March 2007, Volume 49 Issue 3, Pages 257-407.

Cover Caption:
The methylation of GA
The Arabidopsis GA methyltransferase 2 gene (GAMT2) is expressed in the bent cotyledon stage during the embryo development, as shown by in situ hybridization. The establishment of embryo pattern is completed at this developmental stage, from which on the seeds undergo desiccation to prepare for the dormancy. The high expression level of GAMT2 at this stage indicates that GA is largely methylated to reach an appropriate balance between GA and ABA. See pages 368-381 for more details.


          Bioenergy Plants
Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species
Author: Jiang-Hong Zhang, Zhi-Quan Mao, Li-Qin Wang and Huai-Rui Shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00307.x
    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds. Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.
Abstract (Browse 3231)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic Diversity: Geographical Distribution and Toxin Profiles of Microcystis Strains (Cyanobacteria) in China  
Author: Zhong-Xing Wu, Nan-Qin Gan and Li-Rong Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3): 262-269
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00368.x
    Twenty strains of Microcystis K¨¹tz were isolated from different freshwater bodies in China to analyze the diversity, geographical distribution and toxin profiles. Based on whole-cell polymerase chain reaction of cpcBA-IGS nucleotide sequence, the derived neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) trees indicate that these strains of Microcystis can be divided into four clusters. The strains from south, middle and north region of China formed distinct lineages, suggesting high diversity and a geographical distribution from south to north locations. Moreover, the results being indicating high variable genotypes of the strains of the Microcystis strains from the same lake show that there is high diversity of Microcystis within a water bloom population. Comparing the results of the present study with those reported for compared with 43 strains of Microcystis from other locations, also reveals Chinese strains have high similarity with those from regions in the North Hemispherical. This suggests that the Microcystis strains in the world might have a geographical distribution. Analysis of 30 strains using the primers MCF/TER and TOX2P/TOX2M showed that there was no correlation between the gene of cpcBA-IGS and the presence of mcy. Toxic strains were founded to be predominant in different water bodies throughout China.
Abstract (Browse 3168)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Photosynthetic and Respiratory Acclimation to Experimental Warming for Four Species in a Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem
Author: Xuhui Zhou, Xiaozhong Liu, Linda L. Wallace and Yiqi Luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00374.x
    Global temperature has been increased by 0.6 °C over the past century and is predicted to increase by 1.4?.8 °C by the end of this century. It is unclear what impacts global warming will have on tallgrass species. In the present study, we examined leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and leaf respiration rate in darkness (Rd) of Aster ericoides (L.) Nesom, Ambrosia psilostachya DC., Helianthus mollis Lam., and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash in response to experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the Great Plains, USA, in the autumn (fall) of 2000 and through 2001. Warming has been implemented with infrared heaters since 21 November 1999. The Pn increased significantly in spring, decreased in early fall, and did not change in summer and late fall in the four species under warming compared with control. The Rd of the four species increased significantly until mid-summer and then did not change under warming. Measured temperature-response curves of Pn showed that warming increased the optimum temperature of Pn (Topt) by 2.32 and 4.59 °C for H. mollis and S. nutans, respectively, in August, whereas there were no changes in May and September, and A. ericoides and A. psilostachya also showed no changes in any of the 3 months. However, Pn at optimum temperature (Popt) showed downregulation in September and no regulation in May and August for all four species. The temperature-response curves of Rd illustrate that the temperature sensitivity of Rd, Q10, was lower in the warmed plots compared with the control plots, except for A. ericoides in August, whereas there were no changes in May and September for all four species. The results of the present study indicate that photosynthetic and respiratory acclimation varies with species and among seasons, occurring in the mid-growing season and not in the early and late growing seasons.
Abstract (Browse 2741)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Distribution Pattern of Photosynthetic Picoplankton and Heterotrophic Bacteria in the Northern South China Sea
Author: Yu-Ming Cai, Xiu-Ren Ning, Cheng-Gang Liu and Qiang Hao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00347.x
    The environmental regulation of picoplankton distribution in the northern South China Sea was examined in winter and summer of 2004. The average abundance of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and heterotrophic bacteria was lower in winter (30, 21, and 780?03 cells/cm3, respectively) than in summer (53, 85, and 1 090?03 cells/cm3, respectively), but the seasonal pattern was opposite for picoeukaryotic phytoplankton (4 500 and 3 200 cells/cm3 in winter and summer, respectively). Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, and bacteria were most abundant in the nutrient-rich coastal zone and continental shelf, but Prochlorococcus was most abundant in the continental slope and open ocean. The vertical distribution of each photosynthetic group and heterotrophic bacteria changed between the two seasons. Synechococcus populations with apparently different phycoerythrobilin content occurred at many stations in the summer. In addition, two different populations of Prochlorococcus were found: (i) small, weakly fluorescing cells in the surface layer; and (ii) larger, strongly fluorescent cells in the deep layer. The distribution pattern of photosynthetic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria depends on environmental effects and their ecophysiological differences. The distribution of Synechococcus appeared to be related to nutrient availability, whereas the distribution of Prochlorococcus appeared to be limited by temperature. Synechococcus was the only picophytoplankton with a consistent strong relationship with bacteria.
Abstract (Browse 2706)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparison of Vegetation Indices and Red-edge Parameters for Estimating Grassland Cover from Canopy Reflectance Data
Author: Zhan-Yu Liu, Jing-Feng Huang, Xin-Hong Wu and Yong-Ping Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00401.x
    There has been a great deal of interests in the estimation of grassland biophysical parameters such as percentage of vegetation cover (PVC), aboveground biomass, and leaf-area index with remote sensing data at the canopy scale. In this paper, the percentage of vegetation cover was estimated from vegetation indices using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and red-edge parameters through the first derivative spectrum from in situ hypserspectral reflectance data. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were made on grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China, using an Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometer. Vegetation indices such as the difference, simple ratio, normalized difference, renormalized difference, soil-adjusted and modified soil-adjusted vegetation indices (DVI, RVI, NDVI, RDVI, SAVIL = 0.5 and MSAVI2) were calculated from the hyperspectral reflectance of various vegetation covers. The percentage of vegetation cover was estimated using an unsupervised spectral-contextual classifier automatically. Relationships between percentage of vegetation cover and various vegetation indices and red-edge parameters were compared using a linear and second-order polynomial regression. Our analysis indicated that MSAVI2 and RVI yielded more accurate estimations for a wide range of vegetation cover than other vegetation indices and red-edge parameters for the linear and second-order polynomial regression, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2707)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Assessment of Genetic Stability Among In Vitro Plants of Arachis retusa Using RAPD and AFLP Markers for Germplasm Preservation
Author: Rachel Fatima Gagliardi, Luiz Ricardo Hanai, Georgia Pacheco, Carlos Alberto Oliveira, Leonardo Alves Carneiro, Jose Francisco Montenegro Valls, Elisabeth Mansur and Maria Lucia Carneiro Vieira
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00402.x
    Arachis retusa Krapov. et W. C. Gregory et Valls is endemic in the West-central region of Brazil, occurring in areas endangered by human actions. The establishment of in vitro preservation methods for wild species of Arachis is an alternative to seed banks for germplasm storage, multiplication and distribution. The risk of genetic changes induced by tissue culture and the monitoring of the genetic stability of the biological material before, during and after storage must be considered in the context of conservation. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting were used to evaluate the genetic stability of in vitro plants originated from cotyledons and embryo axes of A. retusa. Cotyledons originated shoots through direct organogenesis and embryo axes displayed multishoot formation induced by 110 mmol/L and 8.8 mmol/L BAP, respectively. Ninety genomic regions (loci) generated from RAPD and 372 from AFLP analyses were evaluated. All amplified fragments detected by both techniques in plants derived from the two explant types were monomorphic. The results indicate that the recovered shoots are genetically stable at the assessed genomic regions.
Abstract (Browse 2012)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen, Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency
Author: Rajesh Kumar Tewari, Praveen Kumar and Parma Nand Sharma
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00358.x
    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nitrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth, accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deficiency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples, namely ascorbic acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants. Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.
Abstract (Browse 2823)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Molecular and Functional Characterization of Sphingo-sine-1-Phosphate Lyase Homolog from Higher Plants
Author: Yan Niu, Kunling Chen, Jizhou Wang, Xin Liu, Huanju Qin, Aimin Zhang and Daowen Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00446.x
    Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL) is involved in degrading the conserved sphingolipid signaling molecule sphingosine-1-phosphate. However, molecular studies on plant SPL have not been reported to date. Here, we present bioinformatic, molecular and functional analyses of putative SPL proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (designated as AtSPL and OsSPL, respectively). Amino acid sequence comparison revealed that plant SPL contained the pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain and the conserved residue that may be involved in substrate catalysis. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AtSPL and OsSPL corrected the hypersensitive phenotype of the yeast dpl1 deletion strain, which is deficient in endogenous SPL activity, to exogenous supplied sphingolipid long chain bases (LCBs), suggesting that plant SPL protein is functional in vivo in degrading phosphorylated LCBs. In Arabidopsis, AtSPL transcripts were detected in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and siliques. In pAtSPL-AtSPL::GUS transgenic lines, the AtSPL::GUS fusion protein was found in a variety of vegetative and reproductive tissues. AtSPL expression level was dynamically regulated during leaf development and senescence, and was steadily and significantly increased in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with the cell death-inducing fungal toxin fumonisin B1. The potential function of SPL in Arabidopsis is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2039)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Purification and Characterization of a New Heme-Binding Protein (HBP59) from the Mutant Strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii
Author: Shao-Min Bian, Huang-Ping Wang, Hui-Na Zhou, Ying Zhao, Jian-Feng Zhao and Ju-Fu Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00372.x
    A new protein, an approximately 59-kDa monomer containing iron atoms, was first isolated from the mutant strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann. After analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the protein was identified as the product of a predicted gene. Thus, the protein was tentatively called HBP59. Its absorption spectra (ABS) in the reduced state exhibited three peaks at 421, 517, and 556 nm and the maximal peak was shifted from 421 to 413 nm after exposure of HBP59 to air. The Soret circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of HBP59 in the reduced state displayed four positive peaks at 364, 382, 406, and 418 nm and two negative peaks at 398 and 433 nm; the De (CD extinction coefficient) values of these peaks were found to be 0.92, 0.58, 0.87, 0.72, ?.65 and ?.12 L/mol per cm, respectively. Titration with heme showed that the protein has 0.1 heme molecules/protein molecule. After HBP59 had fully interacted with heme, its maximal ABS value and Soret CD intensity were increased by approximately 10-fold compared with values before interaction. Therefore, it seems that one molecule of HBP59 can be interacted with only one heme. These results indicate that HBP59 contains heme with low spin and may be involved in heme utilization or adhesion.
Abstract (Browse 2184)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Isolation and Characterization of a Putative Class E Gene from Taihangia rupestris
Author: Yong-Qiang Wang, Hui-Yu Tian, Xiao-Qiu Du, Shan-Hua L¨¹, Wen-Liang Lu, Kang Chong and Zheng Meng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00431.x
    Studies in model plants showed that SEPALLATA (SEP) genes are required for the identification of floral organs and the determination of floral meristems in Arabidopsis. In this paper a SEP homolog, TrSEP3, was isolated from a China-specific species, Taihangia rupestrisi Y¨¹ et Li. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene belongs to the SEP3-clade of SEP (previous AGL2) subfamily. In situ hybridization was used to reveal the potential functional specification, and the results showed that TrSEP3 expression was first observed in floral meristems and then confined to the floral primordia of the three inner whorls. In the matured flower, TrSEP3 was strongly expressed in the tips of pistils and weak in stamens and petals. The evolution force analysis shows that TrSEP3 might undergo a relaxed negative selection. These results suggested that TrSEP3 may not only function in determining the identity of floral meristems and the primordia of three inner whorls, but also function in matured reproductive organs.
Abstract (Browse 2109)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Regulation of Light Energy Utilization and Distribution of Photosynthesis in Five Subtropical Woody Plants
Author: Nan Liu, Chang-Lian Peng1, Zhi-Fang Lin1, Gui-Zhu Lin1 and Xiao-Ping Pan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00369.x
    The adaptations and responses of photosynthesis to long- and short-term growth light gradient treatments were investigated in five subtropical forest plants, namely Pinus massoniana Lamb., Schima superba Gardn. et Champ., Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils., Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry, and Cryptocarya concinna Hance. With diurnal changes in sunlight and air temperature, the de-epoxidation state and lutein content in the five woody plants under three light intensities first increased and then decreased during the day. However, maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm; where Fm is the maximum fluorescence yield and Fv is variable fluorescence) and the photochemical quantum yields of photosystem (PS) II (PSII) of the species examined changed in the opposite manner, with those in plants grown under 100% natural light changing the most. After long-term treatment (21 months), anti-oxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•)-scavenging capacity) and utilization of excitation energy showed differences in modulation by different light intensities. It was shown that A. acuminatissima and C. concinna, as dominant species in the late succession stage of a subtropical forest in Dinghu mountain, South China, were better able to adapt to different light environments. However, P. massoniana, the pioneer species of this forest, exhibited less adaptation to low light intensity and was definitely eliminated by the forest succession process.
Abstract (Browse 2118)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree
Author: Ya-Qin Han, Xing-Fu Yan, Hua Zhang, Zheng-Hai Hu, Bing-Zhong Hao and Wei-Min Tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00437.x
    In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S. macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter, the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees.
Abstract (Browse 2147)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
GAMT2 Encodes a Methyltransferase of Gibberellic Acid That is Involved in Seed Maturation and Germination in Arabidopsis  
Author: Shufan Xing, Genji Qin, Yan Shi, Zhiqiang Ma, Zhangliang Chen,Hongya Gu and Li-Jia Qu,
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3): 368-381
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00471.x
    Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT), benzoic acid methyltransferase (BAMT) and theobromine methyltransferase (TH) (henceforth, SABATH) family proteins belong to a unique class of methyltransferase that can methylate small molecular compounds including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), in plants. Here we report that the GAMT2 protein, which has 34.2% similarity with IAMT1 in the amino acid sequence, can methylate gibberellic acid (GA). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that GAMT2 may be able to methylate one molecule larger than SA. GAMT2 is predominantly expressed in the developing seed embryo and endosperm in Arabidopsis. During seed germination, the expression of GAMT2 decreases until the cotyledons expand out of the seed coat. Overexpression of GAMT2 in Arabidopsis resulted in multiple phenotypes, including dwarfism, retarded growth, late flowering, and reduced fertility, which are similar to the phenotypes of GA-deficient mutants. Seed germination assay showed that GAMT2 overexpression in plants was hypersensitive to GA biosynthesis inhibitor (ancymidol) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, whereas the GAMT2 null mutant (SALK_075450) was slightly insensitive to such treatments, suggesting that GAMT2 may methylate GA or ABA. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that GAMT2 was able to methylate GA3 into Methyl-GA3 in vitro, but could not methylate ABA. Microarray analysis on GAMT2 overexpression plants suggested that Methyl-GA may be an inactive form of GA in Arabidopsis. These data suggest that GAMT2 is involved in seed maturation and germination by modulating GA activity.
Abstract (Browse 3572)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Changes of 5'' Terminal Nucleotides of PCR PrimersCausing Variable T-A Cloning Efficiency
Author: Mei-Qin Liu, Xin Shen, Wei-Lun Yin and Cun-Fu Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00430.x
    T-A cloning takes advantage of the unpaired adenosyl residue added to the 3'' terminus of amplified DNAs by Taq and other thermostable DNA polymerase and uses a linearized plasmid vector with a protruding 3'' thymidylate residue at each of its 3'' termini to clone polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-derived DNA fragments. It is a simple, reliable, and efficient ligation-dependent cloning method for PCR products, but the drawback of variable cloning efficiency occurs during application. In the present work, the relationship between variable T-A cloning efficiency and the different 5'' end nucleotide base of primers used in PCR amplification was studied. The results showed that different cloning efficiency was obtained with different primer pairs containing A, T, C and G at the 5'' terminus respectively. The data shows that when the 5'' end base of primer pair was adenosyl, more white colonies could be obtained in cloning the corresponding PCR product in comparison with other bases. And the least white colonies were formed when using the primer pair with 5'' cytidylate end. The gluanylate end primers resulted in almost the same cloning efficiency in the white colonies amount as the thymidylate end primer did, and this efficiency was much lower than that of adenosyl end primers. This presumably is a consequence of variability in 3''dA addition to PCR products mediated by Taq polymerase. Our results offer instructions for primer design for researchers who choose T-A cloning to clone PCR products.
Abstract (Browse 2326)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships in a Tunisian Fig (Ficus carica) Germplasm Collection by Random Amplified Microsatellite Polymorphisms
Author: Khaled Chatti, Olfa Saddoud, Amel Salhi-Hannachi, Messaoud Mars, Mohamed Marrakchi and Mokhtar Trifi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00396.x
    The random amplified mirosatellite polymorphism method was performed in a set of Tunisian fig landraces using eighteen primer combinations. A total of sixty three random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were scored and used either to assess the genetic diversity in these cultivars or to detect cases of mislabeling. Opportunely, data proved that the designed procedure constitutes an attractive and fast method with low costs and prevents radio exposure. As a result, we have identified the primer combinations that are the most efficient to detect genetic polymorphism in this crop. Therefore, the derived unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram illustrates the genetic divergence among the landraces studied and exhibits a typically continuous variation. Moreover, no evident correlation between the sexes of trees was observed. In addition, using these markers, discrimination between landraces has been achieved. Thus, random amplified mirosatellite polymorphism is proved to be powerful for characterizing the local fig germplasm.
Abstract (Browse 2144)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic Mapping of Laminaria japonica and L. longissima Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers in a ¡°Two-Way Pseudo- Testcross¡± Strategy
Author: Yuhui Li, Yingxia Yang, Jidong Liu, Xiuliang Wang, Tianxiang Gao1 and Delin Duan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00397.x
    With a ¡®¡¯two-way pseudo-testcross¡¯¡¯ mapping strategy, we applied the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for Laminaria. The linkage maps were generated from the 60 progenies of the F1 cross family (Laminaria longissima Aresch. ¡Á L. japonica Miyabe) with twenty pairs of primer combinations. Of the 333 polymorphic loci scored in 60 progenies, 173 segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphisms heterozygous in a single parent, and the other 58 loci existing in both parents followed a 3:1 Mendelian segregation ratio. Among the loci with 1:1 segregating ratios, 79 loci were ordered in 14 linkage groups (648.6 cM) of the paternal map, and 72 loci were ordered in 14 linkage groups (601.9 cM) of the maternal map. The average density of loci was approximately 1 per 8 cM. To investigate the homologies between two parental maps, we used 58 loci segregated 3:1 for further analysis, and deduced one homologous linkage group. The linkage data developed in these maps will be useful for detecting loci-controlling commercially important traits for Laminaria.
Abstract (Browse 2205)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          New Technology
Theoretical Proof and Empirical Confirmation of a Continuous Labeling Method Using Naturally 13C-Depleted Carbon Dioxide
Author: Weixin Cheng and Feike A. Dijkstra
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(3)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00387.x
    Continuous isotope labeling and tracing is often needed to study the transformation, movement, and allocation of carbon in plant-soil systems. However, existing labeling methods have numerous limitations. The present study introduces a new continuous labeling method using naturally 13C-depleted CO2. We theoretically proved that a stable level of 13C-CO2 abundance in a labeling chamber can be maintained by controlling the rate of CO2-free air injection and the rate of ambient airflow with coupling of automatic control of CO2 concentration using a CO2 analyzer. The theoretical results were tested and confirmed in a 54 day experiment in a plant growth chamber. This new continuous labeling method avoids the use of radioactive 14C or expensive 13C-enriched CO2 required by existing methods and therefore eliminates issues of radiation safety or unaffordable isotope cost, as well as creating new opportunities for short- or long-term labeling experiments under a controlled environment.
Abstract (Browse 1989)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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