May 2006, Volume 48 Issue 5, Pages 497-616.


Cover Caption:
The cover images show the subcellular localization of an S-RNase-interacting protein PGPS/D3 in Petunia hybrida. Onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells were bombarded with a plasmid harboring a PGPS/D3-GFP fusion construct. The cells were normal (top left) or subject to plasmolysis treatment (bottom right). Detection of fluorescence was performed 24 h after bombardment under a confocal laser scanning microscope. The merged images of those obtained under normal and ultraviolet light are shown. The PGPS/D3-GFP fusion protein accumulated in both the membrane and cytoplasm. See pages 584-590 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Variations of 18S rDNA Loci Among Six Populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae) Revealed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
Author: Rui Luo, Chao Wang and Daming Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00253.x
      
    The localization of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) had been performed for some species of Paeonia. However, the pattern of 18S rDNA loci among populations is indistinct. In the present study, we localized 18S rDNA loci on meiotic or mitotic chromosomes of six populations of Paeonia obovata Maxim. (Paeoniaceae). Different numbers of rDNA loci were found with different diploid (2n=10) populations, namely eight (Lushi and Mt. Jiuhua populations), 10 (Mt. Taibai population), and seven (Mt. Guandi population), whereas tetraploid (2n=20) populations were all found with 16 loci. All rDNA loci were mapped near telomeres of mitotic chromosomes and there was no chromosome with two loci. The present results show that molecular cytological polymorphism exists among P. obovata diploid populations, indicating that structural variations occurred frequently during the evolutionary history of this species, accompanied with differentiation among populations.(Author for correspondence.Tel: (0)10 6283 6492; Fax: (0)10 6259 0843; E-mail:zhangdm@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3038)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Soil Carbon Changes Following Afforestation with Olga Bay Larch (Larix olgensis Henry) in Northeastern China
Author: Chun-Mei Wang, Hua Ouyang, Bin Shao, Yu-Qiang Tian, Jing-Gang Zhao and Huai-Yan Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00264.x
      
    After converting cropland to forest, carbon is sequestered in the aggrading biomass of the new forests, but the question remains, to what extent will the former arable soil contribute as a sink for CO2? Quantifying changes in soil carbon is an important consideration in the large-scale conversion of cropland to forest. Extensive field studies were undertaken to identify a number of suitable sites for comparison of soil properties under pasture and forest. The present paper describes results from a study of the effects of first rotation larch on soil carbon in seven stands in an afforestation chronosequence compared with adjacent Korean pine, pasture, and cropland. An adjacent 250-year-old natural forest was included to give information on the possible long-term changes in soil carbon in northeast China in 2004. Soil carbon initially decreased during the first 12 yr before a gradual recovery and accumulation of soil carbon occurred. The initial (0每12 yr) decrease in soil carbon was an average 1.2% per year among case studies, whereas the increase in soil carbon (12每33 yr) was 1.90% per year. Together with the carbon sequestration of forest floors, this led to total soil carbon stores of approximately 101.83 Mg/hm2 over the 33-year chronosequence. Within the relatively short time span, carbon sequestration occurred mainly in tree biomass, whereas soil carbon stores were clearly higher in the 250-year-old plantation (184 Mg/hm2). The ongoing redistribution of mineral soil carbon in the young stands and the higher soil carbon contents in the 250-year-old afforested stand suggest that nutrient-rich afforestation soils may become greater sinks for carbon (C) in the long term.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)10 6488 9697; Fax: +86 (0)10 6485 1844; E-mail:ohua@igsnrr.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2932)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Density Effects on Plant Height Growth and Inequality in Sunflower Populations
Author: Sa Xiao, Shu-Yan Chen, Lu-Qiang Zhao and Gang Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00265.x
      
    Comparisons between competing and non-competing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) populations demonstrate pronounced effects of density on plant height growth, height-to-crown width ratio, and a population*s height inequality. In the present study, non-destructive measurements of height and the projected crown area of sunflower plants were taken at seven times from emergence to fruit maturation in even-aged monospecific stands with initial densities of 1, 4, 16, and 64 plants/m2. The mean height of populations increased and then decreased with increasing population density; the height inequalities of uncrowded populations decreased during stand growth, whereas the height inequalities of crowded populations decreased first and then increased during stand development. The interindividual relationships between the relative height growth rate and height within uncrowded populations became significantly negative during population growth, whereas these relationships were negative first and then became positive during the development of crowded populations. In the uncrowded populations, the static interindividual relationship between height-to-crown width ratio and volume was positive, whereas for the crowded population these relationships became negative with increasing competition for light. The data suggest that the plastic responses of plant height and height-to-crown width ratio to light competition will become more intense with increasing competition intensity. The results of the present study argue strongly for the importance of size-dependent individual-level plastic responses due to size-asymmetric light competition in generating the variations in population height inequality.(Author for correspondence.Tel:0931-8912849˙Fax:0931-8912823˙ Emailㄩwangg@lzu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3361)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Physiological Responses of Three Contrasting Plant Species to Groundwater Level Changes in an Arid Environment
Author: Li Zhuang and Ya-Ning Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00238.x
      
    Plants growing on both sides of the Tarim River in western China serve as a natural barrier containing the deserts and protecting the oasis, and their growth is greatly affected by water conditions in their local habitat. We studied the physiological responses of three different types plants (i.e. Populus euphratica Oliver, Tamarix ramosissima L., and Apocynum venetumas Linn) to changing groundwater levels by analyzing changes in chlorophyll, soluble sugar, proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), indoleacetic acid (IAA), giberellic acid, abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (CK). Relationships between these physiological characteristics and groundwater levels were analyzed in order to assess the drought tolerance of the three plant species based on the values of average membership function. We found that MDA, SOD and ABA were more susceptible to changes in groundwater level, followed by POD, IAA and CK. Among the three plant species, Populus euphratica responded physiologically less to changing groundwater level than T. ramosissima and A. venetumas.(Author for correspondence.Tel. +86 (0)991 7885432; E-mail:chenyn@ms.xjb.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2597)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Response of Growth Dynamics of Two Spring Geophytes to Light Regime in a Lime-Beech Forest
Author: Zorica Popovic, Aleksandar Mijovic, Branko Karadzic and Miroslava Mijatovic
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00239.x
      
    Biomass accumulation, leaf longevity and growth rate of two spring forest geophytes, Scilla bifolia L. and Arum maculatum L. were estimated separately for three size groups within each population of these species. Despite the differences in leaf longevity, both species showed a similar pattern of biomass accumulation in relation to their phenologies and reproductive demands. Eco-physiological acclimation to changing light environment was assumed through photosynthetic parameters and dynamics of leaf area index in the predominant size group of each species. A light response curve was measured under natural light for each species through the continuum of its phenology to quantify the photosynthetic photon flux density at light saturation, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, and dark respiration. Light-saturated assimilation per leaf area basis, dark respiration rate and light compensation points were significantly higher in S. bifolia relative to A. maculatum. However, the acclimation of photosynthesis that would respond to light changes in environment was not found in S. bifolia. In contrast, in A. maculatum a marked shift in the light dependence of photosynthesis through the season was noticed, which resulted in a strong photosynthetic acclimation to the low-light conditions. Accompanied by significant leaf area index, this efficient low-light photosynthesis enabled greater leaf longevity, and consequently longer accumulative period to A. maculatum. From the different parameters that we determined (both photosynthetic acclimation and growth strategy) it would appear that these species belong to two distinct subgroups: S. bifolia to the early and A. maculatum to the late vernals.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +381 11 207 8360; Fax: +381 11 276 1433; E-mail:zoricaj@ibiss.bg.ac.yu)
Abstract (Browse 2600)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Activity, but not Expression, of Soluble and Cell Wall-Bound Acid Invertases Is Induced by Abscisic Acid in Developing Apple Fruit
Author: Qiu-Hong Pan, Xiang-Chun Yu, Na Zhang, Xun Zou, Chang-Cao Peng, Xiu-Ling Wang, Ke-Qin Zou and Da-Peng Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00251.x
      
    The present experiment, involving both the in vivo injection of abscisic acid (ABA) into apple (Malus domestica Brohk.) fruits and the in vivo incubation of fruit tissues in ABA-containing medium, revealed that ABA activates both soluble and cell wall-bound acid invertases. Immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that this ABA-induced acid invertase activation is independent of the amount of enzyme present. The acid invertase activation induced by ABA is dependent on medium pH, time course, ABA dose, living tissue and developmental stage. Two isomers of cis-(+)-ABA, (每)-ABA and trans-ABA, had no effect on acid invertases, showing that ABA-induced acid invertase activation is specific to physiologically active cis-(+)ABA. Protein kinase inhibitors K252a and H7 as well as acid phosphatase increased the ABA-induced effects. These data indicate that ABA specifically activates both soluble and cell wall-bound acid invertases by a posttranslational mechanism probably involving reversible protein phosphorylation, and this may be one of the mechanisms by which ABA is involved in regulating fruit development.(Author for correspondence.Telㄩ010-62732784˙Faxㄩ010-62731899˙E-mailㄩzhangdp@sohu.net)
Abstract (Browse 2768)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Induction of Volatile Organic Compounds of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Its Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by Burdock Oligosaccharide
Author: Pei-Qing He, Li Tian, Kao-Shan Chen, Lin-Hua Hao and Guang-You Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00268.x
      
    In the present study, we investigated the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and its resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pers. by burdock oligosaccharide. The disease severity of L. esculentum was evaluated 48 h after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide, followed by inoculation with a spore suspension of B. cinerea. The formation of O2-., the activity of lipoxygenases (LOX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the quantity and quality of changes in VOCs were determined a period of time after treatment with 0.6% burdock oligosaccharide. The results demonstrated that the disease index in treated plants was decreased by 42.5% compared with control 96 h after inoculation. The production of O2-. reached a maximum 6 h after treatment (1.36-fold compared with control). There was an increase in LOX, POD, CAT and SOD activity in response to burdock oligosaccharide treatment and the enzymes showed different trends in the time-course of induction. At 120 h after treatment, (E)-2-hexenal was increased by 92% compared with control, whereas methyl salicylate showed a gradual increase with induction period. Previous results had demonstrated that chitosan elicitor enhanced the production VOCs of L. esculentum and decreased plant susceptibility towards B. cinerea. Together, these findings suggest that increasing the production of VOCs in response to burrdock oligosaccharide may be an important mechanism for L. esculentumin its defense against pathogens. In addition, burrdock oligosaccharide may act as a potent elicitor of resistance to disease in L. esculentum.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)532 8896 7422; Fax: +86 (0)532 8896 9292; E-mail: ksc313@126.com)
Abstract (Browse 2804)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cotton Leaf Curl Virus: Ionic Status of Leaves and Symptom Development
Author: Naeem Iqbal, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Farrukh Javed, Muhammad Ashraf and Sohail Hameed
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00267.x
      
    In the present study, the relationship between the nutritional status of leaves and the development of symptoms of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (i.e. CIM-240 and S-12) was investigated. The incidence of disease attack was found to be 100% in the S-12 cultivar and 16% in the CIM-240 cultivar. Geminivirus particles in infected leaves were confirmed by transmission electron microscope examination of highly specific geminivirus coat protein antisera-treated cell sap. The CLCuV impaired the accumulation of different nutrients in both cultivars. A marked decrease in the accumulation of Ca2+ and K+ was observed in infected leaves. However, the disease had no effect on leaf concentrations of Na+, N, and P. It was observed that the curling of leaf margins in CLCuV-infected plants was associated with the leaf Ca2+ content; leaf curling was severe in plants with a significant reduction in Ca2+ content. Moreover, leaf K+ content was found to be associated with resistance/susceptibility to CLCuV infection.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +92 41 265 2666; Fax: +92 41 265 4213; E-mail: niabmyashraf@yahoo.co.uk)
Abstract (Browse 2441)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
14CO2 Fixation and Translocation of Photoassimilates as Selection Criteria of Egyptian Taro Genotypes
Author: Helal Ragab Moussa and Afaf Abd EI-Kader Salem
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00278.x
      
    The growth characteristics, different physiological parameters, photosynthetic activity (14CO2 fixation), and the translocation rate of photoassimilates in different taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) genotypes was studied in order to determine the possible use of these parameters as selection criteria for different widely used genotypes of taro (Delta No. 9, 15, 20, 21, and balady). The results obtained suggest that Delta No. 21 shows the most significant increase in all parameters tested compared with the control (balady), followed by Delta No. 9, 15, and 20, respectively. The results show a positive correlation between photosynthetic activity, translocation efficiency, and total yield. The selected clone Delta No. 21 is recommended for cultivation in the delta region of Egypt.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +20 2337 0588; Fax: +20 2337 1082; E-mail:helal_moussa@hotmail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2664)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Activation In Vitro of Mutant MoFe Proteins from Azotobacter vinelandii by Reconstituent Solutions
Author: Huang-Ping Wang, Ying Zhao, Shao-Min Bian, Hui-Na Zhou, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Jin-Mao Zhu and Ju-Fu Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00250.x
      
    nifB每 MoFe protein (nifB每Av1), 忖nifE MoFe protein (忖nifE Av1) and 忖nifZ MoFe protein 忖nifZ Av1) were obtained by chromatography on DE52, Sephacryl S-300 and Q-Sepharose columns from nifB point-mutated, nifE deleted and nifZ deleted mutant stains (UW45, DJ35 and DJ194) of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann, respectively. When complemented with nitrogenase Fe protein (Av2), 忖nifZ Av1 had partial activity and both nifB每 Av1 and 忖nifE Av1 had hardly any activity, but could be obviously activated by FeMoco extracted from wild-type MoFe protein (OP Av1) or 忖nifZ Av1. After being incubated with excess O-phenanthroline (O-phen) for 150 min at 30 ∼C and subjected to chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 column in an Ar atmosphere, nifB每 Av1©, 忖nifE Av1© and 忖nifZ Av1© were obtained, respectively. Based on a calculation of Fe atoms in the O-phen-Fe compound with 汍512nm= 11 100, lost Fe atoms of nifB每 Av1, 忖nifE Av1 and 忖nifZ Av1 were estimated to be 1.35, 2.89 and 8.44 per molecule of protein, respectively. As a result of the Fe loss, 忖nifZ Av1 loses its original activity. In the presence of both MgATP and Av2, these Fe-losing proteins, but not the original proteins untreated with O-phen, could be significantly activated by reconstituent solution (RS) composed of dithiothreitol, ferric homocitrate, Na2S and Na2MoO4, or K2CrO4, or KMnO4. But in the absence of MgATP or Av2, the activation did not occur, with the exception that 忖nifZ Av1© was partially activated, and the activity was only 17%. These findings indicate that: (i) 忖nifZ Av1 with half P-cluster content is somewhat different from FeMoco-deficient nifB每 Av1 and 忖nifE Av1 with respect to protein conformation either before or after treatment with O-phen; (ii) full activation of these proteins with RS requires pretreatment with O-phen and the simultaneous presence of MgATP and Av2.(Author for correspondence.Tel: (0)10 6283 6219; Fax: (0)10 6259 0833; E-mail:jfhuang@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2434)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Secretory Cavity Development and Its Relationship with the Accumulation of Essential Oil in Fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle
Author: She-Jian Liang, Hong Wu, Xuan Lun and Dong-Wen Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00230.x
      
    The developmental types of secretory cavities in Citrus remain controversial. The relationship between secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil in fruits of Citrus species is also unknown. In order to develop better insights into these problems, histological, histochemical, and cytochemical methods were used to investigate secretory cavity development and the accumulation of essential oil at different developmental stages of fruits of Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis (Noot.) Swingle. The results indicate that the secretory cavity of the variety seemed to originate from an epidermal cell and a subepidermal cell. These two cells underwent successive divisions, resulting in the formation of two parts: (i) a conical cap; and (ii) a globular gland. The formation of the lumen was schizolysigenous. Regular changes in the size of vacuoles and the accumulation of essential oil were revealed during the process of secretory cavity development. In addition, when fruits were a light yellow or golden color, the structure of secretory cavities was well developed and the content of essential oil in a single fruit reached a maximum. It would be most appropriate to collect the fruit as a medicinal material at this time.(Author for correspondence.Tel: (0)20 8528 8393; Fax: (0)20 8528 2180; E-mail:wh@scau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2748)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Petunia Germinating Pollen S/D3 Interacts with S-RNases in Petunia hybrida Vilm.  
Author: Yan-Xia Guo, Yan-Sheng Zhang and Yong-Biao Xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5): 584-590
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00285.x
      
    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic mechanism of self/non-self pollen recognition to prevent self-fertilization in many flowering plants and, in most cases, this is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. S-RNase and S-locus F box (SLF) proteins have been shown to be the female and male determinants of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI), respectively, in the Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Rosaceae. Nevertheless, it is thought that additional factors are required for the SI response. Herein, we constructed a mature anther cDNA library from a self-incompatible Petunia hybrida Vilm. line of the S3S3 haplotype. Using AhS2-RNase from Antirrhinum hispanicum as a bait for yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that petunia germinating pollen (PGP) S/D3 was capable of interacting physically with the bait. However, the interaction lacked haplotype specificity. The PGPS/D3 gene is a single copy gene that is expressed in tissues such as the style, ovary, pollen, and leaf. The PGPS/D3::GFP (green fluorescence protein) construct was detected in both the membrane and cytoplasm. The implications of these findings in the operation of S-RNase-based SI are discussed.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 0(10) 6255 2880˙Fax: 0(10) 6253 7814˙ E-mail:ybxue@genetics.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3014)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Transcriptional Responses to Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone  
Author: Kegui Chen and Yong-Qiang Charles An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5): 591-612
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00270.x
      
    Cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to investigate giberrellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined the mRNA accumulation of over 22 000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1 328 genes had more than a threefold change in response to GA treatment, whereas 206 genes had a more than threefold change in response to ABA treatment. Interestingly, approximately 2.5-fold more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated by ABA. Eighty-three genes were differentially regulated by both GA and ABA. Most of the genes were subject to antagonistic regulation by ABA and GA, particularly for genes related to seed maturation and germination, such as genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and storage mobilization enzymes. This supports the antagonistic roles of GA and ABA in seed maturation and seed germination. Interestingly, we observed that a significant percentage of the genes were coordinately regulated by both GA and ABA. Some GA-responsive genes encoded proteins involved in ethylene, jasmonate, brassinosteroid and auxin metabolic and signaling transduction pathways, suggesting their potential interaction with the GA response. We also identified a group of transcription factor genes, such as MYB and Homeobox genes, that were differentially regulated by GA. In addition, a number of GA- and/or ABA-responsive genes encoded components potentially involved in GA and ABA signal transduction pathway. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive and global view of transcript expression accompanying the GA and ABA response in barley aleurone and identifies a group of genes with potential regulatory functions in GA- and ABA-signaling pathways for future functional validation.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +1 608 358 8162; Fax: +1 608 890 0302; E-mail:ycan@wisc.edu)
Abstract (Browse 3416)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A Diterpene Endoperoxide from Microtoena insuavis (Hance) Prain ex Dunn
Author: Chong-Qian Li, Bo-Gang Li, Feng-Peng Wang* and Guo-Lin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00229.x
      
    A novel endoperoxide diterpene, 7汐-hydroxy-abieta-8(14)-en-18-ol 9,13汐-endoperoxide (compound 1), was isolated from the stems of Microtoena insuavis (Hance) Prain ex Dunn, along with 4,4''-dihydroxytruxillic acid (compound 2), gallic acid (compound 3), ellagic acid (compound 4), 3-O-methylellagic acid 3''-O-汐-rhamnopyranoside (compound 5), 3''''''-O-methylcrenatoside (compound 6), crenatoside (compound 7), apigenin (compound 8), succinic acid (compound 9), 汕-sitosterol (compound 10), and 汕-daucosterol (compound 11). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): (0)28 8522 5401; E-mail: zhanggl@cib.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2716)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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