates that the LAST gene in B. napus leaves showed a constitutive expression, which was hardly affected by Cd treatment. However, treatment with 30 mmol/L Cd for 2 or 3 d induced a marked increase in the expression of LAST in roots. Transcriptional expression of the HAST gene occurred in roots, but not in leaves. The expression of HAST only in the roots suggests that it has a specific function in sulfate uptake from soil and that the putative LAST may be responsible for the transport of sulfate from the roots to the shoots, as well as for the uptake of sulfate from soil. These results indicate that changes in transcriptional expression for sulfate transporters were required for the increased demand for sulfate during Cd stress.
Abstract (Browse 3011)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Agrobacterium-Mediated Multiple Gene Transformation in Rice Using a Single Vector
Author: Ming-Xia CAO, Jian-Qiu HUANG, Zhi-Ming WEI, Quan-Hong YAO, Chang-Zhao WAN and Jia-An LU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00015.x
    The homodimeric hemoglobin gene (VHb), the trans-zeatin synthetase gene (tzs), the modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (EPSPS), a selectable marker gene (hpt), and a reporter gene (gus), as linked expression cassettes, were stacked into the T-DNA region of a binary vector and introduced simultaneously into immature embryos of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties Xiushui-11, Qiufeng, Youfeng, and Hanfeng by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A total of 1 153 transgenic lines was obtained through selection for hygromycin B resistance. Approximately 90.2% of the transgenic lines harbored all the transgenes. Integration of multiple transgenes occurred at one to three genetic loci. Expression analysis revealed that the transgenes were coexpressed and inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion in transgenic plants and the frequency of coexpression was approximately 85%. On the basis of the cointegration and coexpression of the transgenes, most transgenic families were considered to be useful in a breeding program.
Abstract (Browse 3753)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a 汕-Galactosidase Gene Expressed Preferentially in Cotton Fibers
Author: Heng-Mu ZHANG and Jin-Yuan LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00019.x
    b-galactosidases (EC constitute a widespread family of enzymes in plants that is thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. We reported herein the isolation of a full-length cDNA encoding a typical b-galactosidase protein, designated GhGal1 (Gossypium hirsutum L. galactosidase), of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of nearly 94.8 kDa. In addition to a glycosyl hydrolase family 35 domain and a putative signal peptide, an unusual characteristic of GhGal1 is that, at the C-terminus of the enzyme, a domain was found that is structurally related to a sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL-lectin) with D-galactose- and L-rhamnose-binding domains. Based on results from Southern blot, we estimated that there would be two copies of the GhGal1 gene per haploid genome of G. hirsutum. The transcripts of GhGal1 were regulated spatially and temporally and were present in very high abundance at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. The expression pattern suggests that the GhGal1 gene could be involved in metabolism of the primary cell wall.
Abstract (Browse 3166)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning, Physical Mapping and Expression Analysis of a Wheat Mlo-like Gene
Author: Ling YU, Ji-Shan NIU, Pei-Du CHEN, Zheng-Qiang MA and Da-Jun LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00030.x
    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to isolate a cDNA clone using specific primers designed based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mlo gene cDNA sequence. A full-length cDNA encoding an Mlo-like protein was isolated and characterized in a Triticum aestivum L.-Haynaldia villosa L. 6VS/6AL translocation line. The putative protein consists of 534 amino acid residues, which contain a nuclear localization motif (NLS), nine casein kinase II motifs (S/T-X-X-D/E) and seven protein kinase C motifs (S/T-X-R/K). It is highly homologous to other plant Mlo proteins. Thus, this clone was designated as Ta-Mlo (GenBank accession No. AF384144). Northern blotting analysis showed that the transcription of Ta-Mlo was enhanced slightly by Blumeria graminis (DC) EO Speer f. sp. tritici. Western blotting analysis showed that the protein expression product of the Ta-Mlo gene in wheat seedling leaves is a membrane-bound protein. The protein could be induced by B. graminis. Southern blotting analysis indicated that there is one copy of the Ta-Mlo gene in each wheat genome. Ta-Mlo was localized on specific chromosomal regions of 2AL, 2BL, and 2DL in wheat.
Abstract (Browse 3498)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Ultrastructure of Oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai
Author: Wen-Mei BAO, Qun HE, Quan-Xi WANG, Guo-Wei TIAN and Jian-Guo CAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00040.x
    The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The nucleus in the young egg is rounded with an uneven outline. As it develops, it becomes amoeboid and extends nuclear protrusions that are not only sac-like nuclear evaginations like those often seen in the oogenesis of other ferns, but also mushroom-like and finger-like, with an opening at their end allowing the nucleolus material to flow out from the openings. This has not been observed previously. The nuclear protrusions differ from Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott. in the absence of sheets of nuclear membrane in the form of a closed ring. As the egg matures, the nucleus transforms into a tuber-like structure with a smooth surface, lying transversely in the egg cell. In the immature egg, vesicles almost encircle the nucleus twice and are most remarkable. In the maturing egg, the vesicles are distributed at the periphery, except for at the top of the egg, and affect the formation of the separation cavity and extra egg membrane. Simultaneously, vesicles from the venter canal cell move to the egg and take part in the formation of separation cavity and extra egg membrane. In the mature egg, a large number of small vesicles containing fragments of lamellae or osmiophilic material emerge from the cytoplasm. The origin of these vesicles is obscure. Irregular plastids containing a cylindrical starch grain dedifferentiated progressively. Mitochondria seem to have been undeveloped during the process, but return to normal at later stages of oogenesis. There is a high frequency of ribosomes in the mature egg. Microtubules, rarely seen in the eggs of D. filix-mas (L.) Schott. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, have been observed inside the plasmalemma of the maturing egg in D. crassirhizoma.
Abstract (Browse 3269)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Thermal Hardening: A New Seed Vigor Enhancement Tool in Rice
Author: Muhammad FAROOQ, S. M. A. BASRA, Nazir AHMAD and K. HAFEEZ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00031.x
    In a laboratory study, indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were exposed to thermal hardening (heating followed by chilling followed by heating; chilling followed by heating followed by chilling; heating followed by chilling or chilling followed by heating). In indica rice, heating followed by chilling followed by heating resulted in decreased mean germination time, time to start germination, electrical conductivity of seed leachates, and time to 50% germination, as well as increased germination index, energy of germination, radicle and plumule length, root length, root/shoot ratio, root fresh and dry weight, radicle and plumule growth rate, and shoot fresh weight. In japonica rice, chilling followed by heating followed by chilling performed better than all other treatments, including control.
Abstract (Browse 3649)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Promotive Effect of Low Concentrations of NaHSO3 on Photophosphorylation and Photosynthesis in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Transgenic Rice Leaves
Author: Ben-Hua JI, Hong-He TAN, Rong ZHOU, De-Mao JIAO and Yun-Gang SHEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00033.x
    Spraying a 1每2 mmol/L solution of NaHSO3 on the leaves of wild-type rice (Oryza sativa L.) Kitaake (WT), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) transgenic (PC) rice and PEPC+phosphate dikinase (PPDK) transgenic rice (PC+PK), in which the germplasm was transformed with wild-type Kitaake as the gene receptor, resulted in an enhancement of the net photosynthetic rate by 23.0%, 28.8%, and 34.4%, respectively, for more than 3 d. It was also observed that NaHSO3 application caused an increase in the ATP content in leaves. Spraying PMS (a cofactor catalysing the photophosphorylation cycle) and NaHSO3 separately or together on leaves resulted in an increase in photosynthesis with all treatments. There was no additional effect on photosynthetic rate when the mixture was applied, suggesting that the mechanism by which NaHSO3 promotes photosynthesis is similar to the mechanism by which PMS acts and that both of compounds enhanced the supply of ATP. After spraying a solution of NaHSO3 on leaves, compared with the WT Kitaake rice, a greater enhancement of net photosynthetic rate was observed in PEPC transgenic (PC) and PEPC+PPDK transgenic (PC+PK) rice, with the greatest increase being observed in the latter group. Therefore ATP supply may become the limiting factor that concentrates CO2 in rice leaves transformed with an exogenous PEPC gene and exogenous PEPC+PPDK genes.
Abstract (Browse 3359)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Root Cluster Formation and Citrate Exudation of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as Related to Phosphorus Availability
Author: Chun-Jian LI and Rui-Xia LIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00012.x
    A split-root system was used to investigate whether the external or internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown under controlled conditions. In spite of low P concentrations in the shoots and roots of the 每P plant, its dry weight was not reduced compared with the +P plant. Supplying external P (0.25 mmol/L) to one root half resulted in an increase in P concentration not only in the shoot, but also in the P-deprived root half, indicating P cycling within the plants. Omitting P from both split-root pots stimulated root cluster formation in both root halves, whereas P supply to one root half stimulated root cluster formation at the beginning of the treatment. Neither P supply to just one root half continuously nor resupply of P to one root half after 19 d of P starvation inhibited root cluster formation on the P-deprived side, although the concentration of P in this root half and shoot increased markedly. The results indicate that root cluster formation in L. albus is controlled by both shoot and root P concentrations. The rates of citrate exudation by both root halves with P deficiency were higher than those of the one root half supplied with P only. In the treatment with one root half supplied with P, the rates of citrate exudation by either the P-supplied or -deprived root halves were almost the same, regardless of P concentration in the roots. The results suggest that internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin, but these processes may be regulated by different mechanisms.
Abstract (Browse 3176)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization of the Hemolytic Properties of an Extract from Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel
Author: Xi-Chun PENG, Wei-Dong YANG, Jie-Sheng LIU, Zhi-Ying PENG, Song-Hui LÜ and Wen-Zheng DING
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00039.x
    Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, an organism that causes harmful algal blooms, is a genus of the family Prymnesiophyta (or Haptophyta) with eurythermal and euryhaline characteristics. P. globosa has been confirmed to produce hemolytic substances, which are a mixture of liposaccharides. In the present study, the hemolytic properties of extract of P. globosa are analyzed further. The effects of temperature, pH, different divalent cations, and membrane lipids on extract-induced hemolysis are discussed, as is the possible hemolytic mechanism. The results of the present study showed that the hemolytic activity of the extract was approximately 127.1 hemolytic units (HU)/L. The hemolytic reaction became fastest and a 50% decrease in absorbance was induced at 30 min at 37 ∼C, and at pH 7.0; Hg2+ was the strongest inhibitor of the hemolysis compared with the other divalent cations and many membrane lipids, except for phosphatidic acid, inhibited the hemolytic activity to different degrees. These results suggest that the toxin may make pores in the surface of red blood cells and that Hg2+ either combines with the hemolysin or closes the pores, hence inhibiting its further hemolytic reaction. The toxin probably has no specific membrane receptor in the red blood cell membrane.
Abstract (Browse 3459)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Relationship Between Surface Sediment Diatoms and Summer Water Quality in Shallow Lakes of the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River
Author: Xiang-Dong YANG, Xu-Hui DONG, Guang GAO, Hong-Xi PAN and Jing-Lu WU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00035.x
    The relationship between surface sediment diatoms and summer water quality was investigated at 49 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Lakes ranging from oligomesotrophic to hypereutrophic were examined, providing an obvious nutrient gradient. With the shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic levels, diatom multi-ecotypes dominated by epiphytic and facultative planktonic taxa were replaced by nutrient-tolerant planktonic taxa, such as Cyclotella meneghiniana Skvortzow, C. atomus Hustedt, Cyclostephanos Round, and Stephanodiscus Ehrenberg etc., reflecting the nutrient changes in the lake. The relationship between diatoms and summer water quality indices was explored further using numeric analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) with forward selection and a Monte Carlo permutation test revealed that of all 25 summer water environmental variables, total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (Chl a), Secchi depth (SD), dissolved inorganic phosphorus, Cl每, SO42每, Mg2+, CO32每, and water depth were significant variables (P<0.05) in explaining diatom distributions. Of these, TP, Chl a, SD, and Cl每, were the most important variables. The result of the correlation analysis also showed that a significant correlation exists among these variables, implying that these indices are either interconnected or independent in explaining the diatom data. For phosphorus-limited sites, TP was the most significant variable affecting the diatoms, also affecting changes in Chl a, SD, and iron concentrations. The independence of Chl a may be related to algal competition induced by lake eutrophication, resulting in the feedback to diatom community. In addition to TP, SD can be related to sediment disturbance by wave action and the growth of macrophytes in large shallow lakes. These relationships between diatom ecotypes and water quality provide the basis for a future quantitative reconstruction of historic lake nutrient evolution in the study area and will also provide a wealth of modern ecological knowledge that can be used to interpret fossil diatom records.
Abstract (Browse 3395)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Seasonal Changes in the Trade-off Among Fig-supported Wasps and Viable Seeds in Figs and Their Evolutionary Implications
Author: Rui-Wu WANG, Jun-Xing YANG and Da-Rong YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00034.x
    What the real trade-off is among fig-supported wasps and the viable seeds of figs is heatedly debated in the studies of fig/fig wasp mutualism. In the present study, we collected wasp offspring (galls) and the viable seeds of premature fruits, and determined the foundress number in receptive fruits and all the types of wasps supported by Ficus racemosa L. during both the rainy and dry seasons in Xishuangbanna, China. The data show that the galls were positively correlated with viable seeds (n = 32; r = 0.74; P < 0.001) when the proportion of vacant female flowers (PVFF) was high, in April (68.0%), and were negatively correlated with viable seeds (n = 48; r = 每 0.59; P < 0.05) when PVFF were limited (PVFF = 42.6%) during a colder month (January). The mean foundress number per fruit during the colder months is significantly lower than during the warmer months (F5, 603 = 27.9; P < 0.001) and pollinator wasps can live longer during the colder months. During the colder months, the proportions of non-pollinators and wasp offspring are higher than those found during other months, whereas the proportion of viable seeds is not different compared with that of other months. Non-pollinator wasps tend to oviposit the female flowers that have been oviposited by pollinator wasps. The non-pollinators only negatively affect pollinator wasps and there is no obvious negative effect of non-pollinator wasps on viable seeds, so ovipositing by non-pollinator wasps will not result in the extinction of the figs during the process of evolution. The results of the present study indicate that figs can allow less foundresses to be in fruit cavities when PVFF are limited, which provides supporting evidence for the previous assumption that the plants have developed a mechanism to maintain a stable system because of the conflicts between the parties involved.
Abstract (Browse 3024)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Immunolocalization of Arabinogalactan Proteins and Pectins in Floral Buds of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) During Sex Determination
Author: Yi-Ben PENG, Cheng ZOU, Hua-Qin GONG, Shu-Nong BAI, Zhi-Hong XU and Yi-Qin LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00023.x
    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins were detected in the floral buds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during its sex determination using the following monoclonal antibodies: MAC 207 (recognizes AGP epitopes); JIM 8 (recognizes a subset of AGP epitopes); and JIM 5 and JIM 7 (epitopes of pectins esterified to various degrees). In the stem apex meristem (SAM) of the cucumber, epitopes of MAC 207, JIM 7, and JIM 5 were localized in the cells from second to third peripheral layers when the sex organ primodium began to differentiate; epitopes of MAC 207 and JIM 5 were also detected in the ragged edge cells. A very dense labeling signal with MAC 207 was observed in the carpel and pistil primodium. The AGP epitopes recognized by JIM 8 were localized in the anther of the male flower and the anther-like portion of the stagnant stamen of the female flower. This suggests that the AGPs and pectins in the SAM of the cucumber are closely associated with the differentiation of the SAM, from meristematic cells to floral primodium. The subset of AGPs recognized by JIM 8 may play an important role in stamen formation.
Abstract (Browse 3314)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Metabolic Engineering of Tropane Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Plants  
Author: Lei ZHANG, Guo-Yin KAI, Bei-Bei LU, Han-Ming ZHANG, Ke-Xuan TANG, Ji-Hong JIANG and Wan-Sheng CHEN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2): 136-143
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00024.x
    Over the past decade, the evolving commercial importance of so-called plant secondary metabolites has resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism and, particularly, in the possibilities to enhance the yield of fine metabolites by means of genetic engineering. Plant alkaloids, which constitute one of the largest groups of natural products, provide many pharmacologically active compounds. Several genes in the tropane alkaloids biosynthesis pathways have been cloned, making the metabolic engineering of these alkaloids possible. The content of the target chemical scopolamine could be significantly increased by various approaches, such as introducing genes encoding the key biosynthetic enzymes or genes encoding regulatory proteins to overcome the specific rate-limiting steps. In addition, antisense genes have been used to block competitive pathways. These investigations have opened up new, promising perspectives for increased production in plants or plant cell culture. Recent achievements have been made in the metabolic engineering of plant tropane alkaloids and some new powerful strategies are reviewed in the present paper.
Abstract (Browse 4611)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Mechanisms of the Anticancer Action of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. Ex Fr.) Karst.: A New Understanding
Author: Gao-Qiang LIU and Ke-Chang ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00037.x
    Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst., a medicinal fungus called ※Lingzhi§ in China, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in China for the prevention and treatment of various types of diseases, such as cancer, hepatopathy, arthritis, hypertension, neurasthenia, and chronic hepatitis. It is clear that the anticancer activity of G. lucidum is mainly due to polysaccharides and/or triterpenoids of the fungus. However, until now, the mechanism of the anticancer action of G. lucidum has not been well understood and, previously, the activation of the immune response of the host was widely considered to be the only mechanism by which G. lucidum prevented and/or treated cancer. However, recent studies reviewed in the present paper have shown that the potential mechanisms of anticancer action include not only the activation of the immune response of the host, but also the induction of cell differentiation, the induction of Phase II metabolizing enzymes, the inhibition of angiogenesis, and the inhibition of the expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the uPA receptor in cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms of action of G. lucidum, more in vivo tests and randomized controlled clinical trials should be carried out, and the molecular mechanisms should be studied intensively. Additionally, whether the anticancer compounds in G. lucidum act synergistically or independently should be further studied.
Abstract (Browse 4842)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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