February 1962, Volume 10 Issue 2


          Research Articles
Professor Tsi-tung Li and Plant Physiology in China
Author: Tsao Tsung-hsun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nomenclatural Additions and Corrections in Volume XI of the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae
Author: CYPERACEAE (SCIRPEAE---SCLERIEAE) Edited by Tang Tsin & Wang Fa-Tsuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
Abstract (Browse 1768)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in the Cuticular Structure of Thinnfeldia rigida Sze
Author: Chu Wei-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
    The present paper deals with the cuticular structure of some specimens of Thinnfeldia rigida Sze (Pl. i, figs. 1每6b), collected from the upper part of the Yenchang formation (Upper Triassic) in Zungaria of Inner Mongolia. The cuticles are very thick. The upper and lower cuticles of the leaf are rather similar (Pl. j, fig. 3). The leaf is amplistomatic, but the frequency of stomata on one side, presumably the upper, is smaller than that of the other side. The shape of epidermal cells of the upper side (Pl. j, fig. 1) are partly elongate-polygonal and partly isodiametric, while that of the lower side (Pl. j, fig. 2) is mostly isodiametric. All the epidermal cells are straight-walled, and usually possess a median round hollow papilla (Pl. j, fig. 5). In the elongate-polygonal cells, the papilla is also slightly elongate, but usually shifted to one end of the cell. The course of the veins is indicated by rows of elongate cells in the lower surface, but no clear indication of veins is given in the upper. There is a row of isodiametric cells along the margin of the upper cuticle of the leaf. Next to this row are 2每4 rows of elongate cells, regularly arranged, with their long axis perpendicular to the margin. Within these, there are 4每12 (mostly 6) rows of isodiametric cells, irregularly arranged. The thickness of the cells is 0.6每0.7米. The epidermal cells of the upper cuticle measure 4.4米 ℅ 2.2米 to 6.1米 ℅ 2.1米, while those of the lower 3.8米 ℅ 3.7米 to 3.8米 ℅ 3.4米. The stomata are evenly scattered and irregularly orientated. They are haplocheilic and unicyclic (partly dicyclic) (Pl. j, figs. 4-5). The guard cells are sunken and thinly cutinized. The inner aperture is 0.8-0.7米 in diameter, and the outer is 1.6-l.5米. The guard cells are surrounded by a ring of 4-6 subsidiary cells, which are usually heavily cutinized, each bearing a long papilla directed inwards over the stomatal aperture. The encircling cells are almost indistinct, though occasionally recognizable from the ordinary epidermal cells. The cuticles of Thinnfeldia have been studied by Antevs, Gothan, Harris, and Lundblad, all being of a similar structure; namely, the arrangement of the subsidiary cells seems rather regular, and a thin stripe is usually present in the subsidiary cells. Some specimens possess slight papilla-like thickenings in the epidermal cells while others not. In the present specimens, the general structure of the cuticles is similar to them, but there is no indication of thin stripe on the subsidiary cells. Furthermore, the arrangement of the subsidiary cells in ours is rather irregular and tile papilla of the epidermal cells is better developed.
Abstract (Browse 2163)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some New Species and New Combination of Smut Fungi
Author: Wang Yun-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
    In the present paper, six new species and one new combination of Chinese smut fungi are reported. The six new species are Ustilago hsuii, U. kweichowensis, U. sinkiangensis, Sphacelotheca bothriochloae, S. pekingesis and Urocystis multispora. The one new combination is Sphaceiotheca manchurica (Ito) Wang, comb. nov. which was transferred from Sorosporium manchuricum Ito. Type specimens of the new species are deposited in the mycological herbarium of Institute of Microbiology, Academia Sinica, Peking.
Abstract (Browse 1812)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chinese Species of Dictyosphaeria
Author: C. K. Tseng and C. F. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
    The genus Dictyosphaeria was founded by Decaisne, Valonia favulosa Ag. being chosen as the type. It has become fairly well known through the morphological and systematic studies of Murray (1892), Crosby (1903), Webervan Bosse (1905), Arnoldi (1913), Boergesen (1912, 1913) and Egerod (1952). In all these investigations the genus has been placed in Valoniaceae near Valonia. Dictyosphaeria is a small genus of tropical and subtropical algae now credited with only the following 9 accepted species and 2 varieties. Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forssk.) Boerg. (1932), and D. c. var. bullata Boerg. (1952), D. sericea Harv. (1860), D. versluysii Weber-van Bosse (1905), D. intermedia Weber-van Bosse (1905), and D. i. var. solida Nasr (1944), D. van bosseae Boerg. (1912), D. bokotensis Yamada (1925), D. australis Setchell (1926), D. setchellii Boerg. (1940), D. mutica Yamada (1944). Among these plants, Nasr's plant is probably the plant redescribed by Yamada (1944) as D. mutica as pointed out by Dawson (1956:29). The first records of the species of this genus from China were those of D. cavernosa (Forssk.) Boerg. and D. bokotensis Yamada from Taiwan Province by Yamada (1925). Later, the former species was reported by Okamura (1931), Tseng (1936) and Chou (1950) respectively from Kotosho, Taiwan Province, Hainan Island, Kwangtung Province, and Tungshan Island, Fukien Province. Fifteen collections from the various parts of the South China coast have recently been studied by the writers and a detailed study of these materials shows the presence of three more species, including a new one. The following is a description of the new species, Dictyosphaeria spinifera Tseng et C. F. Chang sp. nov.1): Thallus hollow, up to 2 cm. in diameter, obpyriform when young, later becoming irregular in shape (Pl. i, fig. 1), attached by rhizoidal cell pro- jections from the ventral surface. Polygonal segments 450每900 米, up to 1350米 in diameter. Multiplication of the hapteroid cells effected by cell division. The basal portion of each hapteroid cell composed of a great number of very short rhizoid-like lobe. Hapteroid cell square shaped, 45每55米 diameter in lateral view (pl. i, fig. 3, upper); round or with slightly triangular shaped, 30每40 米 diameter in dorsal view (Pl. i, fig. 3, middle); and rectangular, ca. 45米 in length in ventral view (Pl. i, fig. 3, middle). Intercellular spines present at the inner walls of the segments, 37每85 米 long, obtuse at tips and 9每20米 wide at their bases, generally quite straight or sometimes bending a little, with smooth and even or sometimes a little waved surfaces. The hollow frond with spines projecting into the cell cavity is so distinctive as to separate this species readily from all others now recognized in this genus. The type specimen AST 60-2655, was collected from surf-beaten rocks near middle littoral region, Zhelang, Haifeng District, Kwangtung Province on 15, I, 1960 and deposited in the Herbarium of the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica. This species has also been collected many times from the following places: Woody Island, March (58-4020)1), Rocky Island, April (58-4153), May (58-5333), Drummond Island, May (58-4658), all on Paracels Islands. The two species here reported for the first time for China are Dictyosphaeria versluysii and D. intermedia. The former species grows on rocks and dead coral chips in the middle and lower littoral regions. It has been collected from the following places of Hainan Island, Kwangtung Province: Paohujiao, Wenchang District; Sanya (Sama), Dongluo I., Maling and Hongtang, Ya District, and Paracels Islands: Woody I., Rocky I., North I., Observation Bk., Drummond I. and Luodao. A comparative study of D. versluysii with descriptions of three other closely related species, D. van bosseae Boerg., D. australis Setch. and D. setcheUii Boerg., show that they are not separable from each other and the last three species are therefore reduced to the synonymy of D. versluysii, as already suspected by Egerod (1952:355). These species, according to diagnoses, are differentiated only by the size of segments and intercellular spines. Our specimens show great variations of these characteristics even in the same specimen, with the segments varying from 425 to 2000米 in diameter, and intercellular spines from 22 to 150米 long and 7 to 30 米 wide. Thus, the supposed characteristics of the three species falls within the limits of D. versluysii, as revealed by our specimens. Papenfuss and Egcrod (1957:84) have doubted the separability of D. versluysii Weber-van -Bosse from D. bokotensis Yamada. After close examination of our materials, however, the writers have come to conclusion that they are sufficiently different from each other. D. bokotensis may be distinguished from D. versluysii by hollow frond, by simple intercellular hapteroid cells and by small cells of the upper parts of the plant. D. intermedia grows on rocks in the middle and lower littoral regions, often cast shore. It has been collected from Xinyinggang, Chengmai District and Jiaotou, Ya Dis- trict, Hainan Island, Kwangtung Province. D. cavernosa and D: bokotensis have already been recorded from China. The former species grows on rocks, pebbles and dead coral chips in the littoral and upper sublittoral regions. It has been collected from the following places: Dongshan I. of Fukien Province; Naozhoudao and Weizhoudao of Kwangtung Province mailand; Hainan Island: Qinglangang and Fengjiagang, Wenchang District, Xinyinggang, Chenmai District, Yinggehai, Ledung District, Gangbeigang, Wanning District, Xincungang, Lingshui District, Haitangtou, Luhuitou, Yulingang, Sanya, Hongtang and Jiaotou, Ya District of Hainan Island, Kwangtung Province; and Woody I, Rocky I., Middle I., Duncoh I., Drummond I., Observation Bk. and Luodao of the Para,els Islands of Kwangtung Province. The later species grows on dead coral chips in the'upper sublittoral region. It has been collected from Woody I., Paracels Is., Kwangtung Province, and has been recorded from Pcscadores I. and Ryukyusho, Taiwan Province by Yamada (1925; 1950). In the course of our morphological studies of the Chinese species of Dictyosphaeria, it has been found that the characteristics of the intersegmental hapteroid cells are of sufficient value in dividing them into taxonomic groups. Egerod is the first to recognize the value of the characteristics of intersegmental hapteroid cells in separating D. caver- nosa and D. versluysii. We are of the opinion that this characteristics is of sectional value and, therefore propose to divide Dictyosphaeria Decaisne into the following two sections: (1) Section 1. Simplex, sect. nov. Hapteroid cells are simple, unbranched. Typical species: Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forssk.) Boergesen. (2) Section 2. Ramifieata, sect. nov. Hapteroid cells are branched, bifurcate or trifurcate. Typical species: Dictyosphaeria versluysii Weber-van Bosse.
Abstract (Browse 2326)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Dynamic Analysis of Grain Weight Distribution During Maturation of Rice
Author: Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
    1. The supply of photosynthates to the rice panicles was increased by providing more light through thinning or diminished by stripping off the leaves at the time of flowering. The rate of grain weight increase varied accordingly. Samples of panicles are taken every week thereafter, and grain weight distribution was determined by weighing single grains. 2. All the distribution patterns of grain weight after the grains begin to fill have at least two peaks, one of them is at 4每5 mg, representing empty hulls. As growth proceeds, the peaks of the larger grains merge into one of about 30 mg, i.e. the weight of full grain. The photosynthates are neither evenly nor randomly distributed to all grains. In plants with artificially enhanced and diminished photosynthate supply the proportion of empty and full grains differs markedly, while the weight of the single full grain remains similar. 3. When the data was calculated and plotted in another way with time, weight class and accumulated frequency (expressed as percentage) as the three axes, it can be shown that in plants with cnhanced photosynthate supply most of the grains increase in weight simultaneously, while in plants with diminished photosynthate supply a large portion of grains remain nearly empty. 4. These results showed that under conditions of unequal pbotosynthate supply the number of grains which do not fill to any marked extent varies in such a way that most of the grains which begin to increase in weight may get enough photosynthates to develop normally. It is a typical case of the regulatory ability of the rice plant to ensure fully grown grains under unfavourable conditions. 5. There is a hierarchical order among the grains on the panicle. The difference between them is not always one of degree; in cases of insufficient photosynthate supply, some of the grains gain not merely less weight than the dominant ones but practically none at all. The response of grain filling process to the amount of photosynthates available is very likely one requiring a threshold value of the stimulus to take place. This phenomenon must be taken into account in considering the mechanism of grain filling.
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
孛我找抉抖抉忍我折快扼抗抉快 我扼扼抖快忱抉志忘扶我快 扭抉 扼把忘志扶快扶我攻 戒忱抉把抉志抑抒 扭扮快扶我折扶抑抒 把忘扼找快扶我抄 扼 忪快抖找抉 - 扼抖忘忌抑技我 把忘扼找快扶我攸技我
Author: 孛戒攸扶抆 妣我扶 - 折改扶
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Embryos of Pinus koraiensis Grown In Vitro I
Author: C. L. Lee and Chang Hsin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
    Non-stratified mature seeds of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. were selected for culture in vitro. The megagametophytes were exposed and surface-sterilized with saturated bleaching powder. The embryos were excised aseptically and were grown on agar media in three ways: (1) with the radicle in agar, (2) with the cotyledons in agar, leaving the radicle free in the air, and (3) with both cotyledons and radicle in agar, i. e. the "doubletube culture". The embryos cultured by the last mentioned method displayed the greatest beneficial effect both on rate and duration of root growth. Investigation on the ability of the cotyledons in sucrose absorption was also attempted using four kinds of double-tube cultures: (1) with the upper tube containing 5% of sucrose, but none in the lower, (2) with the lower tube containing 5% of sucrose and none in the upper tube, (3) with both tubes containing 5% of sucrose, and (4) both without the sugar. No significant difference in embryonic growth in various culture tubes was detected in the first week. Subsequently, salient growth of the embryos with the cotyledons embedded in the 5% sucrose medium but the radicle inserted in the sucrosefree medium (kA) was achieved by the second week.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
妞把我找我折快扼抗我抄 抉忌戒抉把 把抉忱忘 Delphinium linn. 我快 抖攻找我抗抉志抑抒 扳抖抉把抑 妞我找忘攸 (扭把抉忱抉抖忪快扶我快 i )
Author: 弛忘扶 圾改扶抆 -扯忘抄
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(2)
Abstract (Browse 1716)  |  Full Text PDF       


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