December 2006, Volume 48 Issue 12, Pages 1385-1501.


Cover Caption:
The Arabidopsis ppt1 mutant was selected on the basis of its high chlorophyll fluorescence phenotype and it possesses a representative reticulate phenotype (top left). Distinct color differences were observed in chlorophyll fluorescence imaging between young leaves and mature leaves, which reflects the maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry in intact whole plant (bottom right). See pages 1409C1414 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Impact of Elevated PCO2 on Mass Flow of Reduced Nitrogen in Trees
Author: Xi-Ping Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00338.x
      
    To analyze the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration (PCO2) on the mass flow of reduced nitrogen (N) in the phloem and xylem of trees, juvenile beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were grown in phytotrons and exposed to ambient and elevated PCO2 (plus 687.5 mg/m3 CO2) for three growing seasons. Elevated PCO2 significantly decreased the mass flow of N from the shoot to roots of beech by significantly reducing the concentration of soluble amino compounds in the phloem, even if the area of conductive phloem of cross-sectional bark tissue was significantly increased, because of less callus deposition in the sieve elements. In spruce, the downward mass flow of reduced N also tended to be decreased, similar to that in beech. Resembling findings in the phloem, N mass flow from roots to shoot in both tree species was significantly diminished owing to significantly reduced concentrations of amino compounds in the xylem and a lower transpiration rate. Therefore, the mass flow of reduced N between shoots and roots of trees was mainly governed by the concentrations of soluble amino compounds in the phloem and xylem in relation to the loading of reduced N in both long-distance transport pathways.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)29 8709 2262; E-mail: xpliuderen@sohu.com)
Abstract (Browse 2282)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Ecophysiological Response of Plants to Combined Pollution from Heavy-duty Vehicles and Industrial Emissions in Higher Humidity
Author: Hong-Xia Cui, Gao-Ming Jiang, Shu-Li Niu, Chuang-Dao Jiang, Mei-Zhen Liu, Shun-Li Yu and Lei-Ming Gao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00421.x
      
    Pollution can be aggravated in industrial areas if traffic exhausts are mixed with industrial emissions under high humidity conditions. Plants growing in such environments may suffer from severe stress. The impact of vehicle emissions on urban vegetation in an industrial area in Qingdao, China, was investigated by studying seven plant species at visible, physiological and chemical levels. The traits of plant species in certain environmental conditions were compared between a clear area, Badaguan (BDG), and polluted area, Roadside (RS). We found that foliar sulfur uptake for all species was not significantly high at RS compared with BDG, although the sulfur content of atmosphere and surface soils at RS were much higher than those at BDG. For Ailanthus altissima Swingle, the content of foliar pigment and net photosynthesis rate (PN) decreased by 20%. Meanwhile, leaves became incrassate and no visible leaf damage was noted, suggesting this species could adapt well to pollution. A 50% decrease in PN occurred in Hibiscus syriacus L., but there was no statistical change in content of chlorophyll a and b and water uptake. Also, thickened leaves may prevent the pollutant from permeation. Foliar water content was still at a low level, although a water compensation mechanism was established for Fraxinus chinensis Rosb. reflected by low water potential and high water use efficiency. More adversely, a 65% decrease in PN happened inevitably with the significant decomposition of photosynthetic pigments, which exhibited visible damage. We also noted in one evergreen species (Magnolia grandiflora L.) that water absorption driven by low water potential should be helpful to supply water loss induced by strong stomatal transpiration and maintain normal growth. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content did not decline statistically, but supported a stable net assimilation. Two herbaceous species, Poa annua L. and Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl., were very tolerant to adverse stress compared to other woody species, especially in assimilation through a compensatory increase in leaf area. A more remarkable decline in PN (decrease 80%) was noted in the exotic but widespread species, Platanus orientalis L., with serious etiolation and withering being exhibited on the whole canopy. Our results suggested, special for woody species, that most native species are more tolerant to pollution and therefore should to be broadly used in a humid urban industrial environment with heavy-duty vehicle emissions.(Author for correspondence. Tel (Fax): +86 (0)10 6283 6286; E-mail: jianggm@126.com)
Abstract (Browse 2701)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pollen and Resource Limitation in Veratrum nigrum L. (Liliaceae), an Andromonoecious Herb
Author: Wan-Jin Liao, Qing-Fa Song and Da-Yong Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00383.x
      
    Pollen limitation and resource limitation were invoked to account for the pattern that flowering plants produce more flowers and ovules than fruits and seeds. This study aimed to determine their relative importance in Veratrum nigrum, a self-compatible, perennial, andromonoecious herb. In order to determine whether female production was limited by pollen grains on stigmas or by available resources, we performed supplemental hand pollination in three populations, male-flower-bud removal in three other populations, and emasculation of hermaphroditic flowers in still another population , resulting in a total of seven populations experimentally manipulated. Across the three populations, supplemental hand pollination did not significantly increase fruit set, seed number per fruit, and total seed production per individual, nor did emasculation of hermaphroditic flowers. Taken together, our results suggest that pollen grains deposited on stigmas were abundant enough to fertilize all the ovules. Male-flower-bud removal significantly increased the mean size of hermaphroditic flowers in all three populations. Female reproductive success was increased in one population, but not in the other two populations possibly due to heavy flower/seed predation. We concluded that the female reproductive success of V. nigrum was not limited by pollen grains but by available resources, which is consistent with Batemans principle. Furthermore, the female reproduction increase of male-flower-bud removal individuals might suggest a trade-off between male and female sexual functions.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 5880 5081; Fax: +86 (0)10 5880 7721; E-mail: liaowj@bnu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2086)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Decrease of Photosystem II Photochemistry in Arabidopsis ppt1 Mutant Is Dependent on Leaf Age
Author: Jin-Fang Ma, Jin-Kui Guo, Lian-Wei Peng, Cui-Yun Chen and Li-Xin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00386.x
      
    In the present study, we compared the effect of leaf age at one development stage on the photosynthetic behavior of a T-DNA-tagged allele of the ppt1 mutant. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and fluorescence decay kinetics of the ppt1 mutant were different in leaves of different ages. The steady state levels of thylakoid membrane proteins in 40-day-old leaves were decreased compared with those in 20-day-old leaves and changes in photosystem (PS) II proteins were correlated with those of the Fv/Fm ratio in the ppt1 mutant. Increased accumulation of leaf sugars was accompanied by decreased photosynthetic gene transcripts and protein content in 40-day-old leaves of the mutant. Thus, the results of the present study provide evidence for the phosphate translocator in maintaining normal photosynthesis at a late leaf age.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6256; Fax: +86 (0)10 8259 9384; E-mail: zhanglixin@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2132)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparative Studies on the Allelopathic Effects of Ulva pertusa Kjellml, Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze on Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve
Author: Ren-Jun Wang, Hui Xiao, Pei-Yu Zhang, Liang Qu, Heng-Jiang Cai and Xue-Xi Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00371.x
      
    In the present study, we evaluated the allelopathic effects of three macroalgae, namely Ulva pertusa Kjellml, Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze, on the growth of the microalga Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Creve using culture systems in which the algae coexisted. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on S. costatum were also investigated. Moreover, isolated co-culture systems were built to confirm the existence of allelochemicals and preclude growth inhibition by direct contact. The coexistence assay data demonstrated that the growth of S. costatum was strongly inhibited when fresh tissues, dry powder and aqueous extracts were used; the allelochemicals were lethal to S. costatum at relatively higher concentrations. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on the microalga showed both species specificity and complexity. The inhibitory effect of fresh macroalgal tissue and culture medium filtrate on the microalga was due to the alleochemicals released by the macroalgae. The results of the present study show that the allelopathic effects of macroalgae on the microalga are complex. The present study could shed light onto the basis of the interaction between macro- and microalgae.(Author for correspondence. Tel(Fax): +86 (0)532 8203 2952; E-mail: tangxx@ouc.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2330)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photosynthetic Properties of Photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana lpa1 Mutant
Author: Lian-Wei Peng, Jin-Kui Guo, Jin-Fang Ma, Wei Chi and Li-Xin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00385.x
      
    In a previous study, we characterized a high chlorophyll fluorescence lpa1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which approximately 20% photosystem (PS) II protein is accumulated. In the present study, analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics and thermoluminescence profiles demonstrated that the electron transfer reaction on either the donor or acceptor side of PSII remained largely unaffected in the lpa1 mutant. In the mutant, maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) decreased with increasing light intensity and remained almost unchanged in wild-type plants under different light conditions. The Fv/Fm values also increased when mutant plants were transferred from standard growth light to low light conditions. Analysis of PSII protein accumulation further confirmed that the amount of PSII reaction center protein is correlated with changes in Fv/Fm in lpa1 plants. Thus, the assembled PSII in the mutant was functional and also showed increased photosensitivity compared with wild-type plants.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6256; Fax: +86 (0)10 8259 9384; E-mail: zhanglixin@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2224)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
CO2 Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Transgenic Rice Pollen Lines
Author: Li-Li Ling, Hong-Hui Lin, Ben-Hua Ji and De-Mao Jiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00376.x
      
    To elucidate the photosynthetic physiological characteristics and the physiological inherited traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrids and their parents, physiological indices of photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in leaves of the maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) transgenic rice as the male parent, sp. japonica rice cv. 9516 as the female parent, and the stable JAAS45 pollen line. The results revealed that the PEPC gene could be stably inherited and transferred from the male parent to the JAAS45 pollen line. Moreover, the JAAS45 pollen line exhibited high levels of PEPC activity, manifesting higher saturated photosynthetic rates, photosynthetic apparent quantum yield (AQY), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, which indicated that the JAAS45 pollen line has a high tolerance to photo-inhibition/photo-oxidation under strong light and high temperature. Furthermore, JAAS45 was confirmed to still be a C3 plant by 13C carbon isotope determination and was demonstrated to have a limited photosynthetic C4 microcycle by feeding with exogenous C4 primary products, such as oxaloacetate or malate, or phosphoenolpyruvate. The present study explains the physiological inherited properties of PEPC transgenic rice and provides an expectation for the integration of traditional breeding and biological technology.(Authors for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)28 8541 1175; +86 (0)25 8443 7478; E-mail: honghuilin@vip.sina.com; jiaodm_123@yahoo.com.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2244)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Characterization of a Differentially Expressed Phenylalanine Ammonialyase Gene (IiPAL) After Genome Duplication from Tetraploid Isatis indigotica Fort.
Author: Bei-Bei Lu, Zhen Du, Ru-Xian Ding, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Jing Yu,Cheng-Hong Liu and Wan-Sheng Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00363.x
      
    Phenylpropanoid derivatives are a complex class of secondary metabolites that have many important roles in plants during normal growth and in responses to environmental stress. Phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. In the present study, we isolated a novel phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (designated as IiPAL) from tetraploid Isatis indigotica Fort. by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), which was a cultivar from the diploid plant by genome duplication. The full-length cDNA of IiPAL was 2 530-bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 178 bp encoding a polypeptide of 725 amino acid residues. Analysis of IiPAL genomic DNA revealed that it was structurally similar to other plant PAL genes, with a single intron at a conserved position, and a long highly conserved second exon. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the IiPAL expression in roots and leaves from a tetraploid sample was higher than that in diploid progenitor, whereas expression of IiPAL in stems was almost the same as each other. Furthermore, the highest expression of IiPAL in tetraploid plant was found in roots, which was found in stems in diploid plants. Further expression analysis revealed that gibberellin (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and cold treatments could up-regulate the IiPAL transcription in tetraploid plants. All our findings suggest that IiPAL participates not only in the defense/stress responsive pathways, but also probably in the polyploidy evolution of I. indigotica.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)21 2507 0395; Fax: +86 (0)21 2507 4575; E-mail: chenwanshengsmmu@gmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2111)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Complementation and Expression Analysis of SoRab1A and SoRab2A in Sugarcane Demonstrates Their Functional Diversification
Author: Jia-Ming Zhang, Anne W Sylvester, Ding-Qin Li and Xue-Piao Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00403.x
      
    Mammalian and plant Rab1 and Rab2 are small GTPases that regulate vesicle trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi compartments. Little is known about their functional diversification or potential interaction. We cloned sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Rab1A and Rab2A genes and studied their functional differences by expression and complementation experiments. We found differential expression of the two genes during sugarcane leaf development: SoRab2A expression declined from the dividing base to the maturing tip of the growing leaves, whereas SoRab1A was constitutively expressed, suggesting that SoRab2A is required for cell division and expansion and SoRab1A is required for cells at all developmental stages. We used a yeast temperature sensitive ypt1-A136D mutant strain to further investigate these shared and unique functions. Ypt1 is a small GTPase that regulates vesicle transport in the same cellular location as Rab1 and Rab2. Neither SoRab1A nor SoRab2A alone could restore the growth of the mutant at restrictive temperatures when SoRab1A and SoRab2A were transformed separately. However, SoRab1A transformants maintained normal morphology and viability at non-permissive temperature, and resumed growth when returned to permissive temperature, whereas SoRab2A transformants died at non-permissive temperature, suggesting that SoRab1A function is required for a cells viability. Mutant growth was fully restored when SoRab1A and SoRab2A were co-transformed, indicating that SoRab1A and SoRab2A complement each other and they both are needed to restore the function of ypt1-A136D. These results demonstrate that SoRab1A and SoRab2A serve distinct but overlapping functions, mostly by regulating the transportation of different sets of proteins.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)898 6698 4866; Fax: +86 (0)898 6689 0978; E-mail: jmzhang@vip.163.com)
Abstract (Browse 1997)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Functional Characterization of Mi, a Root-knot Nematode Resistance Gene from Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)  
Author: Ru-Gang Chen, Li-Ying Zhang, Jun-Hong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Xue Wang,Bo Ouyang, Han-Xia Li and Zhi-Biao Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12): 1458-1465
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00354.x
      
    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) cause major economic damage to numerous crop species around the world. Plant resistance is the most important attribute that is able to suppress invasion by the root-knot nematodes. In the present study, a candidate root-knot nematode resistance gene (Mi) was isolated from the resistant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) line RN-1. Expression profiling analysis revealed that this gene was expressed specifically in the roots, stems, and leaves, but not in the flowers or fruits. To verify the real function of this candidate gene, both sense and inteference RNA (RNAi) vectors were constructed. We obtained 31 transgenic plants with between one and seven copies of T-DNA inserts of sense Mi from two nematode-susceptible tomato cultivars as assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blotting analysis. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that expression levels of the Mi gene varied in different transgenic plants. Nematode assays showed that the resistance to root-knot nematodes was significantly improved in some transgenic lines compared with untransformed susceptible controls and that the resistance was heritable in selfed progeny. Loss of function via RNAi further confirmed the role of the Mi gene and the original resistant lines became susceptible to root-knot nematodes.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)27 8728 6867; Fax: +86 (0)27 8728 0016; E-mail zbye@mail.hzau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3166)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Inheritance and Gene Mapping of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Strain SC14 in Soybean
Author: Hai-Chao Li, Hai-Jian Zhi, Jun-Yi Gai, Dong-Quan Guo, Yan-Wei Wang, Kai Li, Li Bai and Hua Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00365.x
      
    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most broadly distributed diseases worldwide. It causes severe yield loss and seed quality deficiency in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV Strain SC14 isolated from Shanxi Province, China, was a newly identified virulent strain and can infect Kefeng No. 1, a source with wide spectrum resistance. In the present study, soybean accessions, PI96983, Qihuang No. 1 and Qihuang No. 22 were identified to be resistant (R) and Nannong 1138-2, Pixianchadou susceptible (S) to SC14. Segregation analysis of PI96983 Nannong 1138-2 indicated that a single dominant gene (designated as RSC14) controlled the resistance to SC14 at both V2 and R1 developmental stages. The same results were obtained for the crosses of Qihuang No. 1 Nannong 1138-2 and Qihuang No. 22 Nannong 1138-2 as in PI96983 Nannong 1138-2 at V2 stage, but at R1 stage, the F1 performed as necrosis (a susceptible symptom other than mosaic), F2 segregated in a ratio of 1R:2N:1S, and the progenies of necrotic (N) F2 individuals segregated also in R, N and S. It indicated that a single gene (designated as RSC14Q, to be different from that of PI96983) controlled the resistance to SC14, its dominance was the same as in PI96983 Nannong 1138-2 (without symptoms) at V2 stage and not the same at R1 stage. The tightly linked co-dominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Satt334 indicated that all the heterozygous bands were completely corresponding to the necrotic F2 individuals, or all the necrotic F2 individuals were heterozygotes. It was inferred that necrosis might be due to the interaction among SMV strains, resistance genes, genetic background of the resistance genes, and plant development stage. Furthermore, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of SSR markers was conducted to map the resistance genes. In F2 of PI96983 Nannong 1138-2, five SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_234, Sat_154, Sct_033 and Sat_120, were found closely linked to RSC14, with genetic distances of 14.5 cM, 11.3 cM, 4.3 cM, 3.2 cM and 6 cM, respectively. In F2 of Qihuang No. 1 Nannong 1138-2, three SSR markers, Sat_234, Satt334 and Sct_033, tightly linked to RSC14Q with genetic distances of 7.2 cM, 1.4 cM and 2.8 cM, respectively. Based on the integrated joint map by Cregan et al. (1999), both RSC14 and RSC14Q were located between Sat_234 and Sct_033 on linkage with group F of soybean, with their distances from Sct_033 at the same side being 3.2 cM and 2.8 cM, respectively. Therefore, RSC14 and RSC14Q might be on a same locus. The obtained information provides a basic knowledge for marker-assisted selection of the resistance gene in soybean breeding programs and fine mapping and map-based cloning of the resistance gene.(Authors for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)25 8439 6463; Fax: +86 (0)25 8439 5405; E-mail: zhj@njau.edu.cn; sri@njau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2403)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Rice Mitochondrial Genes Are Transcribed by Multiple Promoters That Are Highly Diverged
Author: Qun-Yu Zhang and Yao-Guang Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00384.x
      
    Plant mitochondrial genes are often transcribed into complex sets of mRNA. To characterize the transcription initiation and promoter structure, the transcript termini of four mitochondrial genes, atp1, atp6, cob, rps7, in rice (Oryza sativa L.), were determined by using a modified circularized RNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. The results revealed that three genes (atp1, atp6, rps7) were transcribed from multiple initiation sites, indicating the presence of multiple promoters. Two transcription termination sites were detected in three genes (atp6, cob, rps7), respectively. Analysis on the promoter architecture showed that the YRTA (Y=T or C, R=A or G) motifs that are widely present in the mitochondrial promoters of other monocot and dicot plant species were detected only in two of the 12 analyzed promoters. Our data suggest that the promoter sequences in the rice mitochondrial genome are highly diverged in comparison to those in other plants, and the YRTA motif is not an essential element for the promoter activity. (Author for correspondence: Tel: +86 (0)20 8528 1908; Fax: +86 (0)20 8528 0200; E-mail: ygliu@scau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2321)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene  
Author: Hong-Liang Zhu, Ben-Zhong Zhu, Yi Shao, Xiao-Guang Wang, Xi-Jin Lin, Yuan-Hong Xie, Ying-Cong Li, Hong-Yan Gao and Yun-Bo Luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12): 1478-1485
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00366.x
      
    Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis, which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition, there were fewer seeds and locules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones. (Author for correspondence. Tel (Fax): +86 (10) 6273 6479; E-mail: lyb@cau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2773)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning, E. coli Expression and Molecular Analysis of Amorpha-4,11-Diene Synthase from a High-Yield Strain of Artemisia annua L.
Author: Zhen-Qiu Li, Yan Liu, Ben-Ye Liu, Hong Wang, He-Chun Ye and Guo-Feng Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00381.x
      
    Increasing demand of artemisinin in the treatment of malaria has placed substantial stress on the total artemisinin supplies world-wide, so more attention has been paid to increasing the content of artemisinin in the Artemisia annua L. plant. In this study, amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS) cDNA (ads1) and genomics gene (gads1) were cloned from a high-yield A. annua strain 001. The activity of ADS1 was confirmed by heterogeneous overexpression of ads1 and in vitro enzymatic incubation. Reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that ads1 expressed in leaves, flowers and young stems, but not in roots. This organ-specific expression pattern of ads1 is consistent with that of artemisinin accumulation in the plant. The gads1 has a complex organization including seven exons and six introns, and belongs to class III terpene synthase. DNA gel blotting revealed that the ADS gene has at least four copies in the genome of strain 001. The higher copy numbers might be one of the reasons for its high artemisinin content.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6249; Fax: +86 (0)10 8259 1016; E-mail: hcye@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A Cytotoxic Neolignan from Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baill.
Author: Li-Jia Xu, Feng Huang, Si-Bao Chen, Lian-Niang Li,Shi-Lin Chen and Pei-Gen Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00323.x
      
    In the course of our study of bioactive natural products from Schisandra plants, we isolated a neolignan from an EtOAc extract of the stems of Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Baill. The structure of the new compound was determined to be 4, 4-di (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenly)-2, 3-dimethylbutanol (compound 1) on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra and 2D NMR methods. Eight known compounds, compounds 2C9, were also isolated and identified, of which compounds 3, 4, 6 and 9 were isolated for the first time from this plant. In addition, compounds 1C4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity by an 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compound 1 showed significant potential cytotoxic ability in the bioassay.Authors for correspondence. Shi-Lin Chen: Tel: +86 (0)755 2673 7179; E-mail: bcslchen@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Pei-Gen Xiao: Tel: +86 (0)10 6301 1294; E-mail: xiaopg@public.bta.net.cn
Abstract (Browse 2069)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Chemical Constituents of Daphne giraldii Nitsche
Author: Wei-Xin Sun, Qiang Zhang and Jian-Qin Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(12)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00327.x
      
    In a search for structurally interesting substances from traditional Chinese medicines, eight compounds were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Daphne giraldii Nitsche. On the basis of one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods, their structures were determined to be 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one-8-hydroxy-7-O--D-glucopyranosyl-5-(2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-hydroxy-8-yloxy) (compound 1), 1-pentanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenyl (compound 2), octadecyl caffeate (compound 3), (+)syringaresinol-4,4''-diglycoside (compound 4), daphnetin-8-O--D-glucopyranoside (compound 5), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (compound 6), 7,7''-dihydroxy-[6, 8''-bi-2H-benzopyran]-2, 2''-dione (compound 7), and daphnorin (compound 8), respectively. Of the compounds isolated, compounds 1 and 2, which we named daphnolin and daphnolon, respectively, were new, and the others were obtained from this plant for the first time.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)25 8539 1248; Fax: +86 (0)25 8531 1528; E-mail: njjjq@yahoo.com.cn)
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