June 2005, Volume 47 Issue 6, Pages 641-763.


Cover Caption:
Characters of male meiosis in wild-type rice is considered an essential prerequisite for analyses of meiotic mutants. As a direct result of male meiosis, the pollen grains were observed. Under fluorescent microscope, each rice pollen grain is round with one aperture. See pages 734-744 for more detail.

 

          Research Articles
Flavonoids from Lysidice rhodostegia Hance
Author: Song GAO, Guang-Miao FU, Li-Hua FAN, Shi-Shan YU and De-Quan YU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00063.x
      
    A novel flavonoid named mopanolchin (1), together with seven known flavonoids, was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic methods from the EtOAc extract of the roots of Lysidice rhodostegia Hance. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 1¢¢-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxy)phenyl-2¢¢-hydroxymethyl-dioxino [4¢, 5¢,1¢¢, 2¢¢]mopanol (1) on the basis of spectral analysis. The known compounds were identified as (每)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (2), epicatechin (3), naringenin (4), eriodictyol (5), luteolin (6), 7, 3¢, 4¢-trihydroxyflavone (7) and (每)-robinetinidol (8).
Abstract (Browse 2822)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Down-Regulation of OsGRF1 Gene in Rice rhd1 Mutant Results in Reduced Heading Date  
Author: An-Ding LUO, Luo LIU, Zuo-Shun TANG, Xian-Quan BAI, Shou-Yun CAO and Cheng-Cai CHU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6): 745-752
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00071.x
      
    A rice mutant with reduced heading date (designated rhd1) found in a transgenic line of cultivar Teqing 2 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) was used to identify the genes related to rice heading and thereby to study its molecular mechanism. Genetic analysis showed that rhd1 was a dominant mutation and did not result from T-DNA insertion. By using the differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) technique, differential gene expression between rhd1 and Teqing 2 was compared and a rhd1-down-regulated cDNA fragment was identified. Sequence analysis showed that this fragment shared 99% similarity to the OsGRF1 (O. sativa growth-regulating factor 1) gene. The OsGRF1 gene encodes a putative transcription factor, which contains two conserved regions: the QLQ (Gln, Leu, Gln) and WRC (Trp, Arg, Cys) domains. Southern analysis indicates that OsGRF1 may be encoded by single copy gene in the rice genome. RNA interference results revealed that transgenic lines with reduced OsGRF1 transcript displayed delayed growth and development, developed small leaves, and had delayed heading. The extent of the phenotypes developed was well-correlated with the OsGRF1 gene transcript. Our results clearly demonstrate that the OsGRF1 gene is not only involved in regulating growth at the juvenile stage, but that it may also be involved in the regulation of heading in rice.
Abstract (Browse 3921)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cell Biological Characterization of Male Meiosis and Pollen Development in Rice  
Author: Chang-Bin CHEN, Yun-Yuan XU, Hong MA and Kang CHONG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6): 734-744
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00102.x
      
    Little systematic analysis has been undertaken in rice (Oryza sativa L.) on the stages of male meiosis from leptotene to telophase II or of pollen development from microspores to mature pollen grains. The present study describes multiple stages in detail from analysis of rice chromosome spreading with staining of 4'',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The description of normal wild-type male meiosis provides an important morphological reference for analyses of meiotic mutants. Meiosis in rice is largely similar to those of the well characterizing model plants Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Zea mays L. However, rice meiosis differs from that in Arabidopsis in that rice meiosis I is followed by the formation of a cell plate, instead of an organelle band that forms between the two nuclei and persist through meiosis II. This suggests a difference in the control of organelle biogenesis and distribution and cytokinesis. Our results should facilitate studies of rice meiosis and pollen development using molecular genetic and cell biological approaches.
Abstract (Browse 3886)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey Partial Amphiploid Resistant to Powdery Mildew
Author: Shu-Bing LIU, Hong-Gang WANG, Xue-Yong ZHANG, Xing-Feng LI, Da-Yong LI, Xia-Yu DUAN and Yi-Lin ZHOU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00051.x
      
    Wide cross and molecular cytogenetic methods were used to transfer the powdery mildew resistance gene from Thinopyron intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey to wheat. Among the progeny of crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Yannong 15 with Th. intermedium, a partial amphiploid E990256, with resistance to powdery mildew, was developed. It had 56 chromosomes and could form 28 bivalents in pollen mother cells at metaphase I of meiosis. Resistance verification by race 15 at the seedling stage and by mixed strains of Erysiphales gramnis DC. f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal at the adult stage showed it was immune to powdery mildew at both stages. Gene postulation via 21 isolates of E. gramnis f. sp. tritici and 29 differential hosts showed it was nearly immune to all the isolates used, and its resistance pattern was different from all the mildew resistance genes used, which indicated it probably contained a new resistance gene to powdery mildew. Biochemical verification showed it might convey different Th. intermedium chromosomes from those of the wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploids Zhong 1-5. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis by using St genomic DNA as the probe showed E990256 contained a recombination genome of St and E.
Abstract (Browse 2917)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Poplar Trees (Populus canadensis Moench) Initiate Vegetative Storage Protein Accumulation During New Shoot Development in Spring
Author: Wei-Min TIAN, Shi-Qing PENG, Bing-Zhong HAO, Ji-Lin WU, Zheng-Hai HU and Ke-Ming CUI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00093.x
      
    It was generally assumed that the accumulation of vegetative storage protein (VSP) in poplar trees and/or temperate hardwoods did not occur in spring. To test this assumption, the accumulation of the 32-kDa VSP and the differential expression of a gene encoding for the protein in poplars were investigated using light and electron microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We report, for the first time, that poplar trees initiated VSP accumulation in new shoots during the development of new shoots in spring under conditions of high temperature and long days. The amount of 32-kDa VSP increased gradually in the stem of new shoots and in two-year-old branches, but there were no detectable changes in its abundance in the bark tissues of trunks during new shoot development. Based on the presence of a 286-bp DNA fragment that is identical to the VSP gene bspA, encoding for the 32-kDa VSP in Populus deltoids Bartr. ex Marsh., the differential expression of the 32-kDa VSP gene in P. canadensis Moench was revealed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the 32-kDa VSP gene was expressed strongly in new shoots, relative weakly in two-year-old branches and was not expressed in the trunk during new shoot development. This pattern of VSP accumulation and VSP gene space-time differential expression may be an important mechanism by which stored nitrogen compounds are used preferentially to exogenously available nitrogen and, in addition, the dynamic pattern may also have a role in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism, especially nitrogen uptake by the roots.
Abstract (Browse 2698)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photoregulated or Energy Dependent Process of Hormogonia Differentiation in Nostoc sphaeroides K邦tzing (Cyanobacterium)
Author: Dun-Hai LI, Lan-Zhou CHEN, Gen-Bao LI, Gao-Hong WANG, Li-Rong SONG and Yong-Ding LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00097.x
      
    Hormogonium, which was thought to play an important role in the dispersal and survival of these microorganisms in their natural habitats, is a distinguishable developmental stage of heterocystous cyanobacteria. The present study examined the effects of different light conditions and sugars on the differentiation of Nostoc sphaeroides K邦tzing to the hormogonia stage. Results showed that differentiation of hormogonia was light dependent in the absence of sugar, but that close to 100% of cyanobacteria differentiated to hormogonia in the presence of glucose or sucrose, irrespective of the light conditions. This differentiation was inhibited, even in the presence of sugars, upon application of an inhibitor of respiration. Following the testing of different sugars, the effects of different lights were examined. It was found that 5每10 µmol.m-2.s-1 photon flux density was optimal for hormogonia differentiation. One hundred percent differentiation was obtained with white light irradiation, in contrast with irradiation with green light (80% differentiation) and red light (0每10% differentiation). Although they showed different efficiencies in inducing hormogonia differentiation in N. sphaeroides, the green and red radiation did not display antagonistic effects. When the additional aspect of time dependence was investigated through the application of different light radiations and an inhibitor of protein synthesis, it was found that the initial 6 h of the differentiation process was crucial for hormogonia differentiation. Taken together, these results show that hormogonia differentiation in N. sphaeroides is either a photoregulated or an energy dependent process.
Abstract (Browse 2833)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Energy Transfer from Phycobilisomes to Photosystems of Nostoc flagelliforme Born. Et Flah. During the Rewetting Course and Its Physiological Significance
Author: Hui HUANG, Ke-Zhi BAI, Ze-Pu ZHONG, Liang-Bi LI and Ting-Yun KUANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00105.x
      
    During the non-frost season, the condensation of dew makes Nostoc flagelliforme Born. et Flah., a highly drought-tolerant terrestrial cyanobacterium, frequently undergo rehydration-dehydration. Rehydration begins in the dark at night. After rewetting in the dark, photochemical activity and the structure of photosystem (PS) II were not recovered at all; the structure of PSI, energy transfer in phycobilisomes, and energy transfer from phycobilisomes to PSI were recovered within 5 min, as in the light. The recovery of energy transfer from phycobilisomes to PSII was light dependent and energy transfer from phycobilisomes to PSII was only partially recovered in the dark. These results suggest that the two-trigger control (water and light) of photosynthetic recovery may make N. flagelliforme avoid unnecessary energy consumption and, at the same time, the partial recovery of energy transfer from phycobilisomes to PSII in the dark could help N. flagelliforme accumulate more photosynthetic products during the transient period of rehydration-dehydration.
Abstract (Browse 2892)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Microcystis aeruginosa Qutz. In Phosphorus Limitation
Author: Ming-Ming OU, Yan WANG and Wei-Min CAI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00106.x
      
    Effects of phosphorus limitation on the physiological and biochemical changes of the freshwater bloom alga Microcystis aeruginosa Qutz. are reported in the present study. As a result of phosphorus limitation, biomass was controlled to some extent and the protein content per cell in vivo decreased. However, the carbohydrate content per cell was higher in phosphorus limitation over the 8 d of cultivation. Soluble proteins were distinct in the media, whereas phosphorus deficiency induced the presence of a unique protein (16.2 kDa). Under conditions of phosphorus limitation, the activities of both superoxide dismutase and peroxidase per cell in vivo were lower than under normal conditions in the last cultivation. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells showed chlorophyll absorption peaks at 676 and 436 nm, over 10 nm red-shifted from the normal position; cells showed an absence of a chlorophyll c with an in vivo absorption peak at 623 nm and an extraction absorption peak at 617 nm. The chlorophyll a/carotene and chlorophyll a/xanthophylls ratios decreased under conditions of phosphorus limitation, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was clearly lower, and the low-temperature fluorescence emission spectra indicated a higher peak at 683 nm and a lower peak at 721 nm relatively, with the 721 nm peak drifting slightly to the red and the 683 nm peak strengthened with a weakened 692 nm shoulder peak.
Abstract (Browse 2836)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Assessment of Genetic Diversities of Selected Laminaria (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) Gametophytes by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis
Author: Xiu-Liang WANG, Chen-Lin LIU, Xiao-Jie LI, Yi-Zhou CONG and De-Lin DUAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00059.x
      
    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to assess genetic diversity among 10 pairs of male and female Laminaria gametophytes. A total of 58 amplification loci was obtained from 10 selected ISSR primers, of which 34 revealed polymorphism among the gametophytes. Genetic distances were calculated with the Dice coefficient ranging from 0.006 to 0.223. A dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method arithmetic (UPGMA) average showed that most male and female gametophytes of the same species were clustered together and that 10 pairs of gametophytes were divided into four groups. This was generally consistent with the taxonomic categories. The main group consisted of six pairs of gametophytes, which were selected from Laminaria japonica Aresch. by intensive inbreeding through artificial hybridization. One specific marker was cloned, but was not converted successfully into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of applying ISSR markers to evaluate Laminaria germplasm diversities.
Abstract (Browse 2847)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
UV-B Radiation Suppresses the Growth and Antioxidant Systems of Two Marine Microalgae, Platymonas subcordiformis (Wille) Hazen andNitzschia closterium (Ehrenb.) W. Sm
Author: Pei-Yu ZHANG, Juan YU and Xue-Xi TANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00052.x
      
    This study investigated whether increased solar UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) could suppress the growth of marine microalgae through effects on their antioxidant systems. Two marine microalgae species, Platymonas subcordiformis (Wille) Hazen and Nitzschia closterium (Ehrenb.) W. Sm, were exposed to a range of UV-B radiation and both showed reductions in their growth rates, and the chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoid (Car) contents when UV-B radiation dose increased. Superoxide anion radical (O2-. ) production and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malodiadehyde (MDA) also increased with the increasing of UV-B radiation. Antioxidant systems, non-enzymic components (Car and glutathione content) and enzymic components (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity), decreased as a result of enhanced UV-B radiation. When the exogenous glutathione (GSH) was added, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of the two species were alleviated. These results suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation suppressed the antioxidant systems and caused some active oxygen species to accumulate, which in turns retarded the development of the marine microalgae.
Abstract (Browse 2823)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Soil Anti-Scouribility Enhanced by Plant Roots
Author: Zheng-Chao ZHOU and Zhou-Ping SHANGGUAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00067.x
      
    The magnitude of soil anti-scouribility depends on the physical condition of the soil. Plant roots can greatly enhance soil stability and anti-erodibility. A scouring experiment of undisturbed soil was conducted to investigate the effects of roots on soil anti-scouribility and its distribution in the soil profile. At the end of each erosion test, plant roots were collected from soil samples and root surface area was calculated by means of a computer image analysis system (CIAS). Root surface area density (RSAD), the surface area of the roots per unit of soil volume, was related to soil anti-scouribility. More than 83% of root surface area was concentrated in the 0 每 30 cm soil layer. Soil anti-scouribility increased with an increase in RSAD and the value of intensified soil anti-scouribility (rAS) can be expressed by exponential equations, depending on the plant species. These equations were rAS = 9.578 6 RSAD0.832 1 (R2 = 0.951) for afforested Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., rAS = 7.808 7 RSAD0.789 4 (R2 = 0.974) for afforested Robinia pseudoacacia L., and rAS = 9.256 6 RSAD0.870 7 (R2 = 0.899) for Bothriochloa ischemum L.
Abstract (Browse 2882)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Impacts of Elevated CO2 Concentration on Biochemical Composition, Carbonic Anhydrase, and Nitrate Reductase Activity of Freshwater Green Algae
Author: Jian-Rong XIA and Kun-Shan GAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00114.x
      
    To investigate the biochemical response of freshwater green algae to elevated CO2 concentrations, Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dang cells were cultured at different CO2 concentrations within the range 3每186 µmol/L and the biochemical composition, carbonic anhydrase (CA), and nitrate reductase activities of the cells were investigated. Chlorophylls (Chl), carotenoids, carbonhydrate, and protein contents were enhanced to varying extents with increasing CO2 concentration from 3每186 µmol/L. The CO2 enrichment significantly increased the Chl a/Chl b ratio in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, but not in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The CO2 concentration had significant effects on CA and nitrate reductase activity. Elevating CO2 concentration to 186 µmol/L caused a decline in intracellular and extracellullar CA activity. Nitrate reductase activity, under either light or dark conditions, in C. reinhardtii and C. pyrenoidosa was also significantly decreased with CO2 enrichment. From this study, it can be concluded that CO2 enrichment can affect biochemical composition, CA, and nitrate reductase activity, and that the biochemical response was species dependent.
Abstract (Browse 2946)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Airborne Pollen Grains of Boz邦y邦k (Bilecik, Turkey)
Author: Cengiz TÜRE and Elif SALKURT
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00062.x
      
    Airborne pollen grains in the atmosphere of Boz邦y邦k were investigated over a 2 yr period from 2000 to 2001 using a Durham sampler. A total number of pollen grains of 5 170 pollen grains belonging to 32 taxa were identified and recorded along with some unidentified pollen grains. Of all the pollen grains, 78.66% were arboreal, 19.20% were non-arboreal, and 2.12% were unidentified. The majority of pollen grains investigated were Pinus, Platanus, Quercus, Cupressaceae, Poaceae, Fagus, Salix, Rosaceae, Urticaceae, Asteraceae, and Chenopodiaceae. The maximum number of pollen grains was recorded in May.
Abstract (Browse 2829)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phylogeny and Biogeography of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae), an Eastern Asian and North American Disjunct Genus
Author: Jian-Hua LI and Qiao-Ping XIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00087.x
      
    In order to develop better insights into biogeographic patterns of eastern Asian and North American disjunct plant genera, sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (nr DNA ITS) region were used to estimate interspecific relationships of Thuja L. (Cupressaceae) and infer its biogeography based on the phylogeny. According to the phylogenetic analysis, two clades were recognized. The first clade included Thuja plicata D. Don (western North America) and T. koraiensis Nakai (northeastern Asia), and the second one contained T. occidentalis (Gord.) Carr. (Japan). The ancestral area of Thuja was inferred to be eastern Asia, and two dispersal events were responsible for the modern distribution of Thuja in North America. Both the North Atlantic land bridge and Bering land bridge were possible routes for the migration of ancestral populations to North America.
Abstract (Browse 3093)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Programmed Cell Death in Relation to Petal Senescence in Ornamental Plants
Author: Yuan ZHOU, Cai-Yun WANG, Hong GE, Frank A. HOEBERICHTS and Peter B. VISSER
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00112.x
      
    Cell death is a common event in all types of plant organisms. Understanding the phenomenon of programmed cell death (PCD) is an important area of research for plant scientists because of its role in senescence and the post-harvest quality of ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables. In the present paper, PCD in relation to petal senescence in ornamental plants is reviewed. Morphological, anatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes that are related to PCD in petals, such as water content, sink-source relationships, hormones, genes, and signal transduction pathways, are discussed. Several approaches to improving the quality of post-harvest ornamentals are reviewed and some prospects for future research are given.
Abstract (Browse 3659)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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