February 2006, Volume 48 Issue 2, Pages 121-240.

Cover Caption:
The tertiary structure of GNA (left top). Twelve strands of b-sheet associate in three four standed bundles and form the b-prism fold. Each standed bundle is one functional domain which is specific for agglutination and carbohydrate binding box. The deduced tertiary structure of ZCA (right below) strongly resembles that of GNA, therefore it is persumed that ZCA has similar functions with GNA in anti-viral and anti-insect properties. See pages 223-231 for more details.


          Research Articles
Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering
Author: Zhi-Bi Hu and Min Du
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00121.x
    Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is characterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants. Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid, especially with modified genes, into medicinal plant cells with A. rhizogenes vector systems. The cultures have turned out to be a valuable tool with which to study the biochemical properties and the gene expression profile of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the cultures can be used to elucidate the intermediates and key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The present article discusses various applications of hairy root cultures in plant genetic engineering and potential problems associated with them.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): 021 5132 2508; E-mail: huzhibi@hotmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 3876)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Positive Interactions: Crucial Organizers in a Plant Community
Author: Dong-Liang Cheng, Gen-Xuan Wang, Bao-Ming Chen and Xiao-Ping Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00128.x
    For more than a century, ecologists have concentrated on competition as a crucial process for community organization. However, more recent experimental investigations have uncovered the striking influence of positive interactions on the organization of plant communities. Complex combinations of competition and positive interactions operating simultaneously among plant species seem to be widespread in nature. In the present paper, we reviewed the mechanism and ecological importance of positive interactions in plant communities, emphasizing the certainties and uncertainties that have made it an attractive area of research. Positive interactions, or facilitation, occur when one species enhances the survival, growth, or richness of another. The importance of facilitation in plant organization increases with abiotic stress and the relative importance of competition decreases. Only by combining plant interactions and the many fields of biology can we fully understand how and when the positive interactions occur.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)571 8697 1083; Fax: +86 (0)571 8697 1083; E-mail: wanggx@zju.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3023)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Plants of Leptostrobus Heer (Czekanowskiales) from the Early Cretaceous and Late Triassic of China, with Discussion of the Genus
Author: Xiu-Qun Liu, Cheng-Sen Li and Yu-Fei Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00137.x
    Investigation of the Mesozoic seed plant Leptostrobus Heer from the Yangcaogou Formation of the Late Triassic and the Yixian Formation of the Early Cretaceous, Liaoning Province, China, provides new insight into its general morphology and geographical distribution. The materials of L. cancer from the Yixian Formation described herein are later than all the past findings of this species and add to the record of L. cancer during the Early Cretaceous. Based on well-preserved specimens, the specific diagnosis is slightly emended and the reconstruction of L. cancer is perfected. The materials from the Yangcaogou Formation of the Late Triassic are placed in L. sphaericus. In addition, we review the history of investigation of the genus Leptostrobus since its establishment in 1876 and discuss the main characteristics of each species.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 010 6283 6436; Fax: 010 6259 3385; E-mail: lics@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2974)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Large Subunit rDNA of Symbiotic Dinoflagellates from Scleractinian Corals in the Zhubi Coral Reef of the Nansha Islands
Author: Hui Huang, Zhi-Jun Dong, Liang-Min Huang and Jun-Bin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00148.x
    Zooxanthellae are very important for the coral reef ecosystem. The diversity of coral hosts is high in the South China Sea, but the diversity of zooxanthellae has not yet been investigated. We chose the Zhubi Coral Reef of the Nansha Islands as the region to be surveyed in the present study because it represents a typical tropical coral reef of the South China Sea and we investigated zooxanthellae diversity in 10 host scleractinian coral species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the large subunit rRNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns. Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora pelifera, Acropora millepora, Fungia fungites, Galaxea fascicularis, and Acropora pruinosa harbor Clade C, Goniastrea aspera harbors Clade D, and Acropora formosa harbors Clades D and C. Therefore, the Clade C is the dominant type in the Zhubi Coral Reef of the Nansha Islands. Furthermore, the results of the present also disprove what has been widely accepted, namely that one coral host harbors only one algal symbiont. The coral-algal symbiosis is flexible, which may be an important mechanism for surviving coral bleaching. Meanwhile, on the basis of the results of the present study, we think that Symbiodinium Clade D may be more tolerant to stress than Symbiodinium Clade C.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 020 8446 0294; Fax: 020 8446 0294; E-mail: coral@scsio.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3347)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Distribution of Vascular Plant Species Richness Along an Elevational Gradient in the Dongling Mountains, Beijing, China
Author: Hai-Bao Ren, Shu-Kui Niu, Lin-Yan Zhang and Ke-Ping Ma
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00153.x
    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness and determining the processes that give rise to these patterns are core problems in biodiversity theory. The aim of the present paper was to more accurately detect patterns of vascular species richness at different scales along altitudinal gradients in order to further our understanding of biodiversity patterns and to facilitate studies on relationships between biodiversity and environmental factors. Species richness patterns of total vascular plants species, including trees, shrubs, and herbs, were measured along an altitudinal gradient on one transect on a shady slope in the Dongling Mountains, near Beijing, China. Direct gradient analysis, regression analysis, and geostatistics were applied to describe the spatial patterns of species richness. We found that total vascular species richness did not exhibit a linear pattern of change with altitude, although species groups with different ecological features showed strong elevational patterns different from total species richness. In addition to total vascular plants, analysis of trees, shrubs, and herbs demonstrated remarkable hierarchical structures of species richness with altitude (i.e. patchy structures at small scales and gradients at large scales). Species richness for trees and shrubs had similar spatial characteristics at different scales, but differed from herbs. These results indicated that species groups with similar ecological features exhibit similar biodiversity patterns with altitude, and studies of biodiversity based on species groups with similar ecological properties or life forms would advance our understanding of variations in species diversity. Furthermore, the gradients or trends appeared to be due mainly to local variations in species richness means with altitude. We also found that the range of spatial scale dependencies of species richness for total vascular plants, trees, shrubs, and herbs was relatively large. Thus, to detect the relationships between species richness with environmental factors along altitudinal gradients, it was necessary to quantify the scale dependencies of environmental factors in the sampling design or when establishing non-linear models.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 010 6283 6223; Fax: 010 8259 1781; E-mail: makp@brim.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3756)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Control of Negative Gravitropism and Tension Wood Formation by Gibberellic Acid and Indole Acetic Acid in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim Seedlings
Author: Sha Jiang, Yi-Fan Li, Xu-Hui Chen and Ke Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00161.x
    In the present study, we investigated the role of gibberellic acid (GA3) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in the gravity response of stems and tension wood formation using two-year-old stems of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim seedlings. Forty-five seedlings were used and divided into nine groups that included five seedlings in each group. Seedlings were treated with applications of GA3 alone at concentrations of 2.89 ℅ 10每8 and 2.89 ℅ 10每7 米mol/L, IAA alone at concentrations of 5.71℅10每8 and 5.71℅10每7 米mol/L, or their combination to the apical bud of the stem using a micropipette. Seedlings were positioned horizontally after the first treatment. The same treatments were repeated six times per week. At the end of the experiment, all seedlings were harvested. Then, stem segments were cut under a light microscope. Application of exogenous GA3 at the higher concentration stimulated the upward bending of stems, whereas exogenous IAA had no effect. A synergistic effect of GA3 and IAA on upward stem bending was observed following application of the two combinations of GA3 and IAA. Moreover, application of exogenous GA3 at the higher dose stimulated wood formation on both the upper and lower sides of the stems, whereas the mixture of GA3 and IAA had a synergistic effect on wood formation in horizontal stems. Application of exogenous IAA alone at the lower concentration (5.71℅10每8米 mol/L) or application of a mixture of the higher concentrations of GA3 (2.89 ℅ 10每7 米mol/L) and IAA (5.71℅10每7米mol/L) inhibited the development of gelatinous fibers (the G-layer) of tension wood on the upper side of the horizontal stems. The differentiation of gelatinous fibers of tension wood was not inhibited by GA3 when it was applied alone, whereas the development of the gelatinous fibers of tension wood was strongly affected by the application of IAA. The findings of the present study suggest that the development of the G-layer is not related to the dose of GA3, but needs a relatively lower concentration of IAA.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 022 2350 4732; Fax: 022 2350 4732; E-mail: jiangsha@nankai.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2975)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Toxicity of Fluoranthene and Its Biodegradation by Cyclotella caspia Alga
Author: Yu Liu, Tian-Gang Luan, Ning-Ning Lu and Chong-Yu Lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
    Fluoranthene is one of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with four benzene rings. Because of its toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, fluoranthene is on the black lists of 129 and 68 priority pollutants established by US Environmental Protection Agency and the People*s Republic of China, respectively. In recent years, the amount of fluoranthene in the aquatic environment has been increasing with increases in anthropogenic discharge. Based on the biological investigation of tidal water in the Futian mangrove, Cyclotella caspia was selected as the dominant algal species to determine the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C. caspia alga and to investigate the biodegradation of fluoranthene by C. caspia under pure culture. The toxicity experiment showed that the 96-h EC50 value for fluoranthene was 0.2 mg/mL. Four parameters, namely C. caspia algal growth rate, chlorophyll (Chl) a content, cell morphology, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, were chosen as indices of toxicity and were measured at 6 d (144 h). The results showed that: (i) the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C. caspia alga was obvious; (ii) C. caspia algal growth rate and Chl a content decreased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene; and (iii) the rate of cell deformation and SOD activity increased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene. The biodegradation experiment showed that: (i) the rate of physical degradation of fluoranthene was only 5.86%; (ii) the rate of biodegradation of fluoranthene on the 1st and 6th days (i.e. at 24 and 144 h) was approximately 35% and 85%, respectively; and (iii) the biodegradation capability of C. caspia alga towards fluoranthene was high. It is suggested that further investigations on the toxicity of fluoranthene towards algae, as well as on algal biodegradation mechanisms, are of great importance to use C. caspia as a biological treatment species in an organic wastewater treatment system.(Author for correspondence.School of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Sun Yet-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275, China Tel.: +86 (0)20 8403 6296; Fax: +86 (0)20 8411 3652; E-mail: ls04@zsu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3135)       
Does Seed Priming Induce Changes in the Levels of Some Endogenous Plant Hormones in Hexaploid Wheat Plants Under Salt Stress?
Author: Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ashraf, Amer Jamil and Shafiq-ur-Rehman
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00181.x
    In order to assess whether salt tolerance could be improved in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the present study was performed by soaking the seeds of two cultivars, namely MH-97 (salt sensitive) and Inqlab-91 (salt tolerant), for 12 h in distilled water or 100 mol/m3 CaCl2, KCl, or NaCl. Primed seeds from each treatment group and non-primed seeds were sown in a field in which NaCl salinity of 15 dS/m was developed. Priming of seeds with CaCl2, followed by priming with KCl and NaCl, was found to be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salt stress on both wheat cultivars in terms of shoot fresh and dry weights and grain yield. Priming with CaCl2 alleviated the adverse effects of salt stress on hormonal balance in plants of both cultivars. In MH-97 plants, CaCl2 pretreatment considerably reduced leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and increased leaf free salicylic acid (SA) concentrations under both saline and non-saline conditions. In contrast, in the Inqlab-91 plant, CaCl2 increased free indoleacetic acid (IAA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA) content. However, priming of seeds with CaCl2 did not alter free polyamine levels in either cultivar, although spermidine levels were considerably lower in plants raised from seeds treated with CaCl2 for both cultivars under saline conditions. Priming with KCl increased growth in Inqlab-91 plants, but not in MH-97 plants, under saline conditions. The salinity induced reduction in auxins (IAA and IBA) was alleviated by NaCl priming in both cultivars under saline conditions. However, NaCl increased leaf free ABA content and lowered leaf SA and putrescine levels in Inqlab-91 plants under saline conditions. In conclusion, although all three priming agents (i.e. CaCl2, KCl, and NaCl) were effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salt stress on wheat plants, their effects on altering the levels of different plant hormones were different in the two cultivars.(Author for correspondence. Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan. Tel: +92 41 920 0312; Fax: +92 41 920 0764; E-mail: ashrafm@fsd.paknet.com.pk.)
Abstract (Browse 2890)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Culturing the Segments of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux Thalli Regenerated from Protoplast Aggregations
Author: Guang-Ce Wang and Cheng-Kui Tseng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00190.x
    Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux was regenerated in vitro from the protoplasm squeezed out from wild algae and the regenerated individuals had an advantage over individuals from the wild in terms of growth. Culturing of segments of thalli also showed that segments from the regenerated algae grew better than those from individuals from the wild. The segment that corresponds to a part of a cell, at least a part of the protoplasm, can develop into a mature individual, including rhizoid and thallus, suggesting that a multinucleate alga, such as B. hypnoides, is different from higher plants, whose totipotency is based on an intact cell (or protoplasm). Further cultivation of mature individuals from segments indicated that the organelles in the thallus had two ways in which they could survive when the alga was on the decline: (i) the organelles were transferred into a ball with a gelatinous envelope through a formed pipe and the ball seemed to be capable of being propagated; and (ii) the organelles were aggregated in the thallus and then moved to the outside. An interesting result is that one organelle aggregation located outside the thallus germinated and developed into a mature alga, although most organelle aggregations gradually lost vitality and died. The results of the present study reveal that the aggregation of organelles can regenerate a stronger organism than individuals from the wild owing to the complete exchange of genetic material and may possibly enable organelles to survive in unfavorable surroundings.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 0532 8289 8574; Fax: 0532 8288 0645; E-mail: gcwang@ms.qdio.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2855)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Expressional Studies of the Voltage-dependent Anion Channel Gene from Brassica rapa L.
Author: Jiang Wang, Li-Da Zhang, Kai-Jing Zuo, Hong-Mei Qian, You-Fang Cao and Ke-Xuan Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00197.x
    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays an essential role in the permeability of mitochondrial membrane. In the present study, we isolated a novel VDAC gene (brvdac) based on the assembly of expressed sequence tag sequences from Brassica rapa L. and explored its differential expression patterns in growth, tissues, abiotic stress, and stress recovery. Results of a tissue-specific expression study in young seedlings indicated that, of all tissues tested, brvdac expression was the highest in the leaves. Under cold, drought, and salt stresses, brvdac expression showed a transient increase, and then returned to normal levels when the stress was removed. When plants were exposed to heat shock, there was no increase in brvdac expression, whereas during recovery a quick and considerable increase in expression was observed. These observations indicate that dissimilar modulations of brvdac transcription may occur when plant cells encounter heat shock and the other three types of stress. In addition, phylogenetic analysis implied that an earlier duplication of vdac probably occurred before the divergence between monocotyledons and dicotyledons.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 021 6293 2002; Fax: 021 6282 4073; E-mail: kxtang1@yahoo.com or kxtang@sjtu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2912)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Purple Acid Phosphatase Gene (MtPAP1) from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic
Author: Kai Xiao*, Maria Harrison and Zeng-Yu Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00204.x
    Retraction Statement I recently submitted two papers to the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology and they have been published in 2006, Vol. 48 (1), 35每43 (K. Xiao, J.-H Zhang, M. Harrison and Z.-Y Wang. Ectopic Expression of a Phytase Gene from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic Enhances Phosphorus Absorption in Plants) and 2006, Vol. 48 (2), 204每211 (K. Xiao, M. Harrison and Z.-Y Wang. Cloning and haracterization of a Novel Purple Acid Phosphatase Gene (MtPAP1) from Medicago truncatula Barrel Medic). These two papers in the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology contain data that were in two papers that had been submitted earlier to the journals Planta (K. Xiao, M. Harrison and Z.-Y Wang. 2005. Transgenic expression of a novel M. truncatula phytase gene results in improved acquisition of organic phosphorus by Arabidopsis, Vol. 222, 27每36) and Plant Science (K. Xiao, H. Katagi, M. Harrison and Z.-Y. Wang. 2006. Improved phosphorus acquisition and biomass production in Arabidopsis by transgenic expression of a purple acid phosphatase gene from M. truncatula by 170:191每202). I am very sorry that the papers with some duplicate data, which was firstly used in the papers published in Planta and Plant Science, were re-published in the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. When I submitted the manuscripts to the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, the co-authors M. Harrison and Z.-Y. Wang were not involved and therefore were not aware of the submissions until after these papers were published. Therefore, it is my fault to cause these adverse results. Here I am regretful to have made some damage to their reputations. As the corresponding author for the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology papers, here I retract the papers published in the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology (2006, Vol. 48 (1), 35每43 and 2006, Vol. 48 (2), 204每211). I apologize for any adverse consequences and inconveniences that may have resulted from the publications of these papers. Sincerely Kai Xiao College of Agronomy Hebei Agricultural University
Abstract (Browse 2978)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning and Expression of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Genes from the Chinese Elite Wheat Cultivar ※Xiaoyan 54§
Author: Xin-Yu Wang, Kun-Fan Liu and Wang-Zhen Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00212.x
    The low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits account for 40% of wheat gluten protein content by mass and these proteins are considered to significantly affect dough quality characteristics. Five new full-length LMW glutenin genes (designated LMW-5, LMW-7, LMW-42, LMW-58, and LMW-34) were isolated from the Chinese elite wheat cultivar ※Xiaoyan 54§ by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using a pair of degenerate primers designed from the conserved sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of published LMW glutenin genes. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that LMW-5 belongs to the LMW-i type genes and that the other four belong to LMW-m type genes. Sequence comparisons revealed that point mutations occasionally occurred in signal peptide and N-terminus domains and often existed in domain III and domain V. Small insertions and deletions are represented in the repetitive domain. There is a stop codon after amino acid position 110 in the repetitive domain of LMW-34, indicating that it is a pseudogene. The other four genes have complete open reading frames and the putative mature regions of these genes were subcloned into pET-30a expression vector and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that all proteins expressed in E. coli by the four genes could be related to B-group LMW glutenin subunits of wheat.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 025 8439 5311; Fax: 025 8439 5307; E-mail: moelab@njau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2717)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R inUpland Cotton
Author: Jian-Mei Yin, Wang-Zhen Guo and Tian-Zhen Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing a large genomic DNA insert is an important tool for genome physical mapping, map-based cloning, and genome sequencing. To isolate genes via a map-based cloning strategy and to perform physical mapping of the cotton genome, a high-quality BAC library containing large cotton DNA inserts is needed. We have developed a BAC library of the restoring line 0-613-2R for isolating the fertility restorer (Rf1) gene and genomic research in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The BAC library contains 97 825 clones stored in 255 pieces of a 384-well microtiter plate. Random samples of BACs digested with the NotI enzyme indicated that the average insert size is approximately 130 kb, with a range of 80每275 kb, and 95.7% of the BAC clones in the library have an average insert size larger than 100 kb. Based on a cotton genome size of 2 250 Mb, library coverage is 5.7 ℅ haploid genome equivalents. Four clones were selected randomly from the library to determine the stability of the BAC clones. There were no different fingerprints for 0 and 100 generations of each clone digested with NotI and HindIII enzymes. Thus, the stability of a single BAC clone can be sustained at least for 100 generations. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking the Rf1 gene were chosen to screen the BAC library by pool using PCR method and 25 positive clones were identified with 3.1 positive clones per SSR marker.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): 025 8439 5307; E-mail: cotton@njau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3027)       
Purification, Biological Activities, and Molecular Cloning of a Novel Mannose-Binding Lectin from Bulbs of Zephyranthes candida Herb (Amaryllidaceae)
Author: Chuan-Fang Wu, Jian Li, Jie An, Li-Qing Chang, Fang Chen and Jin-Ku Bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
    A novel mannose-binding agglutinin was purified from bulbs of Zephyranthes candida Herb by extraction, precipitation with 80% (NH4)2SO4, and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100. The purified Z. candida agglutinin (ZCA) migrated as a single band of 12 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. The apparent molecular mass of the lectin, as determined by gel filtration chromatography, was 48 kDa. The results indicated that ZCA was composed of four identical subunits of 12 kDa each (homotetrameric nature). The ZCA agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at concentrations of 0.95, 1.90, and 31.30 米g/mL, respectively. Bioassays indicated that ZCA has a significant effect on wheat aphid survival. Mortality after 7 d was > 90% at 0.26%. A degenerate primer was designed in accordance with the N-terminal partial sequence of purified ZCA. The full-length cDNA was cloned by 3''- and 5''-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA had 661 bp and the sequence encoded an open reading frame of 168 amino acids. The mature protein of ZCA includes 109 amino acid residues and the molecular weight of the protein was 12.1 kDa. The result show that the zca gene encodes a protein precursor with a signal peptide, a mature protein, and a C-terminal cleavage amino acids sequence. Molecular modeling of ZCA indicated that its three-dimensional structure strongly resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. Blocks* analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of ZCA has three functional domains specific for agglutination and three carbohydrate binding boxes (QDNY).(Author for correspondence.E-mails: scuchenfang@hotmail.com and jinkubao@yahoo.com)
Abstract (Browse 3082)       
New Cytotoxic Saponins from Lysimachia davurica Ledeb.
Author: Jing-Kui Tian, Zhong-Mei Zou, Li-Zhen Xu and Shi-Lin Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia davurica Ledeb., two new saponins named davuricoside I (compound 1) and E (compound 2) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 3汕,16汐, 28, 29-tetrihydroxy-olean-12-en-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↙2)-汕-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1) and 3汕,16汐, 29-trihydroxy-13, 28-epoxy-oleanane-3-O-汕-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↙2)-汕-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 2) on the basis of their one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): 0571 8827 3061; E-mail: tjk@zju.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2795)       
Chemical Constituents of Phacellaria compressa Benth.
Author: Xiu-Yun Zhang, Bo-Gang Li, Min Zhou, Xiao-Hong Yuan and Guo-Lin Zhang*
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(2)
    Two new compounds, 1-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane (1) and 5, 7, 3''-trimethyoxyflavan-4''-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Phacellaria compressa Benth., together with 2,3-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-methyl]-1,4-butanediol (3), ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (4), methyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate (5),汕-sitosterol (6), 5, 7, 3'', 4''-tetrahydroxyflavan (7), lupeol (8), zhebeiresinol (9), quercetin-3-O-汐-L-rhamnopyranoside (10), (+)-catechin (11), betulin (12), 汕-daucosterol (13), (+)-syringaresinol (14), scopoletin (15), and proximadiol (16). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectral evidence or by comparing them with authentic samples. Compound 9 showed 汐-amylase inhibitory activity of 57.55% at a concentration of 50 米g/mL.
Abstract (Browse 3212)       
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