June 2006, Volume 48 Issue 6, Pages 617-744.


Cover Caption:
Fluorescence micrographs showing the morphology of cotton pollen grains susceptible (top left) and tolerant (bottom right) to high temperature under field heat stress. See pages 706-714 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Florigen: One Found, More to Follow?
Author: Xuhong Yu, John Klejnot and Chentao Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00309.x
      
    Florigen(s) are molecules that are synthesized in response to appropriate photoperiods and transmitted from leaves to shoot apices to promote floral initiation. It has been recently discovered in Arabidopsis that mRNA of the FT gene acts as a florigen. In Arabidopsis, cryptochromes and phytochromes mediate long-day promotion of CO protein expression, which activates FT mRNA expression in leaves. FT mRNA is transmitted to the shoot apex, where it acts together with FD to activate transcription of floral meristem identity genes, resulting in floral initiation. The discovery of the molecular nature of a florigen was a major scientific breakthrough in 2005.(Author for correspondence.E-mail: clin@mcdb.ucla.edu)
Abstract (Browse 2739)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Research Progresses on Auxin Response Factors
Author: Hai-Bin Wei, Bai-Ming Cui, Yan-Li Ren, Juan-Hua Li, Wei-Bin Liao, Nan-Fei Xu and Ming Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00280.x
      
    Auxin response factors (ARFs), a family of transcription factors, have been discovered recently. The ARFs bind specifically to the auxin response elements (AuxREs) within promoters of primary auxin responsive genes and function as activators or repressors. The ARFs contain three domains, namely a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a non-conserved middle region, and a conserved C-terminal dimerization domain. The ARFs can form a protein complex with auxin/indoleacetic acid through homodimerization or heterodimerization. The particular protein-protein interaction may play a key role in modulating the expression of early auxin responsive genes. The identification of ARF mutations in Arabidopsis helps to demonstrate/dissect the function of ARFs in the normal growth and development of plants. Phylogenetic analysis also reveals some interesting protein evolution points in the ARF family.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86(0)898 66890981; E-mail:mmpeng_2000@yahoo.com)
Abstract (Browse 2814)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Plant Remains from an Archaeological Site as Indicators of Vegetation and Agricultural Practice Between (3 320 ㊣ 400) and (2 080 ㊣ 80) yr BP in Gangetic West Bengal, India
Author: Ruby Ghosh, Subir Bera, Ashalata D*Rozario, Manju Banerjee and Supriyo Chakraborty
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00329.x
      
    Diverse plant remains recovered from an archaeological site of Chalcolithic-Early Historic age in the Bhairabdanga area of Pakhanna (latitude 23∼25''N, longitude 87∼23''E), situated on the west bank of the Damodar river, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, include food grains, wood charcoals, and palynomorphs. Radiocarbon dating of the recovered biological remains reveal the age of the site as (3 320 ㊣ 400) to (2 080 ㊣ 80) yr BP. The food grains were identified as Oryza sativa L. and Vigna mungo L, and seeds of Brassica cf. campestris L. were also found; these indicate the agricultural practice and food habits of the ancient people living at Pakhanna from the Chalcolithic to the Early Historic period. Sediments including plant remains have been broadly divided into two zones, considering archaeological findings and radiocarbon dating. Analysis of the plant remains (i.e. wood charcoals and palynomorphs) in addition to cultivated food grains has revealed that a rich vegetation cover existed in this area, with a prevailing tropical and humid climate, comprising the timber-yielding plants Shorea sp., Terminalia sp., and Tamarindus sp., with undergrowths of diverse shrubs and herbs during the Chalcolithic period (zone I) dated (3 320 ㊣ 400) yr BP. Comparatively poorer representation and frequency of plant remains indicate a drier climate during the Early Historic period (zone II) dated as (2 110 ㊣ 340) to (2 080 ㊣ 80) yr BP. Comparisons of the archaeobotanical data recovered from the Chalcolithic and Early Historic period and also a principle components analysis indicate a change in the climate of the area from tropical and humid at (3 320 ㊣ 400) yr BP to tropical and drier conditions at (2 110 ㊣ 340) to (2 080 ㊣ 80) yr BP. The present-day tropical, dry deciduous vegetation of the area suggests that climate change has occurred in the area since the contemporaneous past. The plant remains database has been utilized to reconstruct the settlement pattern of the community living in the site between (3 320 ㊣ 400) and (2 080 ㊣ 80) yr BP. The community settled near the riverbank, practicing cultivation.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +91 (0)33 2461 4959; Fax: +91 (0)33 2476 4419; +91 (0)33 2476 5210; E-mail: berasubir@yahoo.co.in)
Abstract (Browse 2384)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Hillslope Gradient on Vegetation Recovery on Abandoned Land of Shifting Cultivation  
Author: Yi Ding, Run-Guo Zang and You-Xu Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6): 642-653
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00262.x
      
    In the present study, we investigated the effect of hillslope gradient on vegetation recovery on abandoned land of shifting cultivation in Hainan Island, south China, by measuring community composition and structure of 25-year-old secondary forest fallows along a hillslope gradient (up-, middle-, and down-slope position). A total of 49 733 free-standing woody plant stems higher than 10 cm and belonging to 170 species, 112 genera, and 57 families was found in the three 1-hm2 investigation plots. Stem density was highest in the down-slope stand and lowest in the up-slope stand. Species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were both highest in the middle-slope stand, and lower in the down-slope and up-slope stands. The recovery forest fallows on different hillslope positions were all dominated by a few species. The five most abundant species accounted for 70.1%, 58.8%, and 72.9% of total stem densities in stands in the up-, middle-, and down-slope positions, respectively. The five species with the greatest basal areas accounted for 74.5%, 84.3%, and 74.7% of total stem basal area for the up-, middle-, and down-slope positions, respectively. The number of low-density species (stem abundance less than five) increased from the up-slope position downward. Of the nine local common species among three different functional groups, the short-lived pioneer species dominated the up-slope position, but long-lived pioneer species dominated the middle- and down-slope positions. The climax species of primary tropical lowland rain forest was found in the down-slope position. Both the mean diameter at breast height (DBH) and mean height of the trees increased with decreasing hillslope gradient. The stem density and basal area in different size classes were significantly different in stands in different slope positions. Our results indicated that the rate of secondary succession varies, even over small spatial scales caused by the hillslope gradient, in early vegetation recovery.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)10 6288 9546; Fax: +86 (0)10 6288 4972; E-mail: zangrung@forestry.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 4322)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Dependence of Soil Respiration on Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Successional Forests in Southern China
Author: Xu-Li Tang, Guo-Yi Zhou, Shu-Guang Liu, De-Qiang Zhang, Shi-Zhong Liu, Jiong Li and Cun-Yu Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00263.x
      
    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (㊣ SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ㊣ 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year, ranging from (6.1 ㊣ 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ㊣ 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%每82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.(Author for correspondence.Telㄩ(020) 3725 2708, 換淩: (020) 3725 2615)
Abstract (Browse 2613)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparison of Classical Models for Evaluating the Heat Requirements of Olive (Olea europeae L.) in Portugal
Author: Helena Ribeiro, M芍rio Cunha and Ilda Abreu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00269.x
      
    The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy and reproducibility of six statistical models for the calculation of olive (Olea europeae L.) heat requirements to trigger the onset of flowering in three Portuguese regions: Reguengos de Monsaraz, Valença do Douro, and Braga. Other aims were to ascertain the date on which the heat-accumulation period started and the threshold temperatures above which the development of reproductive structures starts in olives. The starting and peak dates for the regional O. europeae flowering season were estimated by monitoring airborne pollen from 1998 to 2004 using ※Cour§-type samplers. The threshold temperature values calculated for the three regions were very similar (9.0 ∼C for Valença do Douro, 9.2 ∼C for Reguengos de Monsaraz, and 9.7 ∼C for Braga). The accumulated daily mean temperature model had less interannual and inter-regional variation, showing best predictive results for 2004, with absolute differences between the observed and predicted dates of 4 d in Reguengos de Monsaraz and 2 d in Valença do Douro and Braga for the onset of flowering date and of 2 d in Reguengos de Monsaraz, 7 d in Valença do Douro, and 4 d in Braga for peak flowering dates. This model was the most accurate, reproducible, and operational to calculate heat requirements for olives to flower, with an average mean temperature accumulation of 1 446 ∼C in Reguengos, 1 642 ∼C in Valença do Douro, and 1 703 ∼C in Braga to reach the onset of flowering. The best initial date for this accumulation was 1 January.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +351 22 607 4900; Fax: +351 22 609 9157; E-mail:inoronha@ibmc.up.pt)
Abstract (Browse 2252)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Species and Organ Diversity in the Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Superoxide Dismutase Activity In Vitro
Author: Hong-Yan Cheng and Song-Quan Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00266.x
      
    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is ubiquitous in aerobic organisms and constitutes the first link in the enzyme scavenging system of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, species and organ diversity of SOD activity in a solution and in an in-gel assay system, as well as the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on SOD activity, were investigated. In a solution assay system, SOD activity of jackfruit root, shoot, leaves, axes, and cotyledons, of maize embryos and endosperms, of mung bean leaves and seeds, of sacred lotus axes and cotyledons, and of rice and wheat leaves was increased by 1每15 mmol/L H2O2. However, SOD activity in rice root and seeds, maize roots and leaves, mung bean roots and shoots, and wheat seeds was decreased by 1每15 mmol/L H2O2. The SOD activity of wheat root and soybean roots, leaves, axes, and cotyledons was increased by 1每4 mmol/L H2O2, but was decreased by concentrations of H2O2 >4 mmol/L. The SOD activity of soybean shoots was not affected by 1每15 mmol/L H2O2. The SOD activity in crude mitochondria of jackfruit, maize, and upas seeds, as well as in purified mitochondria of jackfruit, was also increased by 1每15 mmol/L H2O2. In the in-gel assay system, the SOD in jackfruit cotyledons was comprised of Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, and Fe-SOD, the crude mitochondria of jackfruit seeds and maizes embryo was comprised of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD, and the crude mitochondria of maize seeds was comprised of Mn-SOD only. In the present study, H2O2 markedly inhibited Cu/Zn-SOD and Fe-SOD activity.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)691 871 5474; Fax: +86 (0)691 871 5070; E-mail:sqsong@xtbg.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2730)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Different Levels of Water Stress on Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, Protein and Chlorophyll Content and Certain Anti-oxidative Enzymes in Tomato Plants
Author: Hatem Zgallaï, Kathy Steppe and Raoul Lemeur
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00272.x
      
    A greenhouse experiment was performed in order to investigate the effects of different levels of water stress on leaf water potential (朵w), stomatal resistance (rs), protein content and chlorophyll (Chl) content of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Nikita). Water stress was induced by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG 6 000) to the nutrient solution to reduce the osmotic potential (朵s). We investigated the behavior of anti-oxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), during the development of water stress. Moderate and severe water stress (i.e. 朵s= 每0.51 and 每1.22 MPa, respectively) caused a decrease in 朵w for all treated (water-stressed) plants compared with control plants, with the reduction being more pronounced for severely stressed plants. In addition, rs was significantly affected by the induced water stress and a decrease in leaf soluble proteins and Chl content was observed. Whereas CAT activity remained constant, SOD activity was increased in water-stressed plants compared with unstressed plants. These results indicate the possible role of SOD as an anti-oxidant protector system for plants under water stress conditions. Moreover, it suggests the possibility of using this enzyme as an additional screening criterion for detecting water stress in plants.(Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium)*Author for correspondence: Tel: +32 (0)9 264 6126; Fax: +32 (0)9 224 44 10; E-mail: h.zgalla@caramail.com.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +32 (0)9 264 6126; Fax: +32 (0)9 224 44 10; E-mail: h.zgalla@caramail.com)
Abstract (Browse 2513)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phototropism of Thalli and Rhizoids Developed from the Thallus Segments of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux
Author: Nai-Hao Ye, Hong-Xia Wang, Guang-Ce Wang, Zheng-Quan Gao and De-Mao Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00242.x
      
    Newly regenerated thalli were used to study the phototropism of Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux under different qualities of light. Positive phototropism in the thalli and negative phototropism in the rhizoids of B. hypnoides were investigated and analyzed in terms of bending. Both thalli and rhizoids developed from thallus segments exhibited typical tip growth, and their photoreceptive sites for phototropism were also restricted to the apical hemisphere. The bending curvature of rhizoids and thalli were determined with unilateral lights at various wavelengths and different fluence rates after a fixed duration of illumination. The trends of bending from the rhizoid and thallus were coincident, which showed that the action spectrum had a large range, from ultraviolet radiation (366.5 nm) to green light (524 nm). Based on the bending curvatures, blue light had the highest efficiency, while the efficiency of longer wavelengths (>500 nm) was significantly lower. External Ca2+ had no effect on the bending curvature of thalli and rhizoids. Blue light (440 nm) induced thallus branching from rhizoids, while red light (650 nm) had no such effect. Fast-occurring chloroplast accumulation in the outermost cytoplasmic layer of the blue light (440 nm)-irradiated region in the rhizoid was observed, from which protrusions (new thalli) arose after 4 h of the onset of illumination, and this action was thought to be driven by the dynamics of actin microfilaments.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)532 8289 8574; Fax: +86 (0)532 8289 8612; E-mail:gcwang@ms.qdio.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2719)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A New Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Gene from Taxus media Rehder: Cloning, Characterization and Functional Complementation
Author: Zhi-Hua Liao, Min Chen, Yi-Fu Gong, Zhu-Gang Li, Kai-Jing Zuo, Peng Wang, Feng Tan, Xiao-Fen Sun and Ke-Xuan Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00243.x
      
    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS; EC 2.5.1.10) catalyzes the production of 15-carbon farnesyl diphosphate which is a branch-point intermediate for many terpenoids. This reaction is considered to be a rate-limiting step in terpenoid biosynthesis. Here we report for the first time the cloning of a new full-length cDNA encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase from a gymnosperm plant species, Taxus media Rehder, designated as TmFPS1. The full-length cDNA of TmFPS1 (GenBank accession number: AY461811) was 1 464 bp with a 1 056-bp open reading frame encoding a 351-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 40.3 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.07. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that TmFPS1 contained all five conserved domains of prenyltransferases, and showed homology to other FPSs of plant origin. Phylogenetic analysis showed that farnesyl diphosphate synthases can be divided into two groups: one of prokaryotic origin and the other of eukaryotic origin. TmFPS1 was grouped with FPSs of plant origin. Homology-based structural modeling showed that TmFPS1 had the typical spatial structure of FPS, whose most prominent structural feature is the arrangement of 13 core helices around a large central cavity in which the catalytic reaction takes place. Our bioinformatic analysis strongly suggests that TmFPS1 is a functional gene. Southern blot analysis revealed that TmFPS1 belongs to a small FPS gene family in T. media. Northern blot analysis indicated that TmFPS1 is expressed in all tested tissues, including the needles, stems and roots of T. media. Subsequently, functional complementation with TmFPS1 in a FPS-deficient mutant yeast demonstrated that TmFPS1 did encode farnesyl diphosphate synthase, which rescued the yeast mutant. This study will be helpful in future investigations aiming at understanding the detailed role of FPS in terpenoid biosynthesis flux control at the molecular genetic level.(Author for correspondence.Telㄩ021-65642772˙Faxㄩ021-65643552˙E-mail: kxtang1@yahoo.com)
Abstract (Browse 2766)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Mechanical Response of Single Plant Cells to Cell Poking: A Numerical Simulation Model
Author: Rong Wang, Qun-Ying Jiao and De-Qiang Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00244.x
      
    Cell poking is an experimental technique that is widely used to study the mechanical properties of plant cells. A full understanding of the mechanical responses of plant cells to poking force is helpful for experimental work. The aim of this study was to numerically investigate the stress distribution of the cell wall, cell turgor, and deformation of plant cells in response to applied poking force. Furthermore, the locations damaged during poking were analyzed. The model simulates cell poking, with the cell treated as a spherical, homogeneous, isotropic elastic membrane, filled with incompressible, highly viscous liquid. Equilibrium equations for the contact region and the non-contact regions were determined by using membrane theory. The boundary conditions and continuity conditions for the solution of the problem were found. The force-deformation curve, turgor pressure and tension of the cell wall under cell poking conditions were obtained. The tension of the cell wall circumference was larger than that of the meridian. In general, maximal stress occurred at the equator around. When cell deformation increased to a certain level, the tension at the poker tip exceeded that of the equator. Breakage of the cell wall may start from the equator or the poker tip, depending on the deformation. A nonlinear model is suitable for estimating turgor, stress, and stiffness, and numerical simulation is a powerful method for determining plant cell mechanical properties.(Author for correspondence.E-mail:jiaoqy@cau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2485)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Screening for High-Temperature Tolerant Cotton Cultivars by Testing In Vitro Pollen Germination, Pollen Tube Growth and Boll Retention  
Author: Zhi Liu, You-Lu Yuan, Shao-Qing Liu, Xiao-Nan Yu and Li-Qun Rao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6): 706-714
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00276.x
      
    With radical global climate change and global warming, high temperature stress has become one of major factors exerting a major influence on crop production. In the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-growing areas of China, especially in the Yangtze River valley, unexpected periodic episodes of extreme heat stress usually occur in July and August, the peak time of cotton flowering and boll loading, resulting in lower boll set and lint yield. Breeding programs for screening high temperature-tolerant cotton germplasm and cultivars are urgent in order to stabilize yield in the current and future warmer weather conditions. In the present study, 14 cotton cultivars were quantified for in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube growth in response to temperatures ranging from 10 to 50 ∼C at 5 ∼C intervals. Different cotton genotypes varied in their in vitro pollen germination and pollen tube length responses to the different temperatures. Maximum pollen germination and pollen tube length ranged from 25.2% to 56.2% and from 414 to 682 µm, respectively. The average cardinal temperatures (Tmin, Topt, and Tmax) also varied among the 14 cultivars and were 11.8, 27.3, and 42.7 ∼C for pollen germination and 11.8, 27.8, and 44.1 ∼C for maximum pollen tube length. Variations in boll retention and boll numbers per plant in field experiments were found for the 14 cotton cultivars and the boll retention and boll retained per plant on 20 August varied considerably in different years according to weather conditions. Boll retention on 20 August was highly correlated with maximum pollen germination (R2 = 0.84) and pollen tube length (R2=0.64). A screening method based on principle component analysis of the combination of pollen characteristics in an in vitro experiment and boll retention testing in the field environment was used in the present study and, as a result, the 14 cotton cultivars could be classified as tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately susceptible and susceptible to high temperature.(Author for correspondence.Tel: (0) 731 461 7018; E-mail:tigerzhiliu@yahoo.com.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3791)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning of a Resistance Gene Analog from Wheat and Development of a Codominant PCR Marker for Pm21
Author: Ya-Ping Chen, Hua-Zhong Wang, Ai-Zhong Cao, Chun-Mei Wang and Pei-Du Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00257.x
      
    To investigate the mechanism of resistance to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) powdery mildew, suppression subtractive hybridization was conducted between an isogenic resistant line carrying Pm21 and its recurrent parent Yangmai 5 to isolate the resistance relative genes. A cDNA fragment specifically expressed in the resistant line was obtained and its full length was cloned by in silico cloning and RT-PCR. This gene encoded a deduced protein of 219 amino acids with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif, often found in plant resistance genes, and was designated as Ta-LRR2. Ta-LRR2 had an increased expression level in the resistant line after inoculation with Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Marchal. PCR analysis with different cytogenetic stocks suggested that Ta-LRR2 was specifically associated with chromosome arms 6VS and 6AS. Linkage analysis further showed that Ta-LRR2 could be used as a resistance gene analog polymorphism marker of Pm21 for marker-assisted selection in germplasm enhancement and breeding practice. Moreover, how to isolate Pm21 based on the information obtained for Ta-LRR2 is discussed.(Author for correspondence.Telㄩ(0) 25 8439 6026˙ Faxㄩ(0) 25 8439 5344˙ E-mail:pdchen@njau.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2472)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic Diversity of Soybean and the Establishment of a Core Collection Focused on Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode
Author: Yan-Song Ma, Wen-Hui Wang, Li-Xia Wang, Feng-Ming Ma, Pei-Wu Wang, Ru-Zhen Chang and Li-Juan Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00256.x
      
    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is one of the most important pests affecting soybean production. The best method of control of SCN is through the development of resistant cultivars. However, limited progress has been made in soybean breeding in China because most modern cultivars have no resistance to SCN. The distribution and phenotype of 432 immune or highly resistant Chinese accessions were surveyed and a primary core collection was selected as a representative sample for further analyses. Using evenly distributed simple sequence repeat markers, five selection methods were applied to the primary core collection and the optimal method was chosen to establish a core collection, which consisted of 28 accessions. These encompassed 70.8% of the allelic variation present in the overall resistant collection. The 28 accessions differed from the reference resistant accessions at the genomic level, indicating that Chinese resistant accessions are distinct from known resistant accessions. This applied core collection provides a rational framework for undertaking diversity surveys, using genetic variation for the investigation of complex traits and for the discovery of novel traits.(Author for correspondence.Tel: (0) 10 6218 6650; Fax: (0) 10 6218 6624; E-mail: qiu_lijuan@263.net)
Abstract (Browse 2533)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cloning of a Potato Proteinase Inhibitor Gene PINII-2x from Diploid Potato (Solanum phurejia L.) and Transgenic Investigation of Its Potential to Confer Insect Resistance in Rice
Author: Qing-Yun Bu, Liang Wu, Shi-Hu Yang and Jian-Min Wan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00258.x
      
    Both cDNA and a genomic DNA fragment encoding a new potato proteinase inhibitor II were isolated from a diploid potato IVP101 (Solanum phurejia L.) and named PINII-2x. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed that the DNA fragment of PINII-2x was 580 bp, including a 115-bp intron and two exons. The deduced PINII-2x protein contained an intact signal peptide and two active sites. The PINII-2x gene and its deduced PINII-2x protein had 88% and 93% homology with another tetraploid potato proteinase inhibitor II, respectively. Northern blotting analysis indicated that the mRNA of PINII-2x gene was wound induced in potato leaves. Binary vector pNAR301 and pNAR302 were constructed for rice transformation, in which the PINII-2x cDNA was driven, respectively, by rice actin I promoter (ActI) and maize ubiquitin promoter (UbiI). Via an Agrobacterium-mediated method, these two constructs were transferred into japonica rice cv. Xiushui 63. PCR and Southern blotting analysis for transgenic rice revealed the integration of the PINII-2x gene. Northern blotting analysis also confirmed transcripts of the PINII-2x gene in transgenic rice plants. Insect bioassays using stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) demonstrated that the average weight and body length of larvae in transgenic plants were only nearly 50% and 61% of those of larvae in control plants, respectively. These results indicate that the PINII-2x gene should be an effective insect-resistance gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for insect resistance.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): (0)25 8439 6516; E-mail:yangsh409@yahoo.com.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2472)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cyclopeptidic Constituents from Arenaria oreophila J. D. Hooker (Caryophyllaceae)
Author: Ai-Qun Jia, Ning-Hua Tan and Jun Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(6)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00231.x
      
    To further investigate the cyclopeptides of the Caryophyllaceae family, two new cyclopeptides, named Arenariphilin E (compound 1) and Arenariphilin F (compound 2), were obtained from Arenaria oreophila J. D. Hooker using some isolation methods, e. g. normal and reverse silica gel. By detailed spectroscopic analysis, such as FAB+-MS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, the structures of Arenariphilin E (compound 1) and Arenariphilin F (compound 2) were determined as cyclo(Ile1-Gly-Val1-Ala-Leu-Ile3-Ile2-Val2-Pro) and cyclo(Pro2-Pro1-Gly2-Ile-Val-Leu-Gly1-Ala-Thr- Gly3), respectively.(Author for correspondence.Telㄩ0871-5223264˙Faxㄩ0871-5223261˙E-mailㄩjzhou@mail.kib.ac.cn)
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