July 2006, Volume 48 Issue 7, Pages 745-872.

Cover Caption:
Spikes, seeds (top left) and reactions to powdery mildew (bottom right) of WR02-145 wheat-rye lines and their parents. See pages 838每847 for more details.


          Research Articles
Diversity of Nitrogenase Systems in Diazotrophs
Author: Ying Zhao, Shao-Min Bian, Hui-Na Zhou and Ju-Fu Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00271.x
    Nitrogenase is a metalloprotein complex that catalyses the reaction of biological nitrogen fixation. At least three genetically distinct nitrogenase systems have been confirmed in diazotrophs, namely Nif, Vnf, and Anf, in which the active-site central metals are Mo, V, and Fe, respectively. The present review summarizes progress on the genetic, structural, and functional investigations into the three nitrogenases and discusses the possibility of the existence of other novel nitrogenases.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 010 6283 6219; Fax: +86 010 6259 0833; E-mail: jfhuang@ibcas.ac. cn)
Abstract (Browse 2650)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pollen Morphology of Tundra Shrubs and Submarginal Plants from Barrow, Alaska
Author: Ling-Yu Tang, Xiao-Ping Zhang, Jian-Wen Shao, Zhong-Ze Zhou and Qing-Song Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00297.x
    Investigation of plant morphological features, pollen, and habitat have been made for two shrub species from Barrow, Alaska, namely Dryas integrifolia M. Vahl and Salix rotundifolia Trautv., both of which are endemic to the Arctic floristic area. The former species has small lanceolate or plate leaves, whereas the latter has rounded leaves with distinct veins, rich in vitamin C. Both have dwarf and sprawling habits. Pollen studies showed that the pollen grains of the two species are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal or prolate. The type of aperture was tricolporate; pollen size 26.3每31.3 µm; ornamentation finely reticulate under a light microscope (LM) and striate-reticulate under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for D. integrafolia and finely reticulate under the LM and SEM for S. rotundifolia. Comparisons were made between the pollen from the same species from Arctic collections with those from China and Japan. Investigation of pollen morphology of tundra plants can provide significant data for comparative studies of fossil pollen and for the reconstruction of paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the Barrow area.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 025-83282174; Fax: 025-83357026; E-mail: lytang@nigpas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2577)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China
Author: Mi Zhang, Zong-Qiang Xie, Gao-Ming Xiong and Jin-Tun Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00296.x
    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scale-dependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba Bl. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 10 6283 6284; E-mail: xie@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2431)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Climatic Control on Forests and Tree Species Distribution in the Forest Region of Northeast China
Author: Xiang-Ping Wang, Zhi-Yao Tang and Jing-Yun Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00294.x
    North-east (NE) China covers considerable climatic gradients and all major forests types of NE Asia. In the present study, 10 major forest types across the forest region of NE China were sampled to investigate forest distribution in relation to climate. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that growing season precipitation and energy availability were primary climatic factors for the overall forest pattern of NE China, accounting for 66% of the explanatory power of CCA. Conversely, annual precipitation and winter coldness had minor effects. Generalized additive models revealed that tree species responded to climatic gradients differently and showed three types of response curve: (i) monotonous decline; (ii) monotonous increase; and (iii) a unimodal pattern. Furthermore, tree species showed remarkable differences in limiting climatic factors for their distribution. The power of climate in explaining species distribution declined significantly with decreasing species dominance, suggesting that the distribution of dominant species was primarily controlled by climate, whereas that of subordinate species was more affected by competition from other species.(Author for correspondence.Tel:010-62765578ㄛFaxㄩ010-62756560;Email:jyfang@urban.pku.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2844)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Water Channels Are Involved in Stomatal Oscillations Encoded by Parameter-Specific Cytosolic Calcium Oscillations  
Author: Hui-Min Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Gen-Xuan Wang and Jian-Hua Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7): 790-799
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00261.x
    Earlier studies have shown that various stimuli can induce specific cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) oscillations in guard cells and various oscillations in stomatal apertures. Exactly how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling functions in stomatal oscillation is not known. In the present study, the epidermis of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) was used and a rapid ion-exchange treatment with two shifting buffers differing in K+ and Ca2+ concentrations was applied. The treatment for five transients at a 10-min transient period induced clear and regular stomatal oscillation. However, for other transient numbers and periods, the treatments induced some irregular oscillations or even no obvious oscillations in stomatal aperture. The results indicate that stomatal oscillation is encoded by parameter-specific [Ca2+]cyt oscillation: the parameters of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation affected the occurrence rate and the parameters of stomatal oscillation. The water channel inhibitor HgCl2 completely inhibited stomatal oscillation and the inhibitory effect could be partially reversed by -mercaptoethanol (an agent capable of reversing water channel inhibition by HgCl2). Other inhibitory treatments against ion transport (i.e. the application of LaCl3, EGTA, or tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl)) weakly impaired stomatal oscillation when the compounds were added after rapid ion-exchange treatment. If these compounds were added before rapid-ion exchange treatment, the inhibitory effect was much more apparent (except in the case of TEACl). The results of the present study suggest that water channels are involved in stomatal oscillation as a downstream element of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling.(Author for correspondence.E-mail:jzhang@hkbu.edu.hk)
Abstract (Browse 3029)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photodamage to Pigment in the Photosystem II Reaction Center D1/D2/Cytochrome b559 Complex
Author: Shuang Liu, Feng-Qin Dong, Chong-Qin Tang, Ting-Yun Kuang, Liang-Bi Li and Yu-Long Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00292.x
    Strong light (800米mol photons/m2 per s)-induced bleaching of the pigment in the isolated photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) under aerobic conditions (in the absence of electron donors or acceptors) was studied using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), absorption spectra, 77K fluorescence spectra and resonance Raman spectra. Changes in pigment composition of the PSII RC as determined by HPLC after light treatment were as follows: with increasing illumination time chlorophyll (Chl) a and 汕-carotene (汕-car) content decreased. However, decreases in pheophytin (Pheo) could not be observed because of the mixture of the Pheo formed by degraded chlorophyll possibly. On the basis of absorption spectra, it was determined that, with a short time of illumination, the initial bleaching occurred maximally at 680 nm but that with increasing illumination time there was a blue shift to 678 nm. It was suggested that P680 was destroyed initially, followed by the accessory chlorophyll. The activity of P680 was almost lost after 10 min light treatment. Moreover, the bleaching of Pheo and 汕-car was observed at the beginning of illumination. After illumination, the fluorescence emission intensity changed and the fluorescence maximum blue shifted, showing that energy transfer was disturbed. Resonance Raman spectra of the PSII RC excited at 488.0 and 514.5 nm showed four main bands, peaking at 1 527 cm每1 (耒1), 1 159 cm每1 (耒2), 1 006 cm每1 (耒3), 966 cm每1 (耒4) for 488.0 nm excitation and 1 525 cm每1 (耒1), 1 159 cm每1 (耒2), 1 007 cm每1 (耒3), 968 cm每1 (耒4) for 514.5 nm excitation. It was confirmed that two spectroscopically different 汕-car molecules exist in the PSII RC. After light treatment for 20 min, band positions and bandwidths were unchanged. This indicates that carotenoid configuration is not the parameter that regulates photoprotection in the PSII RC.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): +86 (0)10 8259 4106; E-mail: kuangty@ibcas.ac.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2526)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Physiological Responses of Zea mays Seedlings to Interactions Between Cadmium and Salinity
Author: Mozhgan Farzami Sepehr and Mahlagha Ghorbanli
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00290.x
    The effects of 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 µmol/L Cd2+ (Cd(NO3)2•4H2O) and 0, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaCl on growth, photosynthesis and the content of some ions in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated in the present study. With increasing concentrations of Cd2+ or NaCl alone in Hoagland nutrient solution, the chlorophylls and starch content decreased. Combination treatment with salinity and cadmium increased the negative effects observed following the two stresses alone. Plants exhibiting growth retardation in response to one mild stress factor (25每50 mmol/L NaCl) became more tolerant to the other stress factor (Cd). The exposure of plants to cadmium caused a partial reversal of the effects of salinity. Root and shoot growth, ion accumulation and levels of photosynthetic pigments were improved at moderate concentrations of the two stress factors imposed jointly.(Author for correspondence.Tel: +98 21 2250 7443; Fax: +98 255 24011; E-mail: mfsepehr48@yahoo. com; farzamisepehr@iau-saveh. ac. ir)
Abstract (Browse 2565)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Osmotic Stress in Early Stages of Ontogenesis on Root Respiration, Growth, Sugar Content, and Cell Injury in Maize Seedlings Differing in Drought Sensitivity
Author: Luk芍š Kolarovic, Miroslava Luxov芍 and Peter Valentovic
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00300.x
    Cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) with different sensitivity to drought were exposed to 0.3 mol/L sorbitol (每1.4 MPa water potential) for 24 h. Exposure to water deficiency significantly reduced the growth of both shoots (coleoptile and hypocotyl) and roots. Shoot growth was inhibited more than the growth of roots. Osmotic stress enhanced accumulation of soluble sugars. Electrolyte leakage, a cell injury index, was slightly increased after 0.3 mol/L sorbitol. Respiration was measured in the presence and absence of 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol. 2,6-Dichloro-phenol indophenol did not influence respiration rates, because statistically equal results were observed under both conditions. Total respiration (vT) decreased after osmoticum treatment. There were no significant differences in the vT among the cultivars analysed. The decrease in vT was caused by a decline in the activities and capacities of both cytochrome (vcyt, Vcyt) and alternative pathway (valt, Valt) of respiration. A high residual respiration (vres) was observed, up to 27% of total uninhibited respiration. The result of uncoupler use clearly indicated that coupling was maintained after 24 h of osmotic stress. The recovery of the respiration rate was comparable with that of non-stressed control rates. According to these observations, no possible mitochondrial damage is expected. Water deficiency did not induce a stimulation of the alternative oxidase, so we assume that the stimulation of the alternative pathway is not related to drought stress resistance; rather, the function of the alternative pathway is to balance carbon metabolism and electron transport in a response to a changing environment.(Author for correspondence. Tel: +421 2 5942 6113; Fax: +421 2 5477 1948; E-mail: lukas.kolarovic@savba.sk.)
Abstract (Browse 2352)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Application of Non-invasive Microsensing System to Simultaneously Measure Both H+ and O2 Fluxes Around the Pollen Tube  
Author: Yue Xu, Tong Sun and Li-Ping Yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7): 823-831
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00281.x
    Various ionic and molecular activities in the extracellular environment are vital to plant cell physiological processes. A noninvasive microsensing system (NMS) based on either the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET) or the scanning polarographic electrode technique (SPET) is able to obtain information regarding the transportation of various ions/molecules in intact samples under normal physiological conditions. The two-probe simultaneous test system (2STS) is an integrated system composed of SIET, SPET, and a Xu-Kunkel sampling protocol. In the present study, 2STS was able to simultaneously measure fluxes of H+ and O2 of the lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Ace) pollen tube while avoiding interference between the two probes. The results indicate that the proton fluxes were effluxes, whereas the oxygen fluxes were influxes, and they were closely correlated to each other surrounding the constitutive alkaline band region. Specifically, when the proton effluxes increased, the oxygen influxes also increased. Therefore, the hypothesis of condensed active mitochondria existing in the alkalized area of the pollen tube proposed by Hepler*s group is supported.(Author for correspondence.E-mail: yinlp@mail.cnu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3806)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Exogenous Indole Butyric Acid and Callus Formation on the Anti-oxidant Activity, Total Phenolic, and Anthocyanin Constituents of Mulberry Cuttings
Author: Aysel Sivaci and Munevver Sokmen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00282.x
    In order to evaluate the effects of exogenous indole butyric acid (IBA) and callus formation on the anti-oxidant activity, total phenolics, and anthocyanin constituents of Morus nigra L. and M. alba L. cuttings, we investigated the variations before and after the treatment. The results indicate that anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic, and anthocyanin constituents of the callus stems of both Morus species were higher than those of non-callus forming species. There were also increases observed in anti-oxidant ability, total phenolic, and anthocyanin constituents of calli treated with IBA (1 000每3 000 mg/L).(Author for correspondence. Tel: +90 346 219 1010; Fax: +90 346 219 1186; E-mail: msokmen@cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
Abstract (Browse 2637)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Introgression of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Conferred by Chromosome 2R by Crossing Wheat Nullisomic 2D with Rye
Author: Diao-Guo An, Li-Hui Li, Jun-Ming Li, Hong-Jie Li and Yong-Guan Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00275.x
    Using the nullisomic back-cross procedure, four wheat-rye chromosome substitution 2R (2D) lines with different agronomic performance, designated WR02-145-1, WR01-145-2, WR02-145-3, and WR02-145-4, were produced from a cross between 2D nullisomic wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. ※Xiaoyan 6§) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv. ※German White§). The chromosomal constitution of 2n=42=21 in WR02-145 lines was confirmed by cytological and molecular cytogenetic methods. Using genomic in situ hybridization on root tip chromosome preparations, a pair of intact rye chromosomes was detected in the WR02-145 lines. PCR using chromosome-specific primers confirmed the presence of 2R chromosomes of rye in these wheat-rye lines, indicating that WR02-145 lines are disomic chromosome substitution lines 2R (2D). The WR02-145 lines are resistant to the powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f. sp. tritici E. Marchal) isolates prevalent in northern China and may possess gene(s) for resistance to powdery mildew, which differ from the previously identified Pm7 gene located on chromosome 2RL. The newly developed ※Xiaoyan 6§- ※German White§ 2R (2D) chromosome substitution lines are genetically stable, show desirable agronomic traits, and are expected to be useful in wheat improvement.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 0311 8587 1746; Fax: 0311 8581 5093; E-mail: andiaoguo@163.com)
Abstract (Browse 2950)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Cold-Inducible Genes Encoding Putative CBF Transcription Factors from Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)
Author: Yong Zhang, Tong-Wen Yang, Li-Jing Zhang, Teng-Guo Zhang, Cui-Xia Di, Shi-Jian Xu and Li-Zhe An**
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00286.x
    Two homologous genes of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factors (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional activator were isolated by RT-PCR from Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr. cv. Qinbai 5) and were designated as BcCBF1 and BcCBF2. Each encodes a putative CBF/DREB1 protein with an AP2 (Apetal2) DNA-binding domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and a possible acidic activation domain. Deduced amino acid sequences show that BcCBF1 is very similar to the Arabidopsis CBF1, whereas BcCBF2 is different in that it contains two extra regions of 24 and 20 amino acids in the acidic domain. The mRNA accumulation profiles indicated that the expression of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 is strongly induced by cold treatment, but does not respond similarly to dehydration or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However, the cold-induced accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA was rapid but short-lived compared with that of BcCBF1. The mRNA levels of both BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 were higher in leaves than in roots when plants were exposed to cold, whereas, salt stress caused higher accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA in roots than in leaves, suggesting that the organ specificity of the gene expression of the BcCBFs is probably stress dependent. In addition, the accumulation of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 mRNAs was greatly enhanced by light compared with darkness when seedlings were exposed to cold. It is concluded that the two BcCBF proteins may be involved in the process of plant response to cold stress through an ABA-independent pathway and that there is also a cross-talk between the light signaling conduction pathway and the cold response pathway in B. pekinensis as in Arabidopsis.(Author for correspondence.Tel (Fax): 0931 496 7181; E-mail: lizhean@lzu.edu.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2756)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation and Characterization of GmSTY1, a Novel Gene Encoding a Dual-Specificity Protein Kinase in Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Author: Zhao-Shi Xu, You-Zhi Ma*, Xian-Guo Cheng, Li-Xia Cao, Lian-Cheng Li and Ming Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00277.x
    Phosphorylation of protein kinases has profound effects on their activity and interaction with other proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation was reported to be involved in various physiological processes in plants; however, no typical receptor tyrosine kinase has been isolated from plants thus far. Dual-specificity kinases are potentially responsible for the phosphorylation of both tyrosine and serine/threonine of target proteins. A cDNA clone encoding a putative dual-specificity protein kinase was isolated by screening the cDNA GAL4 activation domain (AD) fusion library of soybean (Glycine max L.), and its entire length was obtained using 5''-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The predicted polypeptide of 330 amino acid residues, designated as GmSTY1, contains all 11 conserved subdomains, which share common characteristics with both the serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases reported thus far. In addition, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites (NXS/T), as well as phosphorylation motifs (SXXXS/T), were observed, suggesting that GmSTY1 may be post-translationally modified. Furthermore, a potential N-myristoylation motif (MGARCSK) was found, suggesting that the GmSTY1 protein could associate with membranes in vivo. Southern blotting analysis revealed a single-copy of GmSTY1 in the genome. Northern blotting analysis showed that this gene was upregulated by drought and salt treatment in a time-dependent manner; however, exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) could not significantly affect the mRNA accumulation of GmSTY1. Interestingly, the transcript of this gene was remarkably downregulated by cold treatment during the early stages of the response, but upregulated later. These results indicate that the protein kinase was possibly regulated by abiotic stresses in an ABA-independent pathway.(Author for correspondence.Tel: 010 6891 8789; E-mail: mayzh@mail.caas.net.cn)
Abstract (Browse 2619)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Potential Risk of Hybridization in Ex Situ Collections of Two Endangered Species of Sinojackia Hu (Styracaceae)
Author: Qi-Gang Ye, Xiao-Hong Yao, Sheng-Ju Zhang, Ming Kang and Hong-Wen Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00260.x
    Spontaneous hybridization in ex situ facilities can undermine the genetic integrity of ex situ collections and potentially contaminate open-pollinated seeds or seedlings destined for the reintroduction of endangered plant species into the wild. In the present study, the potential risk of hybridization between two endangered Chinese endemic species, namely Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu and S. rehderiana Hu, which are naturally allopatric species but were conserved ex situ in Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG), Wuhan, China, were investigated over three consecutive years from 2003 to 2005. The entire overlapping flowering period of the two species was 14每20 d and the two species shared the same pollinator insects during the entire flowering season in WBG. The floral isolation between the two species was not an issue in the ex situ collection at WBG. The results suggest an opportunity for pollen transfer between species and a potential risk of genetic introgression and loss of genetic identity of open-pollinated seeds produced in the ex situ collection of these two endangered species. An artificial reciprocal cross between S. xylocarpa and S. rehderiana confirmed that the two congener species could readily set seeds, indicating no post-pollination barriers to hybridization and the importance of spatial isolation as a barrier to inter-specific crossing. Therefore, to manage these crossable species with overlapping flowering times and shared pollination vectors in ex situ facilities, spatial isolation should be carefully considered to minimize the possibility of spontaneous hybridization.(Author for correspondence.Tel:027 87510232; Fax: 027 87510331; E-mail: hongwen@wbgcas.cn)
Abstract (Browse 3178)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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