November 2006, Volume 48 Issue 11, Pages 1257-1384.


Cover Caption:
Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, and it usually grows on the rocks or tree branches (the bottom right image). A female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) visiting R. beesianus as a nectar robber in Yunnan Province, south-west China (the top left image). The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome, but suffered a serious pollinator-limitation in the field. Female Black-breasted Sunbirds and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. Bird extinctions as a result of habitat fragmentation may lead to a decline of pollination and fruit set in this species. See pages 1294每1299 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance
Author: Ri-Qing Zhang, Chun-Fang Tang, Shi-Zhi Wen, Yun-Guo Liu and Ke-Lin Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00346.x
      
    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.(Author for correspondence.E-mail: hanszhangriqing@yahoo.com.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2479)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nectar and Pollen Sources for Honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) in Qinglan Mangrove Area, Hainan Island, China
Author: Yi-Feng Yao, Subir Bera, Yu-Fei Wang and Cheng-Sen Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00353.x
      
    In the present study, nectar and pollen sources for honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) were studied in Qinglan mangrove area, Hainan Island, China, based on microscopic analysis of honey and pollen load (corbicular and gut contents) from honeybees collected in October and November 2004. Qualitative and quantitative melittopalynological analysis of the natural honey sample showed that the honey is of unifloral type with Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) as the predominant (89.14%) source of nectar and pollen for A. cerana cerana in October. Members of Araceae are an important minor (3%每15%) pollen type, whereas those of Arecaceae are a minor (<3%) pollen type. Pollen grains of Nypa fruticans Wurmb., Rhizophora spp., Excoecaria agallocha L., Lumnitzera spp., Bruguiera spp., Kandelia candel Druce, and Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. are among the notable mangrove taxa growing in Qinglan mangrove area recorded as minor taxa in the honey. The absolute pollen count (i.e. the number of pollen grains/10 g honey sample) suggests that the honey belongs to Group V (>1 000 000). Pollen analysis from the corbicular and gut contents of A. cerana cerana revealed the highest representation (95.60%) of members of Sonneratia spp. (Sonneratiaceae), followed by Bruguiera spp. (Rhizophoraceae), Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae, Anacardiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Of these plants, those belonging to Sonneratia plants are the most important nectar and pollen sources for A. cerana cerana and are frequently foraged and pollinated by these bees in November.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6436; Fax: +86 (0)10 6259 3385; E-mail: lics@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2377)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Changes in Photosystem II Activity and Leaf Reflectance Features of Several Subtropical Woody Plants Under Simulated SO2 Treatment
Author: Nan Liu, Chang-Lian Peng, Zhi-Fang Lin, Gui-Zhu Lin, Ling-Ling Zhang and Xiao-Ping Pan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00351.x
      
    The effects of simulated SO2 treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (Bl.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. After leaf sections had been immersed in 0, 20, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaHSO3 for 20 h, total chlorophyll (Chl) content, Chl a/b, maximal photochemical efficiency, and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem II of all five woody plants were reduced to different degrees, whereas lutein content (Chl base) was increased. Two protective mechanisms, namely the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxidation) and an anti-oxidant system (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging capacity), showed differences in the degree of modulation under simulated SO2 treatment. Compared with control (distilled water treatment), the revised normalized difference vegetation index, a leaf reflectance index, was lowered with increasing concentrations of NaHSO3. Cryptocarya concinna, a dominant species in the late succession stage of subtropical forests in South China, exhibited less sensitivity to NaHSO3. Conversely, Pinus massoniana, the pioneer heliophyte species, was most susceptible to NaHSO3 treatment. It is suggested that SO2 pollution may accelerate the succession of subtropical forest.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)20 3725 2995; Fax: +86 (0)20 3725 2831; E-mail: pengchl@scib.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2298)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genotype and Planting Density Effects on Rooting Traits and Yield in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Author: Li-Zhen Zhang, Bao-Guo Li, Gen-Tu Yan, Wopke van der Werf, JHJ Spiertz and Si-Ping Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00367.x
      
    Root density distribution of plants is a major indicator of competition between plants and determines resource capture from the soil. This experiment was conducted in 2005 at Anyang, located in the Yellow River region, Henan Province, China. Three cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars were chosen: hybrid Bt-cultivar CRI46, conventional Bt-cultivars CRI44 and CRI45. Six planting densities were designed, ranging from 1.5 to 12.0 plants/m2. Root parameters such as surface area, diameter and length were analyzed by using the DT-SCAN image analysis method. The root length density (RLD), root average diameter and root area index (RAI), root surface area per unit land area, were studied. The results showed that RLD and RAI differed between genotypes; hybrid CRI46 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) RLD and RAI values than conventional cultivars, especially under low planting densities, less than 3.0 plants/m2. The root area index (RAI) of hybrid CRI46 was 61% higher than of CRI44 and CRI45 at the flowering stage. The RLD and RAI were also significantly different (P = 0.000) between planting densities. The depth distribution of RAI showed that at increasing planting densities RAI was increasingly distributed in the soil layers below 50 cm. The RAI of hybrid CRI46 was for all planting densities, obviously higher than other cultivars during the flowering and boll stages. It was concluded that the hybrid had a strong advantage in root maintenance preventing premature senescence of roots. The root diameter of hybrid CRI46 had a genetically higher root diameter at planting densities lower than 6.0 plants/m2. Good associations were found between yield and RAI in different stages. The optimum planting density ranged from 4.50 plants/m2 to 6.75 plants/m2 for conventional cultivars and around 4.0每5.0 plants/m2 for hybrids.(Author for correspondence. Tel +86 (0)10 6273 2850; E-mail: libg@cau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2317)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Reproductive Ecology of Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) in South Yunnan, China: A Ginger with Bird Pollination Syndrome  
Author: Jiang-Yun Gao, Zi-Hui Yang, Pan-Yu Ren and Qing-Jun Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11): 1294-1299
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00359.x
      
    Rhynchanthus beesianus W. W. Smith (Zingiberaceae) is an epiphytic tropical ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field conditions. The reproductive ecology encompassing phenology, floral biology, and pollination and breeding systems was investigated in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The flowers possess a typical bird pollination syndrome, but no effective pollinators were observed during 138 h of observation. Female Black-breasted Sunbird (Aethopyga saturata) and bumblebees visited R. beesianus regularly, but they all played roles as nectar robbers. No fruit was found in the bagging treatment, and fruit set following manual self-pollination ((57.55 ㊣ 4.08)%) was comparable with cross-pollination ((64.32 ㊣ 4.42)%), suggesting that R. beesianus is self-compatible but spontaneous self-pollination in this species does not occur. Seed set of open-pollination ((26.42 ㊣ 3.11)%) was significantly lower than manual self-pollination ((73.41 ㊣ 4.16)%) and cross-pollination ((75.56 ㊣ 4.52)%), confirming that R. beesianus was dependent on animals for fertilization and suffered a serious pollinator-limitation. (Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)691 871 5471; Fax: +86 (0)691 871 5070 ; E-mail: qjli@xtbg.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2745)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A Rice Panicle Mutant Created by Transformation with an Antisense cDNA Library  
Author: Yuan-Ling Chen, Qun-Yu Zhang, Yu-Yu Jian, Yue-Sheng Yang,Kai-Dong Liu and Yao-Guang Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11): 1300-1305
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00355.x
      
    A rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant displaying defects in panicle development was identified among transformants in a transgenic mutagenized experiment using an antisense cDNA library prepared from young rice panicles. In the mutant, the average spikelet number was reduced to 59.8 compared with 104.3 in wild-type plants. In addition, the seed-setting rate of the mutant was low (39.3%) owing to abnormal female development. Genetic analysis of T1 and T2 progeny showed that the traits segregated in a 3 (mutant) : 1 (wild type) ratio and the mutation was cosegregated with the transgene. Southern blot and thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the mutant had a single T-DNA insertion on chromosome 5, where no gene was tagged. Sequencing analysis found that the transgenic antisense cDNA was derived from a gene encoding an F-box protein in chromosome 7 with unidentified function. This and another four homologous genes encoding putative F-box proteins form a gene cluster. These results indicate that the phenotypic mutations were most likely due to the silencing effect of the expressed transgenic antisense construct on the member(s) of the F-box gene cluster.(Author for correspondence. Tel: 020 8528 1908; Fax: 020 8528 0200; E-mail: ygliu@scau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2511)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Vegetative Proliferation and Secondary Proliferated Inflorescences Development in Grass
Author: Guo-Hua Ma, Xue-Lin Huang and Bunn Eric
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00380.x
      
    We report the vegetative proliferation and new phenomenon of ※secondary proliferated inflorescences§ in the grass Ischaemum barbatum Retz, as determined by anatomical analysis of prepared sections of inflorescences. Leaves and shoots could be developed from the original spikelets of inflorescences and plantlets developed when these shoots were transplanted to moist soil. ※Secondary proliferated inflorescences§ is the first name here because some inflorescences that developed inadequacy are grown from the spikelet on the mother inflorescence. Our investigation showed that this form of vegetative proliferation and secondary proliferated inflorescences development of I. barbatum has arisen following late autumn fires of the previous year. It is suggested that the sudden onset of a fire could lead to a hormone imbalance or a chemical induction, which results in ephemeral vegetative proliferation even secondary proliferated inflorescences development in wild populations.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)20 3725 2993; E-mail: magh@scib.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2091)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Factors Influencing Formation of Sclerotia in Grifola umbellate (Pers.) Pil芍t Under Artificial Conditions
Author: Xian-Hao Cheng, Shun-Xing Guo and Chun-Lan Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00349.x
      
    The effects of substrate composition and temperature on mycelial growth and sclerotium production in Grifola umbellate (Pers.) Pil芍t were investigated in the present study. The induction of sclerotia of G. umbellate was affected greatly by the type of medium, as well as the type of carbon source. Malt-extract agar was able to induce the production of sclerotia. The production of sclerotia was also observed when the carbon source in the GPC agar medium (glucose 20 g/L, peptone 6 g/L, corn steep liquor 10 g/L, and agar 15 g/L) was replaced with glycerol or mannitol. Altering the composition of the GPC medium with milk powder, thiamine hydrochloride, extract of Armillaria mellea, active clay, diatomite, kaolin, or arginine did not induce the production of sclerotia. A temperature range of 18每25 ∼C was suitable for both mycelial growth and sclerotium formation. Glycerol significantly induced slerotium formation on nutrient supplemented with sawdust substrates in bottle culture. 24S-Polyporusterone A and polyporusterone B were assayed in samples of natural and cultured sclerotia. Both natural and cultured sclerotia contained 24S-polyporusterone A and polyporusterone B.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6282 9619; Fax: +86 (0)10 6289 5120; E-mail: sxguo2006@yahoo.com.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2145)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Differential Sensitivity of Macrocarpa and Microcarpa Types of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Water Stress: Association of Contrasting Stress Response with Oxidative Injury
Author: Harsh Nayyar, Smita Singh, Satwinder Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar and Hari D. Upadhyaya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00350.x
      
    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is particularly sensitive to water stress at its reproductive phase and, under conditions of water stress, will abort flowers and pods, thus reducing yield potential. There are two types of chickpea: (i) Macrocarpa (※Kabuli§), which has large, rams head-shaped, light brown seeds; and (ii) Microcarpa (※Desi§), which has small, angular and dark-brown seeds. Relatively speaking, ※Kabuli§ has been reported to be more sensitive to water stress than ※Desi§. The underlying mechanisms associated with contrasting sensitivity to water stress at the metabolic level are not well understood. We hypothesized that one of the reasons for contrasting water stress sensitivity in the two types of chickpea may be a variation in oxidative injury. In the present study, plants of both types were water stressed at the reproductive stage for 14 d. As a result of the stress, the ※Kabuli§ type exhibited an 80% reduction in seed yield over control compared with a 64% reduction observed for the ※Desi§ type. The decrease in leaf water potential (w) was faster in the ※Kabuli§ compared with the ※Desi§ type. At the end of the water stress period, w was reduced to 每2.9 and 每3.1 MPa in the ※Desi§ and ※Kabuli§ types, respectively, without any significant difference between them. On the last day of stress, ※Kabuli§ experienced 20% more membrane injury than ※Desi§. The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were significantly greater in ※Desi§ compared with ※Kabuli§. The malondialdehyde and H2O2 content were markedly higher at the end of the water stress in ※Kabuli§ compared with ※Desi§, indicating greater oxidative stress in the former. Levels of anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, were significantly higher in ※Desi§ than ※Kabuli§. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ significantly between the two types of chickpea, whereas on the 10th day, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase were higher in ※Desi§. These findings indicate that the greater stress tolerance in the ※Desi§ type may be ascribed to its superior ability to maintain better water status, which results in less oxidative damage. In addition, laboratory studies conducted by subjecting both types of chickpea to similar levels of polyethylene glycol-induced water stress and to 10 mol/L abscisic acid indicated a greater capacity of the ※Desi§ type to deal with oxidative stress than the ※Kabuli§ type.(Author for correspondence. E-mail: nayarbot@pu.ac.in and harshnayyar@hotmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2249)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Reconstitution of Photosystem II Reaction Center with Cu-Chlorophyll a
Author: Shuang Liu, Feng-Qin Dong, Chun-Hong Yang, Chong-Qin Tang and Ting-Yun Kuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00352.x
      
    An isolated photosystem (PS) II reaction center (RC) with altered pigment content was obtained by chemical exchange of native chlorophyll a (Chl) with externally added Cu-Chl a (Cu-Chl). Pigment composition and spectroscopic properties of the RC exchanged with Cu-Chl were compared with native RC and RC treated with Chl in the same way. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed approximately 0.5 Cu-Chl per two pheophytin in the Cu-Chl-reconstituted RC preparation. Insertion of Cu-Chl resulted in a decrease in absorption at 670 nm and an increase at 660 nm, suggesting that the peripheral Chl may have been displaced. Fluorescence emission spectra of the Cu-Chl-reconstituted RC displayed a marked decrease in fluorescence yield and a blue shift of the band maximum, accompanied by the appearance of a broad peak at a shorter wavelength, indicating that energy transfer in the modified RC was disturbed by Cu-Chl, a quencher of the excited state. However, there were few differences in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra, suggesting that the arrangement of pigments and proteins responsible for the CD signal was not significantly affected. In addition, no obvious change in peptide components was found after the exchange procedure.(Author for correspondence. Tel(Fax): +86 (0)10 8259 4106; E-mail: yangch@ibcas.ac.cn and kuangty@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Preliminary Characterization of Three Receptor-like Kinase Genes in Soybean
Author: Yuan-Yuan Ma, Li-Wen Zhang, Peng-Li Li1, Rui Gan, Xiao-Ping Li, Ren Zhang, Yong Wang and Ning-Ning Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00360.x
      
    Leaf senescence that occurs in the last stage of leaf development is a genetically programmed process. It is very significant to isolate the upstream components in the senescence signaling pathway and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the initiation and progression of leaf senescence. In this study, full-length cDNAs of three receptor-like protein kinase genes, designated rlpk1, rlpk2 and rlpk3, were cloned from artificially-induced senescent soybean (Glycine max L.) primary leaves (GenBank accession AY687390, AY687391, AF338813). The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that they belonged to a receptor-like kinase family. Each of rlpk1 and rlpk2 encodes a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like protein kinase. They both comprise a typical signal peptide, several LRR motifs, a single-pass transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain. No typical extracellular domain of RLPK3 was predicted. Organ-specific expression pattern analysis by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed higher expression levels of the three genes in cotyledons, roots and flowers. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that RLPK1 and RLPK2 belonged to an independent branch, whereas RLPK3 shared common nodes with several known RLKs responding to abiotic and biotic stresses. The evident alternations of expression profiles of rlpk1 and rlpk2 induced by the artificial senescence-inducing treatment implied involvements of these two RLKs in regulating soybean leaf senescence. (Author for correspondence. Tel: 022 2350 3714˙022 2350 8800˙E-mail:wangnn@nankai.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2080)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array
Author: Qing-Shan Chang, Rong-Hua Zhou, Xiu-Ying Kong, Zeng-Liang Yu and Ji-Zeng Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00356.x
      
    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes; (iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii) another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.(Author for correspondence. Tel: 010 6218 6623; Fax: 010 6218 6623; E-mail: jzjia@mail.caas.net.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2197)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two Divergent Members of 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme ALigase from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge:
Author: Shu-Juan Zhao, Zhi-Bi Hu, Di Liu and Frederick C. C. Leung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00302.x
      
    4-Coumarate : coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is one of the key enzymes in phenylpropanoid metabolism leading to series of phenolics, including water-soluble phenolic acids, which are important compounds determining the medicinal quality of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. To investigate the function of 4CL in the biosynthesis of water-soluble phenolic acid in Danshen, we have cloned two cDNAs (Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2) encoding divergent 4CL members by applying nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers followed by 5''/3'' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) (Note, these sequence data have been submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers AY237163 and AY237164). Either of the coding regions was inserted into a pRSET vector and a kinetic assay was performed with purified recombinant proteins. The substrate utilization profile of Sm4CL1 was distinct from that of Sm4CL2. The Km values of Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2 to 4-coumaric acid were (72.20㊣4.10) and (6.50㊣1.45) mol/L, respectively. These results, in conjunction with Northern blotting and other information, imply that Sm4CL2 may play an important role in the biosynthesis of water-soluble phenolic compounds, whereas Sm4CL1 may play a minor role in the pathway. Southern blotting analysis suggested that both Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2 genes are present as a single copy and are located at different sites in the genome.(Author for correspondence. Tel: (8621) 51322509; e-mailㄩ zhaoshujuan@126.com, zhaosj71@yahoo.com, huzhibi@hotmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2292)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extract from Cultivated Fruit-bodies of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link In Vitro
Author: Yu Zhan, Cai-Hong Dong and Yi-Jian Yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00345.x
      
    Biological antioxidants extracted from plants and fungi have potential abilities to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation, playing important roles in preventing diseases, for example, cancer, and aging induced by reactive oxygen species, which may cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and other macromolecules. The antioxidant potency of cultivated fruit-bodies of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link was investigated in this study. Five established in vitro systems were employed, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical eliminating, iron chelating, inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and reducing power. The aqueous extract from cultivated fruit-bodies was subjected to the test of amino acid, polysaccharide and mannitol. Ascorbic acid (Vc), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as positive controls for comparisons. Among the assays, the aqueous extract of C. militaris fruit-bodies shows a significant scavenging effect on DPPH, eliminating the capability on hydroxyl radicals and the chelating effect on ferrous iron. The extract also shows positive results of inhibiting linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and reducing power. (Author for correspondence. Tel (Fax): (0)10 6264 1794;E-mail:yaoyj@sun.im.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2397)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Investigation of Combining Plant Genotypic Values and Molecular Marker Information for Constructing Core Subsets
Author: Jian-Cheng Wang, Jin Hu, Ning-Ning Liu, Hai-Ming Xu and Sheng Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00348.x
      
    In the present study, a strategy was proposed for constructing plant core subsets by clusters based on the combination of continuous data for genotypic values and discrete data for molecular marker information. A mixed linear model approach was used to predict genotypic values for eliminating the environment effect. The ※mixed genetic distance§ was designed to solve the difficult problem of combining continuous and discrete data to construct a core subset by cluster. Four commonly used genetic distances for continuous data (Euclidean distance, standardized Euclidean distance, city block distance, and Mahalanobis distance) were used to assess the validity of the continuous data part of the mixed genetic distance; three commonly used genetic distances for discrete data (cosine distance, correlation distance, and Jaccard distance) were used to assess the validity of the discrete data part of the mixed genetic distance. A rice germplasm group with eight quantitative traits and information for 60 molecular markers was used to evaluate the validity of the new strategy. The results suggest that the validity of both parts of the mixed genetic distance are equal to or higher than the common genetic distance. The core subset constructed on the basis of a combination of data for genotypic values and molecular marker information was more representative than that constructed on the basis of data from genotypic values or molecular marker information alone. Moreover, the strategy of using combined data was able to treat dominant marker information and could combine any other continuous data and discrete data together to perform cluster to construct a plant core subset.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)571 8697 1119; Fax: +86 (0)571 8697 1117; E-mail: jhu@dial.zju.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2070)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation and Structural Analysis of an Acidic Polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge
Author: Shun-Chun Wang, Jun-Jie Shan, Zheng-Tao Wang and Zhi-Bi Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(11)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00325.x
      
    A new water-soluble hetero-polysaccharide, APSID3, was obtained from a hot-water extract of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The molecular weight of APSID3 was estimated to be 5.79 ℅ 105 Da. Based on a sugar composition analysis, methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experimentation, it was concluded that the minimal repeat unit of APSID3 was composed of one terminal arabinose, one 1,5-linked arabinose, one 1,3-linked rhamnose, one 1,3,4-linked rhamnose, five 1,4-linked methyl galacturonates and six 1,4-linked methyl glucuronates.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)21 5132 2507; E-mail: zhibihu@hotmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2170)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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Editorial Office, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Institute of Botany, CAS
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Online ISSN: 1744-7909 Print ISSN: 1672-9072 CN: 11-5067/Q