March 1961, Volume 9 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
On the Botanical Names of Economic Marine Algae in Old Chinese Literature
Author: C.K. Tseng and C.F. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
      
    A survey of the descriptions of economic marine algae appearing in Chinese herbals and coastal districts records of about the first century to the nineteenth century revealed that the hundreds of items belived to be descriptions of economic marine algae belong to 59 names. These when botanically analyzed represent 21 species belonging to 16 genera among which are 4 species of green algae belonging to 3 genera, 6 species of brown algae belonging to 5 genera, 1 species of blue-green algae belonging to 1 genus, and 10 species of red algae belonging to 7 genera; besides, there are 4 groups of names which according to the descriptions available, can be referred to genera only, being not specifically identificable. Of these algae, 7 kinds (6 species and 1 identified to genus only) serve as medicine, similar number of species serve for food and with one single exception, the rest (8 species and 2 genera) serve for both medicine and food. The botanical names and the official Chinese names, together with their synonyms as appear in the old Chinese literature were listed.
Abstract (Browse 1979)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Concept and Fundamental Principles of Vegetation Regions
Author: Hou Hsioh-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
Abstract (Browse 1710)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New System for the Genus Pedicularis (Continued)
Author: Tsoong Pu-chiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
      
    Proper ecological analysis of a group of plants requires special efforts, and is certainly quite out of the scope of the present work. However, there is rich material from various sources as literatures, personal observations from trips a field and especially from the great number of field notes on herbarium specimens. Although there is possibility of a certain amount of misrepresentation in the field notes, yet as a whole, it would worth the attention of a systematist even merely as a collection of data of the group of plants under study, not to mention that upon careful comparison, it does reveal something that would otherwise be unknown to us. Similar to the treatment in altitudinal distribution, the data are here arranged in phyletic sequence. Before going on to supply the tabulation of ecological data, a mention first of the particular, semiparasitic or saprophytic habits in a number of species seems to be a necessity, for a character of such important physiological bearing on the plants under study certainly should not be amiss in the course of such a topic. This well-known nature of the genus has supplied Vorkart l) the subject of his study, which has been referred to by Hegi, 2) who himself gives some interesting remarks in this regard as following: Auch die Arten der Gattung Pedicularis sind gleich den iibrigen Rhinanthoideen Halbsch maroter, die sich auf Wurzeln mit Saugwurzeln festsaugen. Die Wirtpfianzen sind vorzugsweise Si. issgraser und Cyperaceen, doch auch anderer Moor und Wiessenpflanzen (z. B. Succia pratensis, Salix repens, Equisetum palustre, etc.). Wahrend einzelne Spezies (z. B. Pedicularis palustris und foliosa) auf verschiedenen Wirtspflanzen auftretten, zeigen anderen Arten eine ausgesprochene Vorliebe fiir bestimmte Arten. So bevorzugt Pedicularis recutita in den AIwn Deschampsia caes- pitosa, P. verticillata dagegen Sesleria caerulea. Bezuglich der Ausniitzung der Wirtspflanze ver- halten sich die einzelnen Pedicularis-Arten verschieden; manche entnehmen denselben nur Wasser und Naihrsalz, andere hingegcn daneben auch nech organische Verbindungen und k6nnen dann den Untergang der Wirtspflanze herbeifre. From the above quotation, we may have some idea about the nature of this particular trait of Pedicularis and the complexity involved in its study.
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
ڧ֧֧ߧڧѧڧ ܧ ֧ҧݧ ڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ӧ֧ӧ ѧէڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ (էݧاڧ֧ݧߧ)
Author: ѧ - ߧ - ѧߧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧѧ էѧߧڧ֧ էߧ ҧ - ݧѧߧ. ѧ֧ݧߧ ԧѧ٧ҧާ֧ ٧ѧܧߧާ֧ߧ ֧֧ۧܧ ܧڧէѧ ݧէ էߧ
Author: - ԧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Hybrids of Rice and Kaoliang and Cytological Studies on the Progenies of Certain Hybrids
Author: S.H. Wu, C. K. Tsai, C.C. Wang and H.M. Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
      
    1.The present work comprises a study of 22 hybrid lines in different generations of 15 varieties of cultivated rice crossed with kaoliang and cytological studies of certain progenies of the so-called hybrids. The seed of the hybrids were obtained from several sources and the hybrid plants were grown with their parents under the same environmental conditions. 2. All the so-called hybrid plants, in general, bear a close resemblance to the female parent. However, the F1 plants of some cross combinations show distinct variations in certain characters, such as height, color, fructification, and especially the form of spike and grains. Variations may occur in F2 generation instead of F1, or even still later generations of other cross combinations. 3. As compared to the female parent, the so-called hybrids are usually taller, give smaller number of tillers, show higher vigor of growth and earlier earing, but in other cases, some of the hybrids may have a tendency of late maturity. 4. The hybrids of rice and kaoliang often possess many desirable characters for the rice breeder, for instance, healthy tillers, large leaves, strict culms, good fructification and high resistance to disease. However, the sterility of the hybrids from different cross combinations varies greatly. 5. The segregation of F2 plants raised from different cross combinations is not the same. In some cases, there may be only a single plant of the F2 generation differing from the others, in other cases, the segregation may be so sharp that the F2 plants can be easily classified into 4 distinct types, namely: the tall purple (color of leaf sheath and leaf ring), tall white, dwarf purple and dwarf white, and in the third cases, the plants of the F2 generation may show even more complicate combinations of variable characters and it is difficult to classify them into distinct types. 6. Cytological studies of 12 hybrid lines of the cross combinations mentioned above were carried out. In all the hybrid plants observed, the chromosome number is essentially the same as that of the rice plant, that is n=12, while chromosome number other than n=12 is only found in rare cases. As a result of the recent progress in cytological studies of the rice-kaoliang hybrids, a number of minute variations of chromosome morphology were found in addition to the size dif- ferences as reported in our previous paper. For instance, there are v- and - aped chromosomes in diakinesis, and also one of the diakinetic chromosomes bears satellite-like structures which were not described before. Moreover, there are one or rarely two chromosomes that retain their diskinetic forms while the others are transformed into the form of metaphase chromosomes. 7. Various abnormalities in meiosis generally applied to diagnose hybrid were observed also in these hybrids, such as, laggards or premature of separation of chromosomes, formation of chromosome bridges, binucleate microsporocytes, microsporocytes with two spindles or multipolar spindles, formation of cyncytes and other irregularities. However, the frequency of these abnormalities is lower than it has been reported in the hybrids of other plants. It should be pointed out that all the abnormalities in meiosis described here were observed in fertile plants. The cytological features of the sterile hybrids of rice and kaoliang will be studied later. 8. The most conspicuous characters in the microsporocytes of the socalled hybrids are as follows: 2n microsporocytes were common, a multinucleolar stage, or in other cases, a number of small chromatin granules were always met with in diakinesis, in the cytoplasm of the primary and secondary microsporocytes many dark-stained granules in different sizes were observed. The staining reaction of these granules is the same as that of the nucleolus. It is assumed that these features might bear an important biological significance in the hybridization of rice and kaoliang. 9. It is pointed out that histochemical and cytochemical studies of the hybrids compared with their parents are in urgent need for solving the problems dealing with hybridization of rice and kaoliang.
Abstract (Browse 2023)  |  Full Text PDF       
ߧӧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ߧߧԧ ѧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ܧӧ ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ڧߧ٧ߧ
Author: - ڧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1961 9(3)
Abstract (Browse 1765)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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