July 2005, Volume 47 Issue 7, Pages 769-896.


Cover Caption:
Flora transition FCA-RRM2 gene has ability to control the seed mass in rice. See pages 823-830 for more detail.

 

          Research Articles
Components of Stem Barks of Winchia calophylla A. DC. And Their Bronchodilator Activities
Author: Wei-Ming ZHU, Hong-Ping HE, Li-Ming FAN, Yue-Mao SHEN, Jun ZHOU and Xiao-Jiang HAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00042.x
      
    The Dai medicinal plant Winchia calophylla A. DC. (Apocynaceae) has efficacy as an anti-cough and anti-asthmatic medication. In order to investigate its relative bioactive components, we studied the chemical constituents of this plant. Using repeated column chromatography, 28 compounds, including loganin, six phenolic compounds, 17 indole alkaloids, three pyridine alkaloids, and a quinoline alkaloid, were isolated from the stem barks of W. calophylla. Loganin, paeonol, N (4)-methyl akuammicine, and cantleyine exhibited a moderate relaxation effect on isolated smooth muscles of guinea-pig tracheal spirals and lung strips and may be the bioactive components responsible for the bronchodilation produced by W. calophylla.
Abstract (Browse 3412)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Enhanced Resistance of Snowdrop Lectin (Galanthus nivalis L. agglutinin)-Expressing Maize to Asian Corn Borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen谷e)
Author: Zhao-Yu WANG, Xiao-Fen SUN, Fei WANG, Ke-Xuan TANG and Ju-Ren ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00096.x
      
    In order to enhance the resistance to pests, transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants from elite inbred lines containing the gene encoding snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis L. agglutinin; GNA) under control of a phloem-specific promoter were generated through the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The toxicity of GNA-expressing plants to Asian corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis Guen谷e; ACB) was also studied. Thirty-six independently derived plants were subjected to molecular analyses. The level of GNA expression at 0.13%-0.28% of total soluble protein was observed in different transgenic plants. The progeny of three GNA-expressing independent transformants that were derived separately from the elite inbred lines DH4866, DH9942, and 8902, were selected for examination of resistance to ACB. These plants synthesized GNA at levels above 0.24% total soluble protein and enhanced resistance to ACB was demonstrated by exposing the plants to insects under greenhouse conditions. Semi-artificial diet bioassays also showed the toxic effect of GNA on ACB. Field evaluation of the transgenic plants supported the results from the artificial trial. In the present study, we have obtained new insect-resistant maize material for further breeding work and have found that GNA-expressing plants not only gained significant resistance to homopterans, but also showed toxicity to ACB, which is a type of Lepidoptera.
Abstract (Browse 2873)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino)
Author: Yong-Qin WANG, Wan-Zhi YE, Jia-Shu CAO, Xiao-Lin YU, Xun XIANG and Gang LU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00101.x
      
    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function, whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG) gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only full-length cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and large-sized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.
Abstract (Browse 3347)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Formation and Growth of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux Regenerated from Its Protoplasts
Author: Nai-Hao YE, Guang-Ce WANG, Fa-Zuo WANG and Cheng-Kui ZENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00050.x
      
    Tissue culture, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and spectra analysis were used for studying the aggregation mechanism of protoplasts from Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux and the discrepancy between the protoplast-regenerated plants and the wild type. The aggregation of protoplasts from B. hypnoides was observed in natural seawater and artificial seawater with different pH values, and the location and mechanism of the materials causing the aggregation were also studied. Results showed that the protoplasts could aggregate into some viable spheres in natural seawater and subsequently grow into mature individuals. Aggregation of the protoplasts depended exclusively upon the pH value (6每11), and the protoplasts aggregated best at pH 8每9. Some of the extruded protoplasts were separated into two parts by centrifugation: the pellet (PO) and the supernatant (PL). The PO could aggregate in artificial seawater (pH 8.3) but not in PL. No aggregation was found in PO cultured in natural seawater containing nigericin, which can dissipate the proton gradients across the membrane. These experiments suggest that the aggregation of protoplasts is proton-gradient dependent and the materials causing the aggregation were not in the vacuolar sap, but located on the surface or inside the organelles. Furthermore, the transfer of the materials across the membrane was similar to DpH-based translocation (DpH/TAT) pathway that occurs in the chloroplasts of higher plants and bacteria. Obvious discrepancies in both the total soluble proteins and the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b between the regenerated B. hypnoides and the wild type were found, which may be related to the exchange of genetic material during aggregation of the organelles. In the process of development, diatom Amphora coffeaeformis Agardh attached to the protoplast aggregations, retarding their further development, and once they were removed, the aggregations immediately germinated, which showed that diatoms can affect the development of other algae.
Abstract (Browse 3044)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning of the Full-length cDNA of the Wheat Involved in Salt Stress: Root Hair Defective 3 Gene (RHD3)  
Author: Lei SHAN, Shuang-Yi ZHAO and Guang-Min XIA
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7): 881-891
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00090.x
      
    The full-length cDNA of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root hair defective 3 gene (RHD3) has been cloned from the salt-tolerant hybrid wheat variety Shanrong No. 3 (Za3) using the mRNA differential display and 5'' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the wheat RHD3 gene shows that two conservative GTP-binding motifs, namely GXXXXGKS and DXXG, in eukaryotes also exist at the N-terminal of wheat RHD3. In addition, an 18 amino acid residue transmembrane domain, namely FYLAVMFVVFLVGKAIWV, exists at positions 701每718 of the C-terminal of the deduced protein of wheat RHD3 obtained, but this domain is absent in another three proteins aligned, including rice RHD3, Arabidopsis RHD3, and yeast homologue SEY1. Northern blot revealed that transcription of the wheat RHD3 gene is down-regulated in both the salt-tolerant line and in JN177 under saline stress. A possible stress-responsive mechanism for this gene is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3676)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Microwave and He-Ne Laser on Enzyme Activity and Biophoton Emission of Isatis indigotica Fort
Author: Yi-Ping CHEN, Yong-Jun LIU, Xun-Ling WANG, Zhao-Yu REN and Ming YUE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00107.x
      
    The seed embryos of Isatis indigotica Fort were exposed to He-Ne laser (5.23 mW/mm2, radiated for 5 min) and microwave (1.26 mW/mm2, radiated for 8 s) irradiation to determine the effects of microwave and He-Ne laser pretreatment on enzyme activities, and biophoton emission of cotyledon. Then: (i) changes in the activities of enzymes in I. indigotica cotyledon (such as amylase, transaminase, and proteinase) were measured to investigate the effects of He-Ne laser and microwave pretreatment; and (ii) biophoton emission was measured to determine the speed of cell division and metabolism. Results from these experiments indicated that: (i) the activities of amylase, transaminase, and proteinase of the cotyledon pretreated by He-Ne laser and microwave were significantly increased; and (ii) the intensity of biophoton emission was enhanced significantly by He-Ne laser and microwave irradiation. These changes suggest that He-Ne laser and microwave pretreatment can improve the inner energy of seeds, lead to an enhancement of cotyledon enzymes, and speed up the metabolism of the cell, resulting in significantly increased biophoton emission. Moreover, the mechanism of action of the effects of laser and microwave radiation on the microcalorimetric parameters, enzyme activities, and biophoton emission of seeds is discussed on the basis of the results obtained.
Abstract (Browse 3131)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nylon Filter Arrays Reveal Differential Expression of Expressed Sequence Tags in Wheat Roots Under Aluminum Stress
Author: Kai XIAO, Gui-Hua BAI and Brett F CARVER
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00108.x
      
    To enrich differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for aluminum (Al) tolerance, cDNA subtraction libraries were generated from Al-stressed roots of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting in Al-tolerance gene(s) from the Al-tolerant cultivar Atlas 66, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Expression patterns of the ESTs were investigated with nylon filter arrays containing 614 cDNA clones from the subtraction library. Gene expression profiles from macroarray analysis indicated that 25 ESTs were upregulated in the tolerant NIL in response to Al stress. The result from Northern analysis of selected upregulated ESTs was similar to that from macroarray analysis. These highly expressed ESTs showed high homology with genes involved in signal transduction, oxidative stress alleviation, membrane structure, Mg2+ transportation, and other functions. Under Al stress, the Al-tolerant NIL may possess altered structure or function of the cell wall, plasma membrane, and mitochondrion. The wheat response to Al stress may involve complicated defense-related signaling and metabolic pathways. The present experiment did not detect any induced or activated genes involved in the synthesis of malate and other organic acids in wheat under Al-stress.
Abstract (Browse 2914)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Oxalate Accumulation as Regulated by Nitrogen Forms and Its Relationship to Photosynthesis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Xiu-Mei JI and Xin-Xiang PENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00099.x
      
    Four-leaf rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.), which had been cultivated in Kimura B complete nutrient solution, were treated with two nitrogen forms by replacing the nitrogen element in the complete solution with sole nitrate or ammonium (2.86 mmol/L). Nitrate-N nutrition tended to increase oxalate content in all parts of the plant, including the leaves, stems, roots, and root exudates, whereas ammonium had the opposite effect. Consequently, marked differences in oxalate content were observed between the two treatments throughout the time tested (0每12 d), with maximal differences of approximately 12-fold at 6 d after treatment. Photosynthetic/respiratory parameters were examined over time simultaneously with changes in oxalate content. Net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (i.e. maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS)II (朴PSII)), and respiratory rate were not significantly different between plants treated with the two nitrogen forms, although ammonium-fed plants had apparently higher leaf chlorophyll content than nitrate-fed plants. Leaf glucose content was altered little, but the content of fructose, sucrose, and total soluble sugar was significantly higher in the leaves of ammonium-fed plants than nitrate-fed plants. The results indicate that nitrate/ammonium may serve as efficient regulators of oxalate accumulation owing to regulation of metabolism in rice leaves rather than oxalate downward transfer and root excretion, and that photosynthetic metabolism is not directly correlated with the regulation of oxalate accumulation in rice plants.
Abstract (Browse 3185)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Transformation and Functional Expression of the rFCA-RRM2 Gene in Rice
Author: Kotb ATTIA, Ke-Gui LI, Chun WEI, Guang-Ming HE, Wei SU and Jin-Shui YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00115.x
      
    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica var. Zhonghua 11) flowering control gene (rFCA-RRM2) in monocotyledonous model rice. Constitutive expression of rFCA-RRM2 from the Act1-5 rice promoter caused late flowering in transgenic rice and increased grain weight that was more than 50% higher than that of control plants, which is the first demonstration of rFCA-RRM2 being able to increase rice production. Late flowering was accompanied by strong phenotype and some morphological modifications. These observations suggest that rFCA-RRM2 is a useful tool for phenotype improvement and yield enhancement in cereal crops.
Abstract (Browse 3030)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic Variation and Clonal Diversity of the Two Divergent Types of Clonal Populations of Leymus chinensis Tzvel on the Song Liao Steppe in the West of Northeastern China  
Author: Yu-Sheng WANG, Xiao-Hua TENG, Da-Ming HUANG, Miki NAKAMURA and Rui-Min HONG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7): 811-822
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00061.x
      
    The genetic variation and clonal diversity of two divergent types (grey-green and yellow-green) of clonal populations of Leymus chinensis Tzvel at 14 loci were compared. Total gene diversity (HT) and the coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST) were all higher for the yellow-green type (HT = 0.270; GST = 0.186) than for the grey-green type (HT = 0.250; GST = 0.157) of L. chinensis. Rare alleles usually occurred as heterozygotes rather than homozygotes and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found only at a few loci. This indicated that these two types of populations were mainly out-crossing. Clonal diversity, evenness of clones, and mean clone size were not significantly different between the two types. We found that differences between the clone size and genetic variation of the yellow-green type of populations occurred with different climate and habitat population groups. However, for the grey-green type of populations, these genetic variations decreased under conditions of different climate and habitat population groups.
Abstract (Browse 2990)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Species Abundance in a Forest Community in South China: A Case of Poisson Lognormal Distribution
Author: Zuo-Yun YIN, Hai REN, Qian-Mei ZHANG, Shao-Lin PENG, Qin-Feng GUO and Guo-Yi ZHOU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00095.x
      
    Case studies on Poisson lognormal distribution of species abundance have been rare, especially in forest communities. We propose a numerical method to fit the Poisson lognormal to the species abundance data at an evergreen mixed forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, South China. Plants in the tree, shrub and herb layers in 25 quadrats of 20 m℅20 m, 5 m℅5 m, and 1 m℅1 m were surveyed. Results indicated that: (i) for each layer, the observed species abundance with a similarly small median, mode, and a variance larger than the mean was reverse J-shaped and followed well the zero-truncated Poisson lognormal; (ii) the coefficient of variation, skewness and kurtosis of abundance, and two Poisson lognormal parameters (s and m) for shrub layer were closer to those for the herb layer than those for the tree layer; and (iii) from the tree to the shrub to the herb layer, the s and the coefficient of variation decreased, whereas diversity increased. We suggest that: (i) the species abundance distributions in the three layers reflects the overall community characteristics; (ii) the Poisson lognormal can describe the species abundance distribution in diverse communities with a few abundant species but many rare species; and (iii) 1/s should be an alternative measure of diversity.
Abstract (Browse 3096)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Airborne Ericaceae Pollen Grains in the Atmosphere of Vigo (Northwest Spain) and Its Relationship with Meteorological Factors
Author: F Javier RODRÍGUEZ-RAJO, Jose MÉNDEZ and Victoria JATO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00092.x
      
    Several species of the Erica genus are broadly represented in northwest Spain, being among the shrubs that form the substitution stage following forest degradation as a result of human activity, caused mainly by fire or other antrophic causes. Therefore airborne pollen from Erica is frequent. From 1995 to 2002, an aerobiological study of Ericaceae family pollen was undertaken in the atmosphere of the city of Vigo (Northwest Spain) using a Lanzoni VPPS 2000 (Lanzoni srl, Bologna, Italy) sampler placed in the left margin of the Vigo fiord (42∼14''15'''' N, 8∼43''30'''' W). Despite being a taxon of eminently entomophillous pollination, the pollen of Ericaceae was well represented in the atmosphere above the study zone. Erica arborea L. is the main species represented in the annual pollen curve. This taxon shows a long main pollen season and higher pollen concentrations were recorded during the months of April and May, which is why beekeepers place their beehives at specific locations in April to ensure a considerable contribution from this pollen to the composition of the honey. The maximum daily average concentration was detected in 1997, with a concentration of 156 grains/m3. Throughout the day, maximum values occur at 5/6 h and between 17:00 and 18:00 h. Finally, correlation statistical analyses were developed in order to determine the degree of association between the daily average of meteorological parameters and daily mean airborne pollen concentrations. Rainfall exerts a clear influence on Ericaceae pollen season characteristics, with precipitation registered in March being responsible for the decrease in total annual pollen values.
Abstract (Browse 2792)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization
Author: Si-Lan DAI, Wen-Kui WANG, Mao-Xue LI and Ying-Xiu XU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00068.x
      
    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S每26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema. The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D. vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3538)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Advances in the Plant Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathway and Its Metabolic Engineering
Author: Yan LIU, Hong WANG, He-Chun YE and Guo-Feng LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00111.x
      
    Although the cytosolic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, mavolonate pathway, in plants has been known for many years, a new plastidial 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) pathway was identified in the past few years and its related intermediates, enzymes, and genes have been characterized quite recently. With a deep insight into the biosynthetic pathway of isoprenoids, investigations into the metabolic engineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis have started to prosper. In the present article, recent advances in the discoveries and regulatory roles of new genes and enzymes in the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway are reviewed and examples of the metabolic engineering of cytosolic and plastidial isoprenoids biosynthesis are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3326)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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