September 2005, Volume 47 Issue 9, Pages 1025-1152.

Cover Caption:
The refined vegetation fractional coverage of temperate typical steppe in Inner Mongolia is derived from processing digital camera image by different methods, such as visual interpretation and supervised classification methods. See pages 1074-1083 for more details.


          Research Articles
Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. Ex C. A. Mey.
Author: Zhong-Jie ZOU, Yue-Sheng DONG and Jun-Shan YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00147.x
    The roots of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey. have been used in the treatment of epilepsia, neurasthenia, and arthritis in Chinese folk medicine for a long time. In order to find new and bioactive compounds, the chemical constituents of the roots of A. altaica were investigated and nine compounds were isolated from the EtOH extract of this plant. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as 4-(9H-¶¬-carbolin-1-yl)-4-oxo-butyric acid (1), carboxymethyl isoferulate (2), isoferulic acid (3), cirsiumaldehyde (4), 5-hydroxy-4-oxo-pentanoic acid (5), triacontane (6), palmic acid (7),¶¬-sitosterol (8), and daucosterol (9). Among them, 1 and 2 were new compounds, and 3 and 4 were obtained from this genus for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 3034)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Three New Flavone Glycosides from Drymaria diandra Bl.
Author: Zhong-Tao DING, Xue-Qiong YANG, Qiu-E CAO and Fei LI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00094.x
    In order to find new structural and biologically active compounds, the constituents from the whole plant of Drymaria diandra Bl. (Caryophyllaceae) were investigated and three new flavone glycosides, named drymariatins B (1), C (2), and D (3), were isolated by solvent partition, Si gel, sephadex LH-20, and Rp-18 column chromatography. Using spectroscopic methods, including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as 6-C-(2-deoxy-¶¬-D-fucopyranosyl)-5,7,4''-trihydroxyl-flavone, 6-C-(2-deoxy-¶¬-D-fucopyranosyl)-7-O-(¶¬-D-glucopyranosyl)-5,4''-dihydroxyl-flavone, and 6-C-(3-keto-¶¬-digitoxopyranosyl)-7-O-(¶¬-D-glucopyranosyl)-5,4''-dihydroxyl-flavone.
Abstract (Browse 2920)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Mapping of a Wheat Resistance Gene to Yellow Mosaic Disease by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Simple Sequence Repeat Markers
Author: Wei-Hua LIU, Huan NIE, Zhen-Tian HE, Xiu-Lan CHEN, Yue-Peng HAN, Jin-Rong WANG, Xin LI, Cheng-Gui HAN and Jia-Lin YU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00139.x
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) is transmitted by a fungal vector through soil and causes serious wheat yield losses due to yellow mosaic disease, with yellow-streaked leaves and stunted plants. In the present study, the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) were used to identify the molecular linkages with the resistance gene against WYMV. Bulked segregant analysis was performed with an F2 population derived from the cross of cultivar Ningmai 9 (resistant) °Ń cultivar Yangmai 10 (susceptible). By screening among the resistant or susceptible parents, the F2 pools and the individuals in the F2 population with 64 combined selective AFLP primers (EcoRI/MseI) or 290 reported SSR primers, a polymorphic DNA segment (approximately 120 bp) was amplified using the primer pair E2/M5, and an SSR marker (approximately 180 bp) was located on wheat chromosome 2A using the primer Xgwm328. Analysis with MAPMAKER/Exp Version 3.0b (Whitehead institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA) indicated that these two markers were dominantly associated with the resistance gene at distances of 5.4 cM or 17.6 cM, respectively. The resistance gene to WYMV derived from Ningmai 9, is temporarily named YmNM, and was mapped to wheat chromosome 2A.
Abstract (Browse 3380)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Expression Pattern of a Gene Encoding a Putative Plastidic
Author: Kun MENG, Tuan-Jie CHANG, Xiang LIU, Song-Biao CHEN, Yong-Qin WANG, Ai-Jun SUN, Hong-Lin XU, Xiao-Li WEI and Zhen ZHU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00119.x
    Herein, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of a full cDNA encoding a putative plastidic ATP/ADP transporter, designated HtAATP, for Helianthus tuberosus L. The ATP/ADP translocator protein was isolated from the tuber-cDNA library of H. tuberosus for the first time. The predicted HtAATP protein was judged as a plastidic ATP/ADP translocator protein from its high homology at the amino acid sequence level to the two Arabidopsis thaliana plastidic ATP/ADP translocator proteins AATP1 and AATP2 (84.8% and 79.9% identity, respectively). Amino acid sequence analysis of the primary structure of HtAATP revealed that it belonged to the plastidic ATP/ADP transporter family. Hydropathy prediction indicated that HtAATP gene product is a highly hydrophobic membrane protein that contains 10 transmembrane domains to form a spanning topology. Southern blotting analysis showed that the HtAATP gene is a single-copy gene in the H. tuberosus genome. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the HtAATP gene is prominently expressed in sink tissues. A stable expression pattern in tubers at different developmental stages implies an active involvement of HtAATP during carbohydrate formation.
Abstract (Browse 2912)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Overexpression of the OsPDCD5 Gene Induces Programmed Cell Death in Rice
Author: Kotb ATTIA, Ke-Gui LI, Chun WEI, Guang-Ming HE, Wei SU and Jin-Shui YANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00128.x
    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) programmed cell death 5 (OsPDCD5) gene in rice plant. Constitutive expression of OsPDCD5 from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter induced programmed cell death (PCD) in transgenic rice. Programmed cell death was accompanied by typical features, including inhibition of developmental growth, a reduction of fresh weight, degradation of total protein content, and fragmentation of genomic DNA. These results suggest that OsPDCD5 plays an essential role in the regulation of PCD in rice plants.
Abstract (Browse 2699)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Expression Analysis of Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Grains of Wheat  
Author: Mao-Sen LIU, Fang WANG, Yu-Xiu DONG and Xian-Sheng ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9): 1107-1114
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00148.x
    The grain color of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important characteristic in crop production. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes (DFR) encode the key enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, which is involved in the pigmentation of plant tissues. To investigate the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin deposition in grains of wheat, we determined the expression of the wheat DFR gene in purple grains of cultivar Heimai 76. The results showed that DFR transcripts were localized in the seed coat of purple grains rather than in the pericarp, whereas anthocyanins were accumulated in both tissues of purple grains, suggesting that anthocyanin deposition was mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of the TaDFR-A gene in Arabidopsis showed that TaDFR-A was responsible for the pigmentation of Arabidopsis plant tissues, indicating TaDFR-A gene has the same role in Arabidopsis.
Abstract (Browse 3648)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of the Application of Different Concentrations of NaN3 for Different Times on the Morphological and Cytogenetic Characteristics of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings
Author: Ali Irfan ILBAS, Yasemin EROGLU and Halil Erhan EROGLU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00137.x
    Sodium azide (NaN3) has been used in many biological studies as a mutagen. In the present study, the morphological and cytogenetic effects of NaN3 on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were investigated. Seeds of barley were treated with different concentrations of NaN3 (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mmol/L) and applied for different periods of time (3 and 4 h). Parameters investigated, except for the mitotic index, were determined on Days 7 and 14. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 affected germination rates on Days 7 and 14 following application for 3 and 4 h. Although the length of the roots and leaves was affected by treatment with NaN3 on Day 14 of the germination period, coleoptile length was affected by NaN3 treatment on Day 7. Increasing concentrations of NaN3 and increased treatment period decreased the mitotic index compared with the untreated control. The inhibitory effects of NaN3 on the mitotic index indicate that NaN3 can have genotoxic and mutagenic effects on barley seedlings.
Abstract (Browse 3895)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photosynthetic Characterization of the Plant Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh. In a Rare Earth Elements Mine
Author: Li-Feng WANG, Hong-Bing JI, Ke-Zhi BAI, Liang-Bi LIand Ting-Yun KUANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00138.x
    In order to investigate the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in the natural hyperaccumulator fern Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh. and to characterize this plant photosynthetically, concentrations of REEs in D. dichotoma from mines mining heavy and light REEs (HREEs and LREEs, respectively), as well as in D. dichotoma from an area in which no mining occurred, in southern Jiangxi Province were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The REE concentrations in the lamina of D. dichotoma were in the order LREEs mine > HREEs mine > non-mining area. The maximum REE content in the lamina of D. dichotoma from the LREE mine was approximately 2 648 mg/kg dry weight. The photosynthetic activity of D. dichotoma from areas of HREE and LREE mines was improved by the presence of high concentrations of REEs in the lamina compared with D. dichotoma from the non-mining area. However, this enhancement varied according to the concentrations of the REEs, as well as their type. In addition, 77K fluorescence, electron transport rate, and chlorophyll-protein complex studies showed that the enhancement of the photosynthetic activity of D. dichotoma from HREE mines was mainly due to an increase in the chlorophyll-protein complex of the reaction center of photosystem (PS) I, whereas the enhancement observed in D. dichotoma from LREE mines was due to an increase in the internal antennae chlorophyll-protein complex of PS II and greater light energy distribution to the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of PS II.
Abstract (Browse 3007)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A New Steroidal Glycoside from Ophiopogon°°japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl.
Author: Hao-Fu DAI, Shi-Ming DENG, Ning-Hua TAN and Jun ZHOU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00084.x
    To study the chemical constituents from traditional Chinese herb Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., a new steroidal glycoside, named ophiopojaponin C (1), together with two known ones, was isolated by column chromatography. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence revealed the structures to be ophiopogenin 3-O-[¶Ń-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1°ķ2)]-¶¬-D-xylopyranosyl°°(1°ķ4)-¶¬-D-glucopyranoside (1), diosgenin 3-O-[2-O-acetyl-¶Ń-L-rhamnopyranosyl°°(1°ķ2)]-¶¬-D-xylopyranosyl°°(1°ķ3)-¶¬-D-glucopyranoside (2), and ruscogenin 1-O-°°[2-O-acetyl-¶Ń-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1°ķ2)]-¶¬-D-°°xylopyranosyl(1°ķ3)-¶¬-D-fucopyranoside (3).
Abstract (Browse 2943)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Improvement, Comparison, and Application of Field Measurement Methods for Grassland Vegetation Fractional Coverage
Author: Xiao-Bing LI, Yun-Hao CHEN, Hua YANG and Yun-Xia ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00134.x
    As one of the important vegetation parameters, vegetation fractional coverage (VFC) is more difficult to measure accurately among a good many parameters of plant communities. The temperate typical steppe in the north of China was chosen for investigation in the present study and a digital camera was used to measure herb community coverage in the field, adopting methods of ocular estimation, gridding measurement, visual interpretation, supervised classification, and information extraction of color spatial transformation to calculate the VFC of images captured by the digital camera. In addition VFC calculated by various methods was analyzed and compared VFC, enabling us to propose an effective method for measuring VFC using a digital camera. The results of the present study indicate that: (i) as two common useful and effective methods of measuring VFC with a digital camera, not only does the error of estimated values of visual estimation and supervised classification vary considerably, but the degree of automatization is very low and depends, to a great extent, on the manipulator; (ii) although the method of visual interpretation may assure the precision of the calculated VFC and enable the precision of results obtained using other methods to be determined, as far as large quantities of data are concerned, this method has the disadvantages of wasting time and energy, and the applications of this method are limited; (iii) the precision and stability of VFC calculated using the grid and node method are superior to those of visual estimation and supervised classification and inferior to those of visual interpretation, but, as for visual interpretation and supervised classification, gridding measurements are difficult to apply in practice because they are not time efficient; and (iv) in terms of the precision of calculation of the VFC, an information-extracting model based on an intensity, hue, saturation (IHS) color space-multi-component series segmentation strategy is superior to methods of ocular estimation, gridding measurement, and supervised classification. In terms of practical efficiency, the information-extracting model is superior to visual interpretation, supervised classification, and gridding measurement. It has been proven that estimating the VFC of the north temperate typical steppe using this model is feasible. This is very fundamental research work in grassland ecology.
Abstract (Browse 3034)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Promotion by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid of Germination of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) Seeds Under Salt Stress
Author: Liang-Ju WANG, Wei-Bing JIANG, Hui LIU, Wei-Qin LIU, Lang KANG and Xi-Lin HOU
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00150.x
    The seed germination and seedling growth of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee cv. Hanxiao) were not significantly inhibited until the concentration of NaCl was increased to150 mmol/L. Treatment of pakchoi seeds with exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.00 mg/L, promoted seed germination when seeds were stressed by salinity, whereas levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of ALA dehydrase, significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, suggesting that metabolism of ALA into porphyrin compounds was necessary for seed germination and seedling growth. Determination of respiratory rate during seed germination showed that ALA increased seed respiration under both normal conditions and salt stress. Furthermore, salt stress decreased levels of endogenous ALA, as well as heme, in etiolated seedlings. More salt-tolerant cultivars of pakchoi contained higher relative levels of endogenous ALA and heme under conditions of salt stress. These results indicate that salt stress may inhibit the biosynthesis of endogenous ALA and then heme, which is necessary for seed germination, and treatment of seeds with exogenous ALA prior to germination may be associated with the biosynthesis of heme.
Abstract (Browse 3028)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Correlations Between Foliar Stable Carbon Isotope Composition and Environmental Factors in Desert Plant Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim.
Author: Jian-Ying MA, Tuo CHEN, Wei-Ya QIANG and Gang WANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00129.x
    Leaves of 407 individuals of Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim. collected from the major distribution areas were measured to investigate the distribution characteristics of the stable carbon isotope in this desert plant, as well as correlations between 13C values and environmental factors. Results showed that 13C values in R. soongorica ranged from ®C22.77°Ž to ®C29.85°Ž and that the mean 13C value (®C26.52°Ž) was higher than a previously reported 13C value for a different desert ecosystem. This indicates that R. soongorica belongs to the C3 photosynthetic pathway and has higher water use efficiency than other species. The correlations between 13C values and environmental factors demonstrated that the foliar 13C values in R. soongorica increased significantly with decreasing mean annual precipitation and mean relative humidity, and decreased with decreasing duration of sunshine and evaporation. The spatial distribution trend of 13C values in R. soongorica was not obvious and there was no significant correlation between the 13C values and mean annual temperature. We conclude that different distribution trends in 13C values for R. soongorica were likely caused by stomatal limitation rather than by nutrient-related changes in photosynthetic efficiency and that precipitation played an important role in the wide distribution range of R. soongorica. This pattern of 13C values for R. soongorica reinforced that it is a super-xerophil in terms of its adaptive strategies to a desert environment.
Abstract (Browse 2862)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Heavy Metal Accumulation and Ecological Responses of Turfgrass to Rubbish Compost with EDTA Addition
Author: Li-An DUO, Yu-Bao GAO and Shu-Lan ZHAO
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00135.x
    Domestic rubbish compost is a complex-polluted system, containing multiple heavy metals, which limits its application. In the present study, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb accumulation and ecological responses of turfgrass to rubbish compost were investigated following the addition of EDTA. The results showed that the addition of EDTA significantly increased heavy metal accumulation in Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea L. Most heavy metal concentrations in L. perenne increased with increasing EDTA supply. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd in L. perenne were highest following the addition of 30 mmol/kg EDTA and the concentrations of Cr and Ni at this point reached concentrations of 1 914.17 and 521.25 g/g, respectively. When the EDTA level was < 20 mmol/kg, the accumulation of most heavy metals in F. arundinacea increased with increasing EDTA supply, but showed a tendency to decrease at EDTA concentrations >20 mmol/kg. The highest concentrations of Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn in F. arundinacea reached 268.01, 110.94, 161.52 and 1 354.97 g/g, respectively, following the addition of 20 mmol/kg EDTA. The EDTA-induced increase in the accumulation of heavy metals in turfgrass was plant- and metal-specific. L. perenne had a relatively high ability to accumulate Cr, Ni, and Zn. The highest Zn concentration was 2 979.58 g/g and, following the addition of EDTA, the concentrations of the three metals were increased 26.23, 20.03, and 10.49-fold, respectively, compared with control. However, F. arundinacea showed a high ability to accumulate Cr, with the highest concentration (596.02 g/g) seen following the addition of 30 mmol/kg EDTA; the concentration of Cr increased 15.51-fold compared with control. With EDTA addition, ecological responses of both turfgrass species showed that EDTA at concentrations <10 mmol/kg increased seed germination and aboveground net primary production (ANP) of L. perenne and slightly inhibited those of F. arundinacea, but EDTA at concentrations >20 mmol/kg inhibited these parameters significantly for both species. Moreover, EDTA increased the chlorophyll and proline content at all concentrations tested. On the basis of the synthetic remediation index, the optimal EDTA concentration for turfgrass remediation of heavy metals in compost is approximately 10 mmol/kg.
Abstract (Browse 3018)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Molecular Genetic Variation in a Clonal Plant Population of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.
Author: Yu-Sheng WANG, Li-Ming ZHAO, Hua WANG, Jie WANG, Da-Ming HUANG, Rui-Min HONG, Xiao-Hua TENG and Nakamura MIKI
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00091.x
    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the genetic variation among populations, between populations, and within populations, relationships between genetic distance and geographic distance, and the molecular variation and population size. The effects of geographic and genetic distances, as well as of genetic differentiation and population size, on genetic variations of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. are discussed. The present study showed that there was significant RAPD variation between the Baicheng region population and the Daqing region population, with a molecular variance of 6.35% (P < 0.04), and for differentiation among area populations of the Daqing region, with a molecular variance of 8.78% (P < 0.002). A 21.06% RAPD variation among all 16 populations among two regions was found (P < 0.001), as well as 72.59% variation within populations (P < 0.001). Molecular variation within populations was significantly different among 16 populations.
Abstract (Browse 2958)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pollen Morphology of Eight Genera of the Subtribe Mutisiinae Less. Sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia
Author: Na-Na LIN, Hong WANG, De-Zhu LI and Stephen BLACKMORE
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00124.x
    The pollen morphology of 28 species and one variety representing eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. The pollen grains are usually radically symmetrical, isopolar, and tricolporate. The shape varies from spheroidal to subprolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in polar view. Based on exine sculpturing observed under SEM, the pollen grains can be divided into three types: (i) type I, with macrogranulate sculpture; (ii) type II, with a finely granulate sculpture; and (iii) type III, with spiny sculpture. The palynological data showed that the Macroclinidium Maxim. was remarkably distinguished from those of the other seven genera. The variation of pollen characteristics within the Mutisiinae in Asia is little at species level, but it proves some useful information for studying the relationships among genera and it has an important significance in further understanding the evolutionary history of Mutisiinae.
Abstract (Browse 2945)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Molecular Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Heavy Metal Tolerance/Hyperaccumulation in Plants
Author: Xiao-E YANG, Xiao-Fen JIN, Ying FENG and Ejazul ISLAM
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2005 47(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00144.x
    Phytoremediation has gained increased attention as a cost-effective method for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites. Because some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration, which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance, as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. In the present review, our major objective is to concisely evaluate the progress made so far in understanding the molecular/cellular mechanisms and genetic basis that control the uptake and detoxification of metals by plants.
Abstract (Browse 3744)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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