September 2006, Volume 48 Issue 9, Pages 1001-1128.


Cover Caption:
Identification of wild rice chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization on metaphase spreads of the interspecific hybrid Oryza sativa ℅ O. rufipogon (top left) and O. sativa ℅ O. officinalis (bottom right). See pages 1077每1083 for more details.

 

          Research Articles
Progress in the Study of Molecular Genetic Improvements of Poplar in China
Author: Shan-Zhi Lin, Zhi-Yi Zhang, Qian Zhang and Yuan-Zhen Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00303.x
      
    The poplar is one of the most economically important and intensively studied tree species owing to its wide application in the timber industry and as a model material for the study of woody plants. The natural resource of poplars in China is replete. Over the past 10 years, the application of molecular biological techniques to genetic improvements in poplar species has been widely studied in China. Recent advances in molecular genetic improvements of poplar, including cDNA library construction, gene cloning and identification, genetic engineering, gene expression, genetic linkage map construction, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular-assisted selection, are reviewed in the present paper. In addition, the application of modern biotechnology to molecular improvements in the genetic traits of the poplar and some unsolved problems are discussed.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6233 8105; E-mail:linsz2002@163.comㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2936)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic Diversity of Landraces in Gossypium arboreum L. Race sinense Assessed with Simple Sequence Repeat Markers  
Author: Wang-Zhen Guo, Bao-Liang Zhou, Lu-Ming Yang, Wei Wang and Tian-Zhen Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9): 1008-1017
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00316.x
      
    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an ※Old World§ cultivated cotton species, the sinense race of which is planted extensively in China. This species is still used in the current tetraploid cotton breeding program as an elite germplasm line, and is also used as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, 60 cotton microsatellite markers, averaging 4.6 markers for each A-genome chromosome, were chosen to assess the genetic diversity of 109 accessions. These included 106 G. arboreum landraces, collected from 18 provinces throughout four Asiatic cotton-growing regions in China. A total of 128 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.13 alleles per locus. The largest number of alleles, as well as the maximum number of polymorphic loci, was detected in the A03 linkage group. No polymorphic alleles were detected on chromosome 10. The polymorphism information content for the 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci varied from 0.52 to 0.98, with an average of 0.89. Genetic diversity analysis revealed that the landraces in the Southern region had more genetic variability than those from the other two regions, and no significant difference was detected between landraces in the Yangtze and the Yellow River Valley regions. These findings are consistent with the history of sinense introduction, with the Southern region being the presumed center of origin for Chinese Asiatic cotton, and with subsequent northeastward extension to the Yangtze and Yellow River Valleys. Cluster analysis, based on simple sequence repeat data for 60 microsatellite loci, clearly differentiated Vietnamese and G. herbaceum landraces from the sinense landrace. No relationship between inter-variety similarity and geographical ecological region was observed. The present findings indicate that the Southern region landraces may have been directly introduced into the provinces in the middle and lower Yangtze River Valley, where Asiatic cotton was most extensively grown, and further race sinense crops were subsequently produced.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel (Fax): +86 (0)25 8439 5307; E-mail:cotton@njau.edu.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 3684)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Vegetation and Environment History for the Past 14 000 yr BP from Dingnan, Jiangxi Province, South China
Author: John Richard Dodson, Shirene Hickson, Rachel Khoo, Xiao-Qiang Li,Jemina Toia and Wei-Jian Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00274.x
      
    A Late Pleistocene-Holocene pollen, phosphorus, and charcoal record was reconstructed from a peatland in southern Jiangxi Province in southern China. The area today has a mountainous and rolling landscape with villages, small towns, and agriculture dominated by rice paddies, vegetable, and fruit gardens, as well as areas of secondary forest and pine re-afforestation. The record opens before 14 300 yr BP, with Alnus woodland dominating the wetland areas and with an open Quercus woodland on the surrounding slopes. The forest area becomes more complex from approximately 12 800 yr BP and further from 9 000 yr BP. At approximately 6 000 yr BP, there is evidence of clearing and, by 4 500每4 000 yr BP, a complete collapse in the wetland Alnus and terrestrial forest as the low-lying areas are converted to rice production. For much of the record, the occurrence of fire around the site was low, although there is evidence of regional fires. Fire was used as a tool in clearing and then used in the annual cycles of stubble burning after rice harvest. Nutrient levels, as reflected by total phosphorus in the sediment, seem to be closely related to forest changes and high values in the surface layers probably result from land-management techniques associated with agriculture. Therefore, human impact greatly altered forest cover, fire frequency, and nutrient dynamics; this has been evident for approximately 6 000 yr BP and then intensifies towards the present day.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)29 8832 4671; Fax: +86 (0)29 8832 0456; E-mail:lxq@loess.llqg.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2304)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparative Analysis of the Endosperm Proteins Separated by 2-D Electrophoresis for Two Cultivars of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Pingfang Yang, Shihua Shen and Tingyun Kuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00312.x
      
    Liangyoupeijiu is a two-parental-line, and Shanyou63 is a three-parental-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although both belong to the indica subspecies, they have obvious differences with respect to morphology, physiology and grain quality. Variations in endosperm protein compositions were studied by comparing the 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) maps for these two cultivars of hybrid rice. After matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, a 21-kDa precursor of 19-kDa globulin was identified as the major storage protein for both cultivars. Some isoforms of peroxiredoxin and seed maturation protein were found to only exist in Shanyou63, whereas aldose reductase and starch granule-bound starch synthase were only detected in Liangyoupeijiu. These data might provide a foundation for further comparative studies of these two cultivars of hybrid rice.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6545; Fax: +86 (0)10 6259 6594; E-mail: shshen@ibcas.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2314)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Colorimetric Assay to Determine In Vitro Antibacterial Activity Against Clinical Isolates: Enhanced Activity in Damaged Chinese Masson Pine Needles
Author: Guijun Dong, Weidong Pan, Tao Zheng, Xianghui Liu and Gongshe Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00310.x
      
    A colorimetric assay for antibacterial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) is described based on the reduction of a novel tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), in the presence of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) as an electron-coupling agent. The combination of 200 米g/mL MTS with 25 米mol/L PMS resulted in production of large amounts of formazan within 1 h of exposure. In this setting, fractions extracted from Chinese Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) needles damaged by the pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus Walker were found to have enhanced levels of antibacterial activity. These fractions, which were designated ※Master§, ※Technique§, and ※Strength§, were isolated and identified by reverse-phase C18 cartridge concentration, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography. Two fractions purified from healthy and undamaged needles were designated H1 and H2, respectively. For all test bacteria species. Technique produced the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), ranging from 2 to 32 米g/mL, and H2 produced the highest values, with four of the six MICs being higher than 128 米g/mL. We found that the Rmax model fitted the data well in that the r2 ranged between 0.87 and 0.96 (median, 0.92) and no statistically significant deviations from the model were found (P = 0.23). The median coefficient of variation of the log RC50 values and the slope m of the fitted model for all six strains among the replicates were 38 and 41%, respectively. In the course of the investigation, the physiological and functional factors involved in pest damage to plants were also explored. In summary, the MTS-PMS colorimetric assay has advantages over existing methods for the examination of antibacterial activity, and could be developed further such that it would be suitable for screening new antibiotic molecules.ㄗ**Author for correspondence. Tel(Fax): +86 (0)10 8259 2310. Email: liugs@ ibcas.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2369)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nutritional Composition and Assessment of Gracilaria lemaneiformis Bory
Author: Xue Wen, Changlian Peng, Houcheng Zhou, Zhifang Lin, Guizhu Lin,Shaowei Chen and Ping Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00333.x
      
    The chemical composition, mineral elements, vitamins, free fatty acids and amino acid content of the edible red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis Bory, grown in the sea near Nan*ao island, Guangdong Province, were analyzed in the present study. Gracilaria lemaneiformis Bory showed a total sugar content of 14.65%. The protein content was 21%, of which approximately 41% was determined to be essential amino acids (EAA). The major amino acid components were glutamic acid, leucine, arginine, and alanine. Of the EAA assayed, methionine and cysteine appeared to be the most limiting amino acids compared with the EAA pattern provided by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. The total lipids content was 0.87% and comprised a high composition of unsaturated fatty acids (61%), mainly as linoleic acid and oleic acid, and a little amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid; palmitic acid was the main component (39%) of saturated acids. Relatively high levels of vitamin C, iodine, phosphorus, and zinc were also present in G. lemaneiformis. The nutritional composition between G. lemaneiformis and Nostoc flagelliforme, a rare alga that is widely eaten in Chinese society, was compared. The results suggest that N. flagelliforme can be substituted for by G. lemaneiformis, not only because of their similar shape, but also because of their approximate nutritional composition. Gracilaria lemaneiformis may possibly serve as a potential healthy food in human diets in the future.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)20 3725 2995; E-mail: pengchl@scib.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2670)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Development Stage on the Artemisinin Content and the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker of High-Artemisinin Yielding Strains of Artemisia annua L.
Author: Long Zhang, He-Chun Ye and Guo-Feng Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00288.x
      
    The effects of development states on the artemisinin content of clone S1 of Artemisia anuua L. grown in a greenhouse were investigated in the present study. The artemisinin content increased gradually during the phase of vegetative growth and reached its highest level at 8ㄜ9 mg/g dry weight (DW) when the S1 was 6 months old on a long day (LD) photoperiod. Treatment with 9ㄜ18 d of short day (SD) photoperiod resulted in the artemisinin content reaching and being maintained at a higher level (2.059ㄜ2.289 mg/g DW), twofold that of control plants and plants of S1 presented at the pro-flower budding and flower-budding stages. The artemisinin content varied in different parts of the plant. The artemisinin content of leaves was higher than that of florets and branches. The artemisinin content in middle leaves was higher than that of bottom leaves, and then top leaves. Different densities of capitate glands (the storage organ of artemisinin) located on the surface of leaves, florets, and branches explained the variations in artemisinin content in these parts of the plant. The correlation coefficient between artemisinin content and density of capitate glands on the surface of different organs was 0.987. The genetic marker for artemisinin content was screened using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) techniques. The random primer OPA15 (5''-TTCCGAACCC-3'') could amplify a specific band of approximately 1 000 bp that was present in all high-artemisinin yielding strains, but absent in all low-yielding strains in three independent replications. This specific band was cloned and its sequence was analyzed. This RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR marker to obtain a more stable marker.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6283 6249; Fax: +86 (0)10 8259 1016; E-mail: hcye@ibcas.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2431)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Leaf Epidermal Cells: A Trap for Lipophilic Xenobiotics
Author: Zhiqian Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00301.x
      
    Plant surfaces are covered by a layer of cuticle, which functions as a natural barrier to protect plants from mechanical damage, desiccation, and microbial invasion. Results presented in this report show that the epicuticular wax and the cuticle of plant leaves also play an important role in resisting xenobiotic invasion. Although the epicuticular wax is impermeable to hydrophilic xenobiotics, the cuticle not only restricts the penetration of hydrophilic compounds into leaf cells, but also traps lipophilic ones. The role of the epidermal cells of plant leaves in resisting xenobiotic invasion has been neglected until now. The present study shows, for the first time, that the epidermal cells may reduce or retard the transport of lipophilic xenobiotics into the internal tissues through vacuolar sequestration. Although the guard cells appear to be an easy point of entry for xenobiotics, only a very small proportion of xenobiotics present on the leaf surface actually moves into leaf tissues via the guard cells.ㄗ*Tel: +33 22348 5997; Fax: +33 22348 5120; E-mail: zhiqian_liu@hotmail. comㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2179)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A High-throughput Genomic Tool: Diversity Array Technology Complementary for Rice Genotyping
Author: Yong Xie, Kenneth McNally, Cheng-Yun Li, Hei Leung and You-Yong Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00298.x
      
    Diversity array technology (DArTTM) was a genotyping tool characterized gel-independent and high throughput. The main purpose of present study is to validate DArT for rice (Oryza sativa L.)genotyping in a high throughput manner. Technically, the main objective was to generate a rice general purpose gene pool, and optimize this genomic tool in order to evaluate rice germplasm genetic diversity. To achieve this, firstly, a general-purpose DArT array was developed. Ten representatives from 24 varieties were hybridized with the general-purpose array to determine the informativeness of the clones printed on the array. The informative 1 152 clones were re-arrayed on a slide and used to fingerprint 17 of 24 germplasms. Hybridizing targets prepared from the germplasm to be assayed to the DNA array gave DNA fingerprints of germplasms. Raw data were normalized and transformed into binary data, which were then analyzed by using NTSYSpc (Numerical taxonomy system for cluster and ordination analysis, v. 2.02j) software package. The graphically displayed dendrogram derived from the array experimental data was matched with simple sequence repeats genotyping outline and varieties* pedigree deviation of the different varieties. Considering DArT is a sequence-independent genotyping approach, it will be applied in studies of the genetic diversity and the gene mapping of diverse of organisms, especially for those crops with less-developed molecular markers.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)871 522 7872, E-mail: yppl@public. km.yn.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2415)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization of Interspecific Hybrids Between Oryza sativa L. and Three Wild Rice Species of China by Genomic In Situ Hybridization
Author: Guang-Xuan Tan, Zhi-Yong Xiong, Hua-Jun Jin, Gang Li, Li-Li Zhu, Li-Hui Shuand Guang-Cun He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00336.x
      
    In the genus Oryza, interspecific hybrids are useful bridges for transferring the desired genes from wild species to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the present study, hybrids between O. sativa (AA genome) and three Chinese wild rices, namely O. rufipogon (AA genome), O. officinalis (CC genome), and O. meyeriana (GG genome), were produced. Agricultural traits of the F1 hybrids surveyed were intermediate between their parents and appreciably resembled wild rice parents. Except for the O. sativa ℅ O. rufipogon hybrid, the other F1 hybrids were completely sterile. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for hybrid verification. Wild rice genomic DNAs were used as probes and cultivated rice DNA was used as a block. With the exception of O. rufipogon chromosomes, this method distinguished the other two wild rice and cultivated rice chromosomes at the stage of mitotic metaphase with different blocking ratios. The results suggest that a more distant phylogenetic relationship exists between O. meyeriana and O. sativa and that O. rufipogon and O. sativa share a high degree of sequence homology. The average mitotic chromosome length of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana was 1.25- and 1.51-fold that of O. sativa, respectively. 4'',6''-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining showed that the chromosomes of O. officinalis and O. meyeriana harbored more heterochromatin, suggesting that the C and G genomes were amplified with repetitive sequences compared with the A genome. Although chromocenters formed by chromatin compaction were detected with wild rice-specific signals corresponding to the C and G genomes in discrete domains of the F1 hybrid interphase nuclei, the size and number of O. meyeriana chromocenters were bigger and greater than those of O. officinalis. The present results provide an important understanding of the genomic relationships and a tool for the transfer of useful genes from three native wild rice species in China to cultivars.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)27 6875 2384; Fax: +86 (0)27 6875 2327; E-mail: gche@whu.edu.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2394)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Overexpression of the Wounding-Responsive Gene AtMYB15 Activates the Shikimate Pathway in Arabidopsis  
Author: Yanhui Chen, Xiangbo Zhang, Wei Wu, Zhangliang Chen, Hongya Gu and Li-Jia Qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9): 1084-1095
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00311.x
      
    The MYB transcription factor genes play important roles in many developmental processes and various defense responses of plants. The shikimate pathway is a major biosynthetic pathway for the production of three aromatic amino acids and other aromatic compounds that are involved in multiple responses of plants, including protection against UV and defense. Herein, we describe the characterization of the R2R3-MYB gene AtMYB15 as an activator of the shikimate pathway in Arabidopsis. The AtMYB15 protein is nuclear localized and a transcriptional activation domain is found in its C-terminal portion. Northern blots showed that AtMYB15 is an early wounding-inducible gene. Resutls of microarray analysis, confirmed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, showed that overexpression of AtMYB15 in transgenic plants resulted in elevated expression of almost all the genes involved in the shikimate pathway. Bioinformatics analysis showed that one or more AtMYB15-binding AC elements were detected in the promoters of these upregulated genes. Furthermore, these genes in the shikimate pathway were also found to be induced by wounding. These data suggest an important role of AtMYB15 as a possible direct regulator of the Arabidopsis shikimate pathway in response to wounding.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)10 6275 1847; Fax: +86 (0) 10 6275 3339; E-mail: qulj@pku.edu.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 3461)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Antisense-Mediated Depletion of Tomato Chloroplast Omega-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Enhances Thermal Tolerance
Author: Xun-Yan Liu, Jing-Hua Yang, Bin Li, Xiu-Mei Yang and Qing-Wei Meng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00335.x
      
    A chloroplast-localized tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 肋-3 fatty acid desaturase gene (LeFAD7) was isolated and characterized with regard to its sequence, response to various temperatures, and function in antisense transgenic tomato plants. The deduced amino acid sequence had four histidine-rich regions, of which three regions were highly conserved throughout the whole 肋-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family. Southern blotting analysis showed that LeFAD7 was encoded by a single copy gene and had two homologous genes in the tomato genome. Northern blot showed that LeFAD7 was expressed in all organs and was especially abundant in leaf tissue. Meanwhile, expression of LeFAD7 was induced by chilling stress (4 ∼C), but was inhibited by high temperature (45 ∼C), in leaves. Transgenic tomato plants were produced by integration of the antisense LeFAD7 DNA under the control of a CaMV35S promoter into the genome. Antisense transgenic plants with lower 18 : 3 content could maintain a higher maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and O2 evolution rate than wild-type plants. These results suggested that silence of the LeFAD7 gene alleviated high-temperature stress. There was also a correlation between the low content of 18 : 3 resulting from silence of the LeFAD7 gene and tolerance to high-temperature stress.ㄗ*Author for correspondence.Tel: +86 (0)538 824 9606;E-mail:qwmeng@sdau.edu.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2675)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Nitrogen Source and Bacterial Elicitor on Isoflavone Accumulation in Root Cultures of Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain
Author: So-Young Park, Wi-Young Lee, Youngki Park and Jin-Kwon Ahn
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00259.x
      
    Changes in cellular isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) contents were monitored in root cultures of Albizzia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain after feeding different ratios of NH4+/NO3每 and treatment with a biotic elicitor (three strains of Rhizobium sp.). The NH4+/NO3每 ratio appears to be positively correlated with daidzein content in the roots and shows a negative correlation with genistein. Among the three different strains of Rhizobium used, the strain ATCC 15834 caused a 35% increase in daidzein production by infection. In the case of genistein, maximum production (94%) was obtained when cultures were treated on Day 6 by the strains ATCC 15834 and KCTC 1541. The biosynthetic pathway of the two isoflavones apparently reacts differently to the same culture conditions and the same strains of Rhizobium. Therefore, the present data suggest that the production of daidzein and genistein could be modulated by changing the NH4+/NO3每 ratio and the application of Rhizobium.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +82 31 290 1164; Fax: +82 31 290 1020; E-mail: soypark7@foa.go.krㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2243)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Development of Diagnostic Microscopic and Chemical Markers of Some Euphorbia Latexes
Author: Uppuluri Venkata Mallavadhani, Kantamreddi Venkata Siva Satyanarayana, Anita Mahapatra, Akella Venkata Subrahmanya Sudhakar, Kilambi Narasimhan, Devendar Kumar Pandey and Manikkannan Thirunavokkarasu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00299.x
      
    The latexes of the three Euphorbia species, namely E. antiquorum L., E. nerifolia L., and E. tirucalli L., are highly valued in the Indian system of medicine as purgatives, in addition to their specific and distinct therapeutic activities. In order to distinguish these latexes and develop their diagnostic microscopic and chemical markers, we performed extensive chemical and microscopic studies. The three latexes differ significantly in their microscopic features by exhibiting characteristic starch grain patterns. Although amoebic structures were found to be characteristic of E. antiquorum, dumb-bell and oval structures are characteristic of E. nerifolia and E. tirucalli, respectively. In addition, these latexes showed bone-shaped structures as a common feature, but these differed considerably in their length (10每60, 30每55, and 50每70 米m in length in E. antiquorum, E. nerifolia, and E. tirucalli, respectively). The chemical markers nerifoliene and euphol were found to be common to both E. antiquorum and E. nerifolia, whereas euphol is the only marker for E. tirucalli. A reverse-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed to distinguish these three latexes and to generate their standard fingerprinting patterns. Most significantly, the markers nerifoliene and euphol could be resolved by RP-18 F254s precoated aluminium plates and the latexes have been quantitatively estimated with respect to these markers. The developed microscopic, chemical and HPTLC patterns can be used to distinguish the three latexes..ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +91 674 2581 635 ext. 319/249; Fax: +91 674 2581 637; E-mail: uvmavadani@yahoo.comㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2261)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
New Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees
Author: Xiao-Qi Zhang, Guo-Cai Wang, Wen-Cai Ye, Qian Li, Guang-Xiong Zhou and Xin-Sheng Yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00308.x
      
    To investigate diterpenoids from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, three new ent-labdane diterpenoids, namely 19-norandrographolides A每C (compounds 1每3), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata. Their structures were established by HRESIMS and NMR spectral data in combination with X-ray crystallographic analysis.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel (Fax): +86 (0)20 8522 1559; E-mail: chywc@yahoo.com.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2487)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A New Pregnane from Munronia delavayi Franch (Meliaceae)
Author: Xiang-Hai Cai, Xiao-Dong Luo, Jun Zhou and Xiao-Jiang Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2006 48(9)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2006.00306.x
      
    To search for pharmacologically active constituents of folk medicine, a new pregnane, 2汐,3汐,15汕-trihydroxy-20(S)-tigloyl-pregnane (compound 1), and nine known compounds, geranylgeraniol (compound 2),汕-daucosterol (compound 3), 6-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (compound 4), sitoindoside I (compound 5), sitoindoside II (compound 6), 汕-sitosterol (compound 7), kaempferol (compound 8), quercetin (compound 9), and rutin (compound 10), were isolated from the ethanol extract of whole plants of Munronia delavayi Franch using chromatographic methods. The structures of compounds 1每10 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.ㄗ*Author for correspondence. Tel: +86 (0)871 522 3188; Fax: +86 (0)871 515 0227; E-mail: xdluo@mail.kib.ac.cnㄘ
Abstract (Browse 2559)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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