August 2005, Volume 47 Issue 8, Pages 897-1024.

Cover Caption:
Fluorescent pictures of gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch cultured in solutions containing 25 (left) and 50 mg/L Cd (right) separately for 1 month. Spontaneous blue fluorescence activated by a fluorescent microscope reflects the distribution of Cd ions in the cells of the gametophytes. With increasing concentration of Cd, the regions emitting blue fluorescence increased. See pages 942-951 for more details.


          Research Articles
A New Stilbene from Cercis chinensis Bunge
Author: Yuan LI, Dong-Ming ZHANG £¨Shi-Shan YU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00080.x
    To study new natural products, we used ODS (YMC, Kyoto, Japan) and silica gel column chromatography to separate compounds in Cercis chinensis Bunge (Leguminosae). A new stilbene, trans-3, 5, 3'', 4''-tetrahydroxy-4-methylstilbene (1), along with 10 known compounds, namely piceatannol (2), dihydromyricetin (3), catechin (4), dihydrorobinetin (5), menisdaurin (6), lithospermoside (7), teatannin (8), dasycarponin (9),¶¬-sitosterol (10), and daucosterin (11), was isolated from C. chinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Compounds 2®C6 and 9 were isolated from the genus Cercis Linn. for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 3340)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth.
Author: Qing-Hua LIU, Jing-Quan YUAN, Mao-Rong SUO£¨Jun-Shan YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00127.x
    To search for new and bioactive constituents from traditional Chinese medicines, a new steroidal saponin, named vernonioside G (1), was isolated from the roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth. (Compositae). The structure of vernonioside G was elucidated using spectral methods, particularly two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, eight known compounds were also isolated and identified from the roots of V. cumingiana, among which, VE-1 (2) and 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3-ol acetate (3) were assigned NMR data for the first time and compound 3 was obtained as a natural product from a plant for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 3299)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation of Fucoxanthin from the Rhizoid of Laminaria japonica Aresch
Author: Wen-Jun WANG, Guang-Ce WANG, Ming ZHANG£¨ C. K. TSENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00054.x
    Fucoxanthin was extracted from the intact rhizoid of Laminaria japonica Aresch with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then recovered from the DMSO extract by partitioning into ethyl acetate and subsequent evaporation. Some isolation conditions such as solvent volume and extraction time were screened. The quantity and quality of the extracted fucoxanthin were determined by spectral analysis (absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra). The results indicated that: (1) the average total content of fucoxanthin was 122.1 µg in 1 g of fresh L. japonica rhizoid; (2) in comparison with the widely used organic solvent, acetone, DMSO was much more effective for the extraction of fucoxanthin; (3) both DMSO volume and extraction time influenced extraction efficiency such as the recovery rate and purity of fucoxanthin (1 g of fresh L. japonica rhizoid treated with 4 mL DMSO for 60 min, yielded > 88% of the total fucoxanthin with purity 0.63); (4) when (NH4)2SO4 concentration was in the range of 0.5®C1.0 mol/L, the pigments rapidly and entirely moved from DMSO into the ethyl acetate phase; (5) the ethyl acetate and DMSO were recycled using a rotary evaporator.
Abstract (Browse 3682)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genomic Rearrangement in Endogenous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons of Rice Lines Introgressed by Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)
Author: Ye SHEN, Xiu-Yun LIN, Xiao-Hui SHAN, Chun-Jing LIN, Fang-Pu HAN, Jin-Song PANG£¨Bao LIU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00103.x
    Stochastic introgression of alien DNA may impose a genomic stress to the recipient genome. Herein, we report that apparent de novo genomic rearrangements in 10 of 13 selected endogenous, low-copy, and potentially active long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in one or more of three rice lines studied that were introgressed by wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). For nine retrotransposons in which both the reverse-transcriptase (RT) region and the LTR region were available, largely concordant rearrangements occurred at both regions in five elements and at the RT region only in the remaining four elements. A marked proportion of the genomic changes was shared by two or all three introgression lines that were derived from a single F1 plant. This indicates that most of the genomic changes occurred at early developmental stages of the F1 somatic cells, which then gave rise to germline cells, and, hence, ensured inheritance of the changes to later generations. Possible causes and potential implications of the introgression-induced genomic rearrangements in LTR retrotransposons are discussed in the context of plant genome evolution and breeding.
Abstract (Browse 3374)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Proteins Related to the Biocontrol of Pythium Damping-off in Maize with Trichoderma harzianum Rifai  
Author: Jie CHEN, Gary E HARMAN, Afio COMIS£¨Gen-Wu CHENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8): 988-997
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00053.x
    Induced resistance has been evidenced as one of mechanisms of Trichoderma to control plant diseases, however, no study showed the change of host proteomics in Trichoderma-induced resistance of maize against damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum Trow. The mechanism of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai for controlling maize seedling disease caused by Pythium ultimum Trow was investigated firstly by proteome technique and the result suggested that T. harzianum strain T22 was not only able to promote seedling growth but also protein accumulation. One-dimensional electrophoresis assay showed that more bands appeared on the gel with T22 or T22 combined with P. ultimum (T22 + P. ultimum) treatment than with other treatments. Enzyme assay showed that two chitinases of the root sample were more activated in the treatments with T22 than in the other treatments without T22. Proteins in the seedling roots from the various treatments were separated through protein extraction and 2-D electrophoresis technique. In the seedlings produced from the T22-treated seeds, there were 104 up-regulated proteins and 164 down-regulated proteins relative to the control, and 97 and 150, respectively, after treatment with T22 + P. ultimum; however, with P. ultimum alone the values were much lower than with the other two treatments. The correlation coefficient values were 0.72, 0.51 and 0.49 for the comparison of protein spot distribution on gel among control with T22, P. ultimum and T22 + P. ultimum, respectively. So it seemed that P. ultimum infection was more effective than T22 in interfering with the host proteome profile. Furthermore, analysis with MALDI-TOF-MAS showed that some important proteins associated with defensive reactions were identified in T22 or T22 + P. ultimum treatments, including endochitinase, pathogenesis-related protein PRMS (pathogenesis-related maize seed), GTP-binding protein, isoflavone reductase and other proteins related to respiration. All those proteins are probably part of the network of resistance or development-related proteins. Interestingly, P. ultimum treatment resulted in elimination of pathogenesis-related protein PRMS on gel, and therefore damping-off could be in part attributed to inhibition of the expression of this protein by P. ultimum infection. Some unknown proteins are also related to the defensive reaction of the host.
Abstract (Browse 3983)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Transgenic Tobacco Expressing a Modified VP6 Gene Protects Mice Against Rotavirus Infection
Author: Jiang-Li DONG, Bo ZHOU, Gang SHENG£¨Tao WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00145.x
    Elevated expression of the rotavirus VP6 antigen in transgenic plants is a critical factor in the development of a safe and effective rotavirus vaccine. Using codon optimization, a gene that encodes the inner capsid protein VP6 of the human group A rotavirus was synthesized (sVP6). The VP6 and sVp6 genes were transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens . The expression level of the sVP6 gene in transgenic plants was 3.8®C34-fold higher than that of controls containing the non-modified VP6 gene, accounting for up to 0.34% of the total soluble protein (TSP). Then, BALB/c female mice that had been gavaged weekly with 10 mg TSP containing 34 g VP6 protein, in which VP6-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies were investigated. The severity and duration of diarrhea caused by simian rotavirus SA-11 challenge were reduced significantly in passively immunized pups, which indicates that anti-VP6 antibodies generated in orally immunized female mice can be passed onto pups and provide heterotypic protection. An edible vaccine based on the VP6 of human rotavirus group A could provide a means to protect children and young animals from severe acute diarrhea.
Abstract (Browse 3039)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Creation of Transgenic Bananas Expressing Human Lysozyme Gene for Panama Wilt Resistance
Author: Xin-Wu PEI, Shi-Kai CHEN, Rui-Ming WEN, Shang YE, Jia-Qin HUANG, Yong-Qiang ZHANG, Bing-Shan WANG, Zhi-Xing WANG£¨Shi-Rong JIA
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00141.x
    Human lysozyme (HL) inhibits Fusarium oxysporum (FocR4) growth in vitro. To obtain transgenic bananas (Musa spp.) that are resistant to Panama wilt (F. oxysporum), we introduced an HL gene that is driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into the banana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR confirmed that 51 transgenic plants were obtained. The development of Panama wilt symptoms were examined after the plants had been grown in pots. The non-transgenic plants developed typical fusarium symptoms 60 d after FocR4 inoculation, whereas 24 of 51 transgenic plants remained healthy. The transgenic banana plants that showed resistance to FocR4 in the pots were then planted in a field that was heavily infected with FocR4 for further investigation. Eleven of 24 plants developed symptoms before bud emergence; another 11 plants showed symptoms after bud emergence and the remaining two plants, H-67 and H-144, remained healthy and were able to fruit. Northern blotting analysis demonstrated that H-67 and H-144, bearing the strongest resistance to Panama wilt, had the highest level of HL expression and that the expression of HL was well correlated with the FocR4 resistance of transgenic plants. We conclude that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, with the assistance of particle bombardment, is a powerful approach for banana transformation and that a transgenic HL gene can cause resistance of the crop to FocR4 in the field.
Abstract (Browse 3688)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Temperature Acclimation Pretreatment on the Ultrastructure of Mesophyll Cells in Young Grape Plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) Under Cross-Temperature Stresses
Author: Jun-Huan ZHANG, Wei-Dong HUANG, Yue-Ping LIU£¨Qiu-Hong PAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00109.x
    Leaves from annual young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) were used as experimental materials. The ultrastructural characteristics of mesophyll cells in chilling-treated plants after heat acclimation (HA) and in heat-treated plants after cold acclimation (CA) were observed and compared using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that slight injury appeared in the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells after either HA (38 °„C for 10 h) or CA (8 °„C for 2.5 d), but the tolerance to subsequent extreme temperature stress was remarkably improved by HA or CA pretreatment. The increases in membrane permeability and malondialdehyde concentration under chilling (0 °„C) or heat (45 °„C) stress were markedly inhibited by HA or CA pretreatment. The mesophyll cells of plants not pretreated with HA were markedly damaged following chilling stress. The chloroplasts appeared irregular in shape, the arrangement of the stroma lamellae was disordered, and no starch granules were present. The cristae of the mitochondria were disrupted and became empty. The nucleus became irregular in shape and the nuclear membrane was digested. In contrast, the mesophyll cells of HA-pretreated plants maintained an intact ultrastructure under chilling stress. The mesophyll cells of control plants were also severely damaged under heat stress. The chloroplast became round in shape, the stroma lamellae became swollen, and the contents of vacuoles formed clumps. In the case of mitochondria of control plants subjected to heat stress, the outer envelope was digested and the cristae were disrupted and became many small vesicles. Compared with cellular organelles in control plants, those in CA plant cells always maintained an integrated state during whole heat stress, except for the chloroplasts, which became round in shape after 10 h heat stress. From these data, we suggest that the stability of mesophyll cells under chilling stress can be increased by HA pretreatment. Similarly, CA pretreatment can protect chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the nucleus against subsequent heat stress; thus, the thermoresistance of grape seedlings was improved. The results obtained in the present study are the first, to our knowledge, to offered cytological evidence of cross-adaptation to temperature stresses in grape plants.
Abstract (Browse 3545)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cu) on the Gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch
Author: Nai-Hao YE, Guang-Ce WANG£¨Cheng-Kui TSENG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00116.x
    Effects of various concentrations of two heavy metals, namely Cd and Cu, on gametophytes of Laminaria japonica Aresch were determined by recording morphological changes of gametophytes, determining pH values and the heavy metal content of the culture solution, calculating the germination rate of sporophytes, and observing heavy metal (Cd) distribution using a fluorescence microscope. The results showed that heavy metals damaged the gametophytes, and were even lethal, and that the higher the concentration of heavy metal ions, the greater the injury to gametophytes. Gametophytes could not survive in culture solutions containing more than 100 mg/L Cd and 50 mg/L Cu and were only able to survive in culture solution containing a mixture of Cd and Cu up to a concentration of 10 mg/L, which indicates that gametophytes have a higher tolerance to Cd than Cu and that multiple heavy metal ions in solution markedly aggravate the damage to gametophytes compared with individual heavy metal ions. With increases in the concentration of the heavy metal, the burgeoning rate of sporophytes decreased acutely, and solutions containing multiple heavy metal ions caused even more marked harm to sporophytes than solutions containing a single heavy metal ion, because most sporophytes died in mixed solutions. The pH value of the culture medium dropped immediately at the beginning (the first day) of treatment, increased over the following days, and then decreased again. The pH of culture media containing multiple heavy metal ions showed greater variation than media containing a single heavy metal ion, with the extent of the decrease in pH of culture media containing multiple ions being greatest during the last period of the experiment. With increases in the concentration of heavy metals, the capacity of gametophytes to accumulate these ions increased. The blue fluorescent light emitted by the Cd- and Cd-binding protein complex existing in gametophytes in media containing different concentrations of Cd showed clearly the distribution of the ion in gametophytes and the results obtained were consistent with distribution determined using other methods. All results of the present study showed that gametophytes of L. japonica play a remarkable role as heavy metal decontaminators, especially with regard to Cd.
Abstract (Browse 3065)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Possible Involvement of K+/Na+ in Assessing the Seed Vigor Index
Author: Hong-Yan CHENG, Guang-Hua ZHENG, Xiao-Feng WANG, Yan LIU, Yi-Tang YAN£¨Jian LIN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00140.x
    More substances leaked from a higher-vigor seed sample than from a lower-vigor sample. This indicates that, in some cases, electric conductivity does not represent seed vigor level very well, especially for high-vigor seeds. Results from germination, germination index, leachate conductivity, and the ratio of K+/Na+ from three-seed lots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Louv.) Rupr) showed that K+/Na+ correlated well with germination and germination index. The ability of K+/Na+ to indicate well changes in vigor was further supported by investigation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds and another cultivar of Chinese cabbage seeds. Thus, seed leakage of K+/Na+ can accurately indicate seed vigor, whereas the conductivity test failed to do so. Furthermore, K+/Na+ showed up bigger quantitative differences in vigor level than did the conductivity test. This findings provide a more sensitive and accurate index for the assessment of seed vigor. The mechanisms of Na+ and K+ ion transport are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3265)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Root Morphology and Zn2+ Uptake Kinetics of the Zn Hyperaccumulator of Sedum alfredii Hance
Author: Ting-Qiang LI, Xiao-E YANG, Zhen-Li HE£¨Jin-Yan YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00117.x
    Root morphology and Zn2+ uptake kinetics of the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) and non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) of Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated using hydroponic methods and the radiotracer flux technique. The results indicate that root length, root surface area, and root volume of NHE decreased significantly with increasing Zn2+ concentration in growth media, whereas the root growth of HE was not adversely affected, and was even promoted, by 500 mol/L Zn2+. The concentrations of Zn2+ in both ecotypes of S. alfredii were positively correlated with root length, root surface area and root volumes, but no such correlation was found for root diameter. The uptake kinetics for 65Zn2+ in roots of both ecotypes of S. alfredii were characterized by a rapid linear phase during the first 6 h and a slower linear phase during the subsequent period of investigation. The concentration-dependent uptake kinetics of the two ecotypes of S. alfredii could be characterized by the Michaelis-Menten equation, with the Vmax for 65Zn2+ influx being threefold greater in HE compared with NHE, indicating that enhanced absorption into the root was one of the mechanisms involved in Zn hyperaccumulation. A significantly larger Vmax value suggested that there was a higher density of Zn transporters per unit membrane area in HE roots.
Abstract (Browse 3241)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Analysis of Grassland Vegetation of the Southwest Heilongjiang Steppe
Author: Mikinori TSUIKI, Yu-Sheng WANG, Yiruhan, Michio TSUTSUMI£¨Masae SHIYOMI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00121.x
    In 1997, we conducted a vegetation survey in three semi-arid natural grasslands (steppes) with different livestock grazing intensities in Southwest Heilongjiang Province, China. The dominant grassland species was the grass Stipa baicalensis Roshev. Grasslands with light, intermediate, and heavy grazing intensities were located 10, 5, and 2 km from a village, respectively. Villagers use the steppe to raise cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Each of the three grasslands was surveyed by placing 100 quadrats (50 cm°Ń50 cm) along a 50 m line transect. Each quadrat was divided into four equal areas (25 cm°Ń25 cm; S-quadrats) and all plant species occurring in each of these smaller areas were identified and recorded. These data were summarized into frequency distributions and the percentage of S-quadrats containing a given species and the variance of each species were estimated. The power law was applied to these estimates. The power law was used to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity and frequency of occurrence for each species in the grassland community. The lightly grazed grassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by large plant size), the highest species diversity, and a high occurrence of S. baicalensis. In contrast, the heavily grazed grassland exhibited high spatial heterogeneity (caused by patchy populations of small plant size), low species diversity, and a low occurrence of S. baicalensis. We judged that the heavily grazed grassland was overgrazed and exclusion of livestock from the degraded areas is necessary for recovery.
Abstract (Browse 3102)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cytoskeleton in Pollen and Pollen Tubes of Ginkgo biloba L.
Author: Jun-Mei LIU, Hong ZHANG£¨Yan LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00123.x
    The distribution of F-actin and microtubules was investigated in pollen and pollen tubes of Ginkgo biloba L. using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence and immunofluorescence labeling. A dense F-actin network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen. When Ginkgo pollen was germinating, F-actin mesh was found under the plasma membrane from which the pollen tube would emerge. After pollen germination, F-actin bundles were distributed axially in long pollen tubes of G. biloba. Thick F-actin bundles and network were found in the tip of the Ginkgo pollen tube, which is opposite to the results reported for the pollen tubes of some angiosperms and conifers. In addition, a few circular F-actin bundles were found in Ginkgo pollen tubes. Using immunofluorescence labeling, a dense microtubule network was found in hydrated Ginkgo pollen under confocal microscope. In the Ginkgo pollen tube, the microtubules were distributed along the longitudinal axis and extended to the tip. These results suggest that the cytoskeleton may have an essential role in the germination of Ginkgo pollen and tube growth.
Abstract (Browse 3495)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Vegetation and Climate Variations at Taibai, Qinling Mountains in Central China for the Last 3 500 cal BP  
Author: Xiao-Qiang LI, John DODSON, Jie ZHOU, Su-Min WANG£¨Qian-Li SUN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8): 905-916
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00133.x
    Pollen records of two swamp sections, located at Taibai Mountain, the highest peak in the Qinling Mountains of central China, show variations of vegetation and climate for the last 3 500 cal BP. The pollen assemblage at the Foyechi and Sanqingchi sections and the surface soil pollen allowed us to reconstruct a high-altitude vegetation history at Taibai Mountain for the first time. The data indicated that there was a cold-dry climate interval between 3 500 and 3 080 cal BP and a relatively warm and wet period compared with the present from 3 080 to 1 860 cal BP. The warmest period in the late Holocene on Taibai Mountain was from 1 430 to 730 cal BP, with an approximate 2 °„C increase in mean annual temperature compared with today. There was a relatively cool-dry climate interval from 730 to 310 cal BP. After 310 cal BP, a mountain tundra vegetation developed again and the position of the modern tree line was established.
Abstract (Browse 4719)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A Dispersal and Vicariance Analysis of the Genus Caragana Fabr.
Author: Ming-Li ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(8)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00118.x
    The genus Caragana Fabr., consisting of approximately 70 species, has a temperate Asian distribution and occurs mainly in the drought and cold regions of the northwestern and southwestern Tibetan Plateau of China. The distribution pattern of the genus was investigated using dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA). The results indicate that vicariance versus dispersal plays a major role in the evolution of the genus and that short-distance dispersal also exists. There is no fossil record of this genus. Therefore, Caragana is inferred as an advanced taxon in terms of its limited temperate Asian distribution. Based on the morphological variation and ecological adaptation in Caragana, the generic speciation is postulated to be related to the uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau and to the increasing arid conditions of Central Asian lands since the Neogene. The Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are hypothesized as the barriers of vicariance between East Asia and western Central Asia.
Abstract (Browse 3494)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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