March 2005, Volume 47 Issue 3, Pages 257-379.


Cover Caption:
Comparison of inflorescence and flower in wild type Arabidopsis (Wassilewskija, Ws) and an infertile line which is a double mutant between arf8-1 and fer1-1. Since arf8-1 and fer1-1 showed similar fertility to Ws, respectively, it is deducible that ARF8 and Fer1 act synergistically in controlling development of filament and anther (see the text by Chang-En TIAN et al. on pages 327-333).

 

          Research Articles
Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions
Author: Mohammad Reza NAGHAVIㄛMohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00058.x
      
    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs) were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters II, III and IV. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.
Abstract (Browse 2858)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Glycosides from Roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan
Author: Rong ZHOU, Bo-Gang LIㄛGuo-Lin ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00048.x
      
    To search for new and bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, a new glycoside,3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®3)- (n-butyl-b-D-glucopyranosiduronate)]-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (1),was isolated from the roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan, along with 3-O-(methyl-b-D-glucopyranosiduronate)-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-b-D- glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-b-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid (4), 3-O- [a- L - rhamnopyranosyl-(1®3)-(b-D-glucuronopyranosyl)] oleanolic acid (5), 3-O-(b-D- glucuronopyranosyl)-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (6), 28-O-b-D- glucuronopyranosyl -(1®4)-b-D- glucopyranosyl hederagenin (7), 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1®3)-b-D- glucuronopyranosyl] -28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (8), and 3-O-[b-D- glucopyranosyl -(1®2)-a-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1®3)-b-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-28-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (9). The structures of these compounds were determined based on spectral and chemical evidence. The 50 per cent growth-inhibiting (GI50) of compounds 1 and 5 against MDA-MB-231 (a human breast cancer cell line) was 3.44 ´ 10每4 and 4.66 ´ 10每4 mol/L, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 3246)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
T-DNA Integration Category and Mechanism in Rice Genome
Author: Jiang WANG, Lin LI, Zhen-Ying SHI, Xin-Shan WAN, Lin-Sheng ANㄛJing-Liu ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00045.x
      
    T-DNA integration is a key step in the process of plant transformation, which is proven to be important for analyzing T-DNA integration mechanism. The structures of T-DNA right borders inserted into the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome and their flanking sequences were analyzed. It was found that the integrated ends of the T-DNA right border occurred mainly on five nucleotides ※TGACA§ in inverse repeat (IR) sequence of 25 bp, especially on the third base ※A§. However, the integrated ends would sometimes lie inward of the IR sequence, which caused the IR sequence to be lost completely. Sometimes the right integrated ends appeared on the vector sequences rightward of the T-DNA right border, which made the T-DNA, carrying vector sequences, integrated into the rice genome. These results seemingly suggest that the IR sequence of the right border plays an important role in the process of T-DNA integration into the rice genome, but is not an essential element. The appearance of vector sequences neighboring the T-DNA right border suggested that before being transferred into the plant cell from Agrobacterium, the entire T-DNA possibly began from the left border in synthesis and then read through at the right border. Several nucleotides in the T-DNA right border homologous with plant DNA and filler DNAs were frequently discovered in the integrated position of T-DNA. Some small regions in the right border could match with the plant sequence, or form better matches, accompanied by the occurrence of filler DNA, through mutual twisting, and then the T-DNA was integrated into plant chromosome through a partially homologous recombination mechanism. The appearance of filler DNA would facilitate T-DNA integration. The fragments flanking the T-DNA right border in transformed rice plants could derive from different parts of the inner T-DNA region; that is, disruption and recombination could occur at arbitrary positions in the entire T-DNA, in which the homologous area was comparatively easier to be disrupted. The structure of flanking sequences of T-DNA integrated in the rice chromosome presented various complexities. These complexities were probably a result of different patterns of recombination in the integrating process. Some types of possible integrating mechanism are detailed.
Abstract (Browse 3276)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Chemical Constituents of Schisandra rubriflora Rehd. Et Wils.
Author: Gan-Peng LI, Jing-Feng ZHAO, Yong-Qiang TU, Xiao-Dong YANG, Hong-Bin ZHANG and Liang LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
      
    Schisandra rubriflora Rehd. et Wils. is a traditional Chinese medicine. To search for new and bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines and provide scientific evidence for taxonomy, the chemical constituents of the plant were investigated by various column chromatography methods (silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18). From the aerial parts of S. rubriflora, three new megastigmane glycosides, namely (3S, 5R, 6S, 9R)-megastigmane-3, 9-diol 3-O-[a-L-arabionfuranosyl- (1®6)-b-D-glucopyranoside] (1) ,7-megastigmene-3-ol-9-one 3-O-[a-L -arabionfuranosyl-(1®6)-b-D-glucopyranoside] (2), and megastigmane-3a, 4b, 9x-triol 3-O- b-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with 14 known compounds, were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 3002)       
Antiporter Gene from Hordum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link and Its Overexpression in Transgenic Tobaccos
Author: Shi-You LÜ, Yu-Xiang JING, Shi-Hua SHEN, Hua-Yan ZHAO, Lan-Qing MA, Xiang-Juan ZHOU, Qing RENㄛYan-Fang LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00027.x
      
    A vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter cDNA gene was successfully isolated from Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The gene was named HbNHX1 and was found to consist of 1 916 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 540 amino acids with a conserved amiloride-binding domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the Na+/H+ antiporters showed that the HbNHX1 gene shares 55.3%每74.8% similarity with the vacuolar-type Na+/H+ antiporters. Transgenic tobaccos that contain the HbNHX1 gene, integrated by forward insertion into the tobacco genome, were obtained via Agrobacterium tumerfaciens and characterized for the determination of the concentration of Na+ and K+ ions, as well as proline, in the presence of 300 mmol/L NaCl. The T1 transgenic plants showed more tolerance to salt and drought than did wild-type plants. Our data suggest that overexpression of the HbNHX1 gene could improve the tolerance of transgenic tobaccos to salt and drought through the function of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter.
Abstract (Browse 2969)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Biochemical Genetics of Short-Season Cotton Cultivars that Express Early Maturity Without Senescence
Author: Shu-Xun YU, Mei-Zhen SONG, Shu-Li FAN, Wu WANGㄛRi-Hong YUAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00029.x
      
    The present study is aimed to investigate the mechanism of the biochemical genetic in short-seasoned cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (SSC). Ten cultivars from two types of SSC were selected, five SSC with no premature senescence crossed with five SSC with premature senescence. The parents, F1, and F2 from the reciprocal crosses were field tested in replication in 2001 and 2002. The results indicated that the activities of protective enzymes of the antioxidant system, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD), were higher in the early maturing SSC with premature senescence compared with activities in the SSC parental cultivars that showed premature senescence, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in former group was lower than that in latter group. Various genetic variances and heritabilities for these biochemical traits and auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and chlorophyll (Chl a+b) contents were also estimated. Significant additive variance for CAT, POD, ABA, and IAA existed, whereas CAT specific activity and SOD activity were largely controlled by dominant effects. Both maternal and dominant variances played equally predominant roles in the specific activity of POD and SOD, MDA, and soluble portents. The relative contribution of the various genetic components to the phenotypic variation varied in the boll-setting period.
Abstract (Browse 2799)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Mediate the Signaling Pathway of Stomatal Closure of Vicia faba L.
Author: Wu-Liang SHI, Xin LIU, Wen-Suo JIAㄛShu-Qiu ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00032.x
      
    The regulation of stomatal movement is one of the most important signaling networks in plants. The H+-ATPase at the plasma membrane of guard cells plays a critical role in the stomata opening, while there are some conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, in inhibiting stomata opening. We observed that 2 mmol/L vanadate hardly inhibited light-stimulated stomata opening in epidermal peels of Vicia faba L., but significantly inhibited dark- and ABA-induced stomatal closure. These results cannot be explained with the previous findings that H+-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate. In view of the fact that vanadate is an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), we investigated whether the stomatal movement regulated by vanadate is through the regulation of PTPase. As expected, phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPase, has very similar effects and even more effective than vanadate. Typical PTPase activity was found in guard cells of V. faba; moreover, the phosphatase activity could be inhibited by both vanadate and PAO. These results not only provide a novel explanation for conflicting results about vanadate modulating stomatal movement, but also provide further evidence for the involvement of PTPases in modulating signal transduction of stomatal movement.
Abstract (Browse 2907)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two Na+ and Cl每 Hyperaccumulators of the Chenopodiaceae
Author: Ke-Fu ZHAO, Hai FAN, Jie SONG, Ming-Xia SUN, Bao-Zeng WANG, Sheng-Qiang ZHANGㄛI. A. UNGAR
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00057.x
      
    The authors found five sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) hyperaccumulating halophytes in the Temperate Desert of Xinjiang, China and studied two of them (Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and Kalidium folium (Pall.) Moq.). K. folium and S. salsa had a NaCl content of 32.1% and 29.8%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. X-ray microanalysis of the Na+ in the vacuole, apoplasts and cytoplasm of the two plants indicated a ratio of 7.3:5.6:1.0 in K. folium and 7.3:6.6:1.0 in S. salsa. These data show that K. folium and S. salsa both have a high Na+ and Cl-accumulating capacity, which is related to high activity of tonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-PPase.
Abstract (Browse 3123)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Changes in Root Hydraulic Conductivity During Wheat Evolution
Author: Chang-Xing ZHAO, Xi-Ping DENG, Lun SHAN, Ernst STEUDLE, Sui-Qi ZHANGㄛQing YE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00043.x
      
    A better understanding of the mechanisms of water uptake by plant roots should be vital for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). In the present study, we have demonstrated correlations between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics during evolution using six wheat evolution genotypes (solution culture) with different ploidy chromosome sets (Triticum boeoticum Bioss., T. monococcum L.: 2n = 2x = 14; T. dicoccides Koern., T. dicoccon (Schrank) Schuebl.: 2n = 4x = 28; T. vulgare Vill., T. aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan No. 6: 2n = 6x = 42). The experimental results showed that significant correlations were found between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics of the materials with the increase in ploidy chromosomes (2x®6x) during wheat evolution. Hydraulic conductivity of the wheat root system at the whole-plant level was increased with chromosome ploidy during evolution, which was positively correlated with hydraulic conductivity of single roots, whole plant biomass, root average diameter, and root growth (length, area), whereas the root/shoot ratio had an inverse correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of root system with increasing chromosome ploidy during wheat evolution. Therefore, it is concluded that that the water uptake ability of wheat roots was strengthened from wild to modern cultivated species during evolution, which will provide scientific evidence for genetic breeding to improve the WUE of wheat by genetic engineering.
Abstract (Browse 2857)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation of a Mutant of Fer1 Gene, Acting Synergistically with the ARF8 Gene to Control Development of the Anther and Filament in Arabidopsis
Author: Chang-En TIAN, Yu-Ping ZHOU, Shun-Zhi LIUㄛand Kotaro YAMAMOTO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00056.x
      
    Auxin response factors (ARFs) play a central role in plants as transcriptional factors in response to auxin. The Arabidopsis ARF8 gene is a light-inducible gene and ARF8 protein might control auxin homeostasis in a negative feed-back fashion through regulation of GH3 gene expression. In a double mutant designated infertile line including arf8-1 (a T-DNA insertion mutant of ARF8), we isolated fertility1-1 (fer1-1), a mutant of Fer1, which acts synergistically with ARF8 to control the development of the anther and filament in Arabidopsis. Genetics analysis has demonstrated that fer1-1 is a T-DNA insertion line, indicating that Fer1 might be cloned by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or the TAIL-PCR approach. Phenotypic identification and molecular analysis of fer1-1 and the infertile line will be helpful to characterize the function of Fer1, to further study the function of ARF8, and to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction of Fer1 and ARF8 in controlling development of the anther and filament.
Abstract (Browse 2806)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phosphate Availability Alters Lateral Root Anatomy and Root Architecture of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. Seedlings
Author: Chu WU, Xing WEI, Hai-Long SUNㄛZheng-Quan WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00021.x
      
    Plants have evolved some mechanisms to maximize the efficiency of phosphorus acquisition. Changes in root architecture are one such mechanism. When Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphorus availability, the length of cells in the meristem zone of the lateral roots was longer, but the length of cells in the elongation and mature zones of the lateral roots was shorter, compared with seedlings grown under conditions of high phosphorus availability. The elongation rates of primary roots increased as phosphorus availability increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of the primary roots decreased. The number of lateral root primordia and the length of the lateral roots decreased as phosphorus availability increased. The topological index (altitude slope) decreased as phosphorus availability increased, suggesting that root architecture tended to be herringbone-like when seedlings were grown under conditions of low phosphate availability. Herringbone-like root systems exploit nutrients more efficiently, but they have higher construction costs than root systems with a branching pattern.
Abstract (Browse 2823)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification and Assessing the Cultivars of Laminaria Lamx. (Phaeophyceae) with Molecular Markers
Author: Cui-Juan SHI, Zi-Min HU, Ying-Jun HE, Yu-Ping ZOU, Da-Ming ZHANGㄛDe-Lin DUAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00036.x
      
    Molecular markers were used to identify and assess cultivars of Laminaria Lamx. and to delineate their phylogenetic relationships. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used for detection. After screening, 11 primers were selected and they yielded 133 bands in all, of which approximately 99.2% were polymorphic. The genetic distances between gametophytes ranged from 0.412 to 0.956. Two clusters were formed with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on the simple matching coefficient. All cultivars of Laminaria japonica Aresch. used for breeding in China fell into one cluster. L. japonica from Japan, L. saccharina (L.) Lam., and L. angustata Kjellm. formed the other cluster and showed higher genetic variation than L. japonica from China. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, including internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were studied and aligned. The nucleotides of the sequences ranged from 634 to 668, with a total of 692 positions including ITS1, ITS2, and the 5.8S coding region. The phylogenetic tree obtained by the neighbor-joining method favored, to some extent, the results revealed by RAPD analysis. The present study indicates that RAPD and ITS analyses could be used to identify and assess Laminaria germplasm and to distinguish some species and, even intraspecies, in Laminaria.
Abstract (Browse 2978)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Carbon Dioxide Exchange Between the Atmosphere and an Alpine Shrubland Meadow During the Growing Season on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
Author: Liang ZHAO, Ying-Nian LI, Song GU, Xing-Quan ZHAO, Shi-Xiao XUㄛGui-Rui YU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00066.x
      
    In the present study, we used the eddy covariance method to measure CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and an alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem (37∼36'' N, 101∼18'' E; 3 250 m a.s.l.) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, during the growing season in 2003, from 20 April to 30 September. This meadow is dominated by formations of Potentilla fruticosa L. The soil is Mol-Cryic Cambisols. During the study period, the meadow was not grazed. The maximum rates of CO2 uptake and release derived from the diurnal course of CO2 flux were 每9.38 and 5.02 mmol.m每2.s每1, respectively. The largest daily CO2 uptake was 1.7 g C.m每2.d每1 on 14 July, which is less than half that of an alpine Kobresia meadow ecosystem at similar latitudes. Daily CO2 uptake during the measurement period indicated that the alpine shrubland meadow ecosystem may behave as a sink of atmospheric CO2 during the growing season. The daytime CO2 uptake was correlated exponentially or linearly with the daily photosynthetic photon flux density each month. The daytime average water use efficiency of the ecosystem was 6.47 mg CO2/g H2O. The efficiency of the ecosystem increased with a decrease in vapor pressure deficit.
Abstract (Browse 2720)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Conifer Woods of the Pliocene Age from Yunnan, China
Author: Tie-Mei YI, Cheng-Sen LIㄛXiao-Mei JIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00041.x
      
    The Tertiary floras play an integral role in understanding the biodiversity and interactions between climate and vegetation in Yunnan, China. The fossil spores, pollen grains, and leaves in this region have been investiaged intensively. In comparison, the woods have been studied relatively little. A large number of Pliocene wood specimens was collected from the opencast lignite coal mine of Hongxing situated in Changning County of Yunnan Province. Among the collection, Tsuga cf. dumosa (D. Don) Eichler and Pinus cf. armandii Franchet were identified based on wood structures. The subtle feature of tori extensions is reported in the wood of T. cf. dumosa. Considering the climatic requirements of modern T. dumosa and P. armandii, the two species of conifer described from Pliocene sediments probably grew in mountainous terrain at an elevation of approximately 2 300 m, in a cool and humid environment.
Abstract (Browse 2926)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. Ex DC. Var. flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence
Author: Hong-Li CHANG, Yi RENㄛAn-Min LU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00049.x
      
    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of A. rivularis var. flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.
Abstract (Browse 2948)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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