May 2007, Volume 49 Issue 5, Pages 569-724.


Cover Caption:
Genetic basis of the rice husk color
Grain color is an important trait in rice. The trait is genetically controled by a gene named ibf. Mutation of the gene leads a change of the color from brown to gold (as showed on the cover). The ibf gene has been mapped to a 90-kb region. See pages 678-685 for details.

 

          Bioenergy Plants
Physiological Responses of Limonium aureum Seeds to Ultra-drying
Author: Yi Li, Hu-Yuan Feng, Tuo Chen, Xiao-Ming Yang and Li-Zhe An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00452.x
      
    The seeds of Limonium aureum (L.) Hill. were dried from 8.92% to 2.88% moisture content in a desiccating container with silica gel. After ultra-drying the seeds were accelerated aged (50 ºC, 1 month), and some physiological indices, including the electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), volatile aldehydes and malondialdehyde (MDA) were tested. The results indicated that dehydrogenase, POD, SOD, GR, APX and CAT activities of the ultra-dry seeds were higher than the control seeds, while volatile aldehydes and malondialdehyde were lower than the control group. The results suggest that ultra-drying is beneficial for maintaining the vigor of L. aureum seeds at a high level. Thus, L. aureum seeds could be stored under ultra-dry conditions.
Abstract (Browse 2503)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variations of Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Contents in Different Age Class Modules of Leymus chinensis Populations in Sandy and Saline-Alkaline Soil on the Songnen Plains of China
Author: Xue-Mei Ding and Yun-Fei Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00487.x
      
    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. is a rhizomatous perennial herbage of Gramineae. Reproduction is mainly by vegetative reproduction. Tillering nodes and rhizomes of L. chinensis serve as organs for both vegetative reproduction and nutrient storage. Water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) contents were measured in tillering nodes, nodes and internodes of rhizomes of different age classes of L. chinensis populations at three development stages, namely the dough ripe stage, the vegetative growth stage after full ripeness, and the withering stage, in two habitats: sandy soil and saline-alkaline soil. The results showed that WSC content in tillering nodes of the three age classes of L. chinensis were all markedly decreased with increasing age in both sandy soil and saline-alkaline soil. A similar trend of changes in WSC contents was observed in the nodes and internodes of rhizomes in different age classes in both habitats. The highest WSC contents were in 2-age-class nodes and internodes of rhizomes, followed by those in the 1 age class, with the lowest WSC contents found in 3-age-class nodes and internodes of rhizomes at the dough ripe and vegetative growth stages after full ripening. In turn, WSC contents decreased with increasing age at the withering stage in both habitats. The WSC content in each age class of internode was higher than that in the node of rhizome at three development stages in both habitats.
Abstract (Browse 1943)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phenological Complementarity Does not Enhance Ecosystem Production in Undisturbed Steppe Community
Author: Liang Zhao,Gui-Xia Yang, Zhong-Ling Liu, Xiao-Ping Xin, Yan-Jiang Luo and Gang Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00474.x
      
    Communities with more species could have a greater variety of species?characteristics, leading to more effective use of limiting resources through niche partitioning (complementarity) and therefore greater production. The effect of phenological complementarity (PC) on ecosystem production has not been fully investigated. The seasonal responses of all vascular plant species were tracked to test the effect of phenological complementarity on ecosystem production within a natural stable steppe community. Although a significant phenological pattern was observed, PC had no significant correlation with community production. The value of PC varied with years, but was observed only in a relatively narrow range during the experimental period. Species diversity (richness and evenness) had no correlation with the ecosystem production. The results suggest that the effect of PC may be saturated and has no contribution to the improvement of ecosystem production in a stable natural grassland community with abundant species.
Abstract (Browse 2105)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Effects of P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor and Elicitor on the Salt Tolerance of Rice Seedlings  
Author: Liang-Jun Fang, Xiao-Qin Fu, Qun-Shan Ye, Tian Wu, Zheng-Chao Wang, Xiao Chen,Zhi-Kai Zhu, Xing-Fu Zhang and Chui-Kang Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5): 588-597
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00440.x
      
    Hymexazol (3-Hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) as the main ingredients of HI (elicitor) was used to screen salt-tolerant species from 122 salt-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under specific inducement. The results showed that the local species R6 is highly induce-sensitive. R6 showed salt tolerance during the whole growth period by using 1.0% NaCl solution after HI treatment. Cyclosporin A (CsA) and verapamil (VP) as P-glycoprotein (PGP) inhibitors and rifampin (RFP) as a PGP elicitor were used to treat R6. The morphological traits, structure of the root, physiological characteristics of leaf and root systems, the content of endogenous hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) etc. show that CsA, VP and RFP had remarkable effects on the rice’s salt tolerance. Hymexazol inducement (HI) can improve the rice’s salt tolerance greatly and make it more salt-resistant.
Abstract (Browse 2919)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Aerenchyma Formed Under Phosphorus Deficiency Contributes to the Reduced Root Hydraulic Conductivity in Maize Roots
Author: Mingshou Fan, Ruiqin Bai, Xuefeng Zhao and Jianhua Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00450.x
      
    Root hydraulic conductivity has been shown to decrease under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This study investigated how the formation of aerenchyma is related to this change. Root anatomy, as well as root hydraulic conductivity was studied in maize (Zea mays L.) roots under different phosphorus nutrition conditions. Plant roots under P stress showed enhanced degradation of cortical cells and the aerenchyma formation was associated with their reduced root hydraulic conductivity, supporting our hypothesis that air spaces that form in the cortex of phosphorus-stressed roots impede the radial transport of water in a root cylinder. Further evidence came from the variation in aerenchyma formation due to genotypic differences. Five maize inbred lines with different porosity in their root cortex showed a significant negative correlation with their root hydraulic conductivity. Shoot relative water content was also found lower in P-deficient maize plants than that in P-sufficient ones when such treatment was prolonged enough, suggesting a limitation of water transport due to lowered root hydraulic conductivity of P-deficient plants.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Isoprenylated Stilbenes from Artocarpus chama
Author: Yong-Hong Wang, Ai-Jun Hou and Dao-Feng Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00377.x
      
    Two new stilbenes with two isoprenoid groups, namely artostilbenes A (compound 1) and B (compound 2), were isolated from the stems of Artocarpus chama Buch.-Ham. by repeated column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated as (E)-4-[2-(7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol (compound 1) and (Z)-4-[2-(7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol (compound 2) by spectroscopic methods, mainly by 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS spectra. Compounds 1 and 2 are two cis- and trans-isomers and compound 2 is the first cis-stilbene isolated from Moraceous plants.
Abstract (Browse 1508)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Sesquiterpenoid Glucosides from the Aerial Parts of Saussurea involucrate
Author: Xiao-Ling Wang, Suo-Lang Gesang, Wei Jiao, Xun Liao and Li-Sheng Ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00370.x
      
    Two new sesquiterpenoid glucosides, namely 6a-hydroxycostic acid 6-b-d-glucopyranoside (compound 1) and 11bH-11,13-dihydrodehydrocostuslactone 8a-O-(6''-acetyl)-b-d-glucopyranoside (compound 2), along with 11 known sesquiterpenoids (compounds 3?3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Saussurea involucrate (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.-Bip. The structures of the new sesquiterpenoid glucosides were established by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis.
Abstract (Browse 1585)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle
Author: Cuneyt Cirak, Jolita Radusien, Birsen (Saglam) Karabuk, Cuneyt Cirak, Jolita Radusiene, Birsen (Saglam) Karabuk, Valdimaras Janulis, Liudas Ivanauskas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00479.x
      
    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercitrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hypericin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00?.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00?.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04?2.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03?.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04?.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin, quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However, content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.
Abstract (Browse 1552)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation
Author: Shiwen Wang, Liusheng Duan, Anthony Egrinya Eneji and Zhaohu Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00466.x
      
    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management. Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ.m?.d?) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots?dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology. Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus, which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broad-leafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.
Abstract (Browse 2425)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Physiological and Growth Responses of Tomato Progenies Harboring the Betaine Alhyde Dehydrogenase Gene to Salt Stress
Author: Shu-Feng Zhou, Xian-Yang Chen, Xing-Ning Xue, Xin-Guo Zhang and Yin-Xin Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00464.x
      
    The responses of five transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) lines containing the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene to salt stress were evaluated. Proline, betaine (N, N, N-trimethylglycine, hereafter betaine), chlorophyll and ion contents, BADH activity, electrolyte leakage (EL), and some growth parameters of the plants under 1.0% and 1.5% NaCl treatments were examined. The transgenic tomatoes had enhanced BADH activity and betaine content, compared to the wild type under stress conditions. Salt stress reduced chlorophyll contents to a higher extent in the wild type than in the transgenic plants. The wild type exhibited significantly higher proline content than the transgenic plants at 0.9% and 1.3% NaCl. Cell membrane of the wild type was severely damaged as determined by higher EL under salinity stress. K+ and Ca2+ contents of all tested lines decreased under salt stress, but the transgenic plants showed a significantly higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ than the wild type. In contrast, the wild type had significantly higher Cl?and Na+ contents than the transgenic plants under salt stress. Although yield reduction among various lines varied, the wild type had the highest yield reduction. Fruit quality of the transgenic plants was better in comparison with the wild type as shown by a low ratio of blossom end rot fruits. The results show that the transgenic plants have improved salt tolerance over the wild type.
Abstract (Browse 2338)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Carbon Monoxide: A Novel Antioxidant Against Oxidative Stress in Wheat Seedling Leaves
Author: Zhi-Sheng Sa, Li-Qin Huang, Guo-Lin Wu, Jin-Peng Ding, Xiao-Yue Chen,Tian Yu, Ci Shi and Wen-Biao Shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00461.x
      
    Carbon monoxide (CO), an endogenous signaling molecule in animals, also provides potent cytoprotective effects including attenuation of lung lipid peroxidation induced by oxidant in the mouse. Our recent work demonstrated that 0.01 mmol/L hematin (a CO donor) treatment of wheat plants alleviated salt-induced oxidative damage in seedling leaves. In this report, we further discovered that hematin pretreatment ( 0.1 mmol/L) could delay wheat leaf chlorophyll loss mediated by further treatment of H2O2 and paraquat, two reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources, in dose- and even time-dependent manners. Also, compared with the control samples, seedling leaves pretreated with 0.01 or 0.1 mmol/L hematin for 24 h exhibited lower levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as well as higher contents of chlorophyll and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Such beneficial effects exerted by hematin were mimicked by the pretreatment of antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and differentially reversed when CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb), or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX was added, respectively. Taken together, the results presented in this paper directly illustrate for the first time that CO is able to strongly protect plants from oxidative damage caused by the overproduction of ROS, and strengthens the evidence that CO is a potent antioxidant in various abiotic and biotic stresses, as similar results have been shown in animal tissues.
Abstract (Browse 2678)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Associated Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Author: De-Long Yang, Rui-Lian Jing, Xiao-Ping Chang and Wei Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00443.x
      
    Parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (PCFKs) under drought stress condition are generally used to characterize instincts for dehydration tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Therefore, it is important to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PCFKs in wheat genetic improvement for drought tolerance. A doubled haploid (DH) population with 150 lines, derived from a cross between two common wheat varieties, Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14, was used to analyze the correlation between PCFKs and chlorophyll content (ChlC) and to map QTLs at the grain-filling stage under conditions of both rainfed (drought stress, DS) and well-watered (WW), respectively. QTLs for these traits were detected by QTLMapper version 1.0 based on the composite interval mapping method of the mixed-linear model. The results showed a very significant positive correlation between Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo. The correlation coefficients were generally higher under WW than under DS. Also, there was a significant or a highly significant positive correlation between Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and ChlC. The correlation coefficients were higher in the DS group than the WW group. A total of 14 additive QTLs (nine QTLs detected under DS and five QTLs under WW) and 25 pairs of epistatic QTLs (15 pairs detected under DS and 10 pairs under WW) for PCFKs were mapped on chromosomes 6A, 7A, 1B, 3B, 4D and 7D. The contributions of additive QTLs for PCFKs to phenotype variation were from 8.40% to 72.72%. Four additive QTLs (two QTLs detected under DS and WW apiece) controlling ChlC were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 5A and 7A. The contributions of these QTLs for ChlC to phenotype variation were from 7.27% to 11.68%. Several QTL clusters were detected on chromosomes 1B, 7A and 7D, but no shared chromosomal regions for them were identified under different water regimes, indicating that these QTLs performed different expression patterns under rainfed and well-watered conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The 6-phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase Genes Are Responsive to Abiotic Stresses in Rice
Author: Fu-Yun Hou, Ji Huang, Shan-Lin Yu and Hong-Sheng Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00460.x
      
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, E.C. 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, EC 1.1.1.44) are both key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The OsG6PDH1 and Os6PGDH1 genes encoding cytosolic G6PDH and cytosolic 6PGDH were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.). We have shown that Os6PGDH1 gene was up-regulated by salt stress. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of Os6PGDH2 from rice, which encode the plastidic counterpart of 6PGDH. Genomic organization analysis indicated that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 genes contain multiple introns, whereas two Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 genes have no introns in their translated regions. In a step towards understanding the functions of the pentose phosphate pathway in plants in response to various abiotic stresses, the expressions of four genes in the rice seedlings treated by drought, cold, high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated. The results show that OsG6PDH1 and OsG6PDH2 are not markedly regulated by the abiotic stresses detected. However, the transcript levels of both Os6PGDH1 and Os6PGDH2 are up-regulated in rice seedlings under drought, cold, high salinity and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the enzyme activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in the rice seedlings treated by various abiotic stresses were investigated. Like the mRNA expression patterns, G6PDH activity remains constant but the 6PGDH increases steadily during the treatments. Taken together, we suggest that the pentose phosphate pathway may play an important role in rice responses to abiotic stresses and the second key enzyme of PPP, 6PGDH, may function as a regulator controlling the efficiency of the pathway under abiotic stresses.
Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for Bolting Based on a Double Haploid Population of Brassica rapa
Author: Xu Yang, Yang-Jun Yu, Feng-Lan Zhang, Zhi-Rong Zou, Xiu-Yun Zhao, De-Shuang Zhang and Jia-Bing Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00447.x
      
    Early bolting of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) during spring cultivation often has detrimental effects on the yield and quality of the harvested products. Breeding late bolting varieties is a major objective of Chinese cabbage breeding programs. In order to analyze the genetic basis of bolting traits, a genetic map of B. rapa was constructed based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and isozyme markers. Marker analysis was carried out on 81 double haploid (DH) lines obtained by microspore culture from F1 progeny of two homozygous parents: B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (BY) (an extra-early bolting Chinese cabbage line) and B. rapa L. ssp. rapifera (MM) (an extra-late bolting European turnip line). A total of 326 markers including 130 AFLPs, 123 SRAPs, 16 SSRs, 43 RAPDs and 14 isozymes were used to construct a linkage map with 10 linkage groups covering 882 cM with an average distance of 2.71 cM between loci. The bolting trait of each DH line was evaluated by the bolting index under controlled conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using multiple QTL model mapping with MapQTL5.0 software. Eight QTLs controlling bolting resistance were identified. These QTLs, accounting for 14.1% to 25.2% of the phenotypic variation with positive additive effects, were distributed into three linkage groups. These results provide useful information for molecular marker-assisted selection of late bolting traits in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.
Abstract (Browse 1669)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)
Author: Jing-Hua Yang, Ming-Fang Zhang and Jing-Quan Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00470.x
      
    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic male-sterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change. As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position. Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the cms line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrial gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.
Abstract (Browse 1551)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization and Fine Mapping of the ibf Mutant in Rice
Author: Jiajun Cui, Shengci Fan, Tian Shao, Zejun Huang, Dali Zheng, Ding Tang, Ming Li, Qian Qian and Zhukuan Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00467.x
      
    The pigment is an important character in plant development. In the present study, we characterized and fine mapped one inhibitor for brown furrows gene (ibf) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the ibf mutant, brown pigments specifically accumulate in the furrows of hulls as seeds mature and reach a maximum level in dry seeds. Genetic analysis showed that the mutant phenotype is controlled by one recessive nuclear gene, which was finally mapped in a 90-kb region on the long arm of chromosome 9. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a 26 kb deletion in the 90-kb region in the mutant. Since all the open reading frames outside the gap in the delimited region had no detectable difference in DNA sequence with the wild-type, we postulated that the ibf locus should be located in the gap. Through gene annotation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we selected OsKF1 encoding a kelch repeat-containing F-box family protein as the candidate gene of ibf.
Abstract (Browse 2278)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Nutrient Limitation on Pigments in Thalassiosira weissflogii and Prorocentrum donghaiense
Author: Jian-Jun Hou, Bang-Qin Huang, Zhen-Rui Cao, Ji-Xin Chen and Hua-Sheng Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00449.x
      
    The response of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Thalassiosira weissflogii pigments under nitrate (N) and phosphate (P) limitation were studied using HPLC and in vivo fluorescence protocols in batch cultures. For P. donghaiense, the pigment ratio was kept stable under different nutrient conditions from the results of HPLC. For T. weissflogii, there was a lower ratio of chlorophyllide to Chl a during the exponential phase, but the reverse during the stationary phase. Different members of the phytoplankton had different pigments response mechanisms under nutrient limitation. From the results of in vivo fluorescence, the ratio of peridinin to Chl a for P. donghaiense increased in nutrient-free culture, while it was kept stable for nutrient-limited cultures during the exponential phase. For T. weissflogii, the ratio of fucoxanthin to Chl a for each culture increased during the exponential phase, but the ratio under N limitation was apparently lower than that for P limitation during the stationary phase. The results indicate that both pigment ratios from HPLC and in vivo fluorescence of T. weissflogii were changed greatly under different nutrient conditions, which suggests that both ratios could be used as indicators of algal physiological status in different nutrient conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1749)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Changes of Photosystem II Electron Transport in the Chlorophyll-deficient Oilseed Rape Mutant Studied by Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Thermoluminescence
Author: Jun-Wei Guo, Jin-Kui Guo, Yun Zhao and Lin-Fang Du
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00441.x
      
    The photosystem II (PSII) complex of photosynthetic membranes comprises a number of chlorophyll-binding proteins that are important to the electron flow. Here we report that the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant has decreased the amount of light-harvesting complexes with an increased amount of some core polypeptides of PSII, including CP43 and CP47. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence and thermoluminescence, we found that the ratio of Fv/Fm, qP and electron transport rate in the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was higher compared to the wild type. In the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant, the decay of the primary electron acceptor quinones (QA-) reoxidation was decreased, measured by the fluorescence. Furthermore, the thermoluminescence studies in the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant showed that the B band (S2/S3QB-) decreased slightly and shifted up towards higher temperatures. In the presence of dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea, which is inhibited in the electron flow to the second electron acceptor quinines (QB) at the PSII acceptor side, the maximum of the Q band (S2QA-) was decreased slightly and shifted down to lower temperatures, compared to the wild type. Thus, the electron flow within PSII of the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was down-regulated and characterized by faster oxidation of the primary electron acceptor quinine QA- via forward electron flow and slower reduction of the oxidation S states.
Abstract (Browse 1764)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Evolution
Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Diploid, Tetraploid and Hexaploid Wheats
Author: Ming-Li Huang, Xi-Ping Deng, Yu-Zong Zhao, Sheng-Lu Zhou, Shinobu Inanaga, Satoshi Yamada4 and Kiyoshi Tanaka
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00463.x
      
    Three diploid (Triticum boeoticum, AA; Aegilops speltoides, BB and Ae. tauschii, DD), two tetraploid (T. dicoccoides, AABB and T. dicoccon, AABB) and one hexaploid (T. vulgare, AABBDD) varieties of wheat, which are very important in the evolution of wheat were chosen in this study. A pot experiment was carried out on the wheat under different water and nutrient conditions (i) to understand the differences in biomass, yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient (N, P and K) use efficiency (uptake and utilization efficiency) among ploidies in the evolution of wheat; (ii) to clarify the effect of water and nutrient conditions on water and nutrient use efficiency; and (iii) to assess the relationship of water and nutrient use efficiency in the evolution of wheat. Our results showed that from diploid to tetraploid then to hexaploid during the evolution of wheat, both root biomass and above-ground biomass increased initially and then decreased. Water consumption for transpiration decreased remarkably, correlating with the decline of the growth period, while grain yield, harvest index, WUE, N, P and K uptake efficiency, and N, P and K utilization efficiency increased significantly. Grain yield, harvest index and WUE decreased in the same order: T. vulgare > T. dicoccon > T. dicoccoides > Ae. tauschii > Ae. speltoides > T. boeoticum. Water stress significantly decreased root biomass, above-ground biomass, yield, and water consumption for transpiration by 47?2%, but remarkably increased WUE. Increasing the nutrient supply increased wheat above-ground biomass, grain yield, harvest index, water consumption for transpiration and WUE under different water levels, but reduced root biomass under drought conditions. Generally, water stress and low nutrient supply resulted in the lower nutrient uptake efficiency of wheat. However, water and nutrient application had no significant effects on nutrient utilization efficiency, suggesting that wheat nutrient utilization efficiency is mainly controlled by genotypes. Compared to the other two diploid wheats, Ae. squarrosa (DD) had significant higher WUE and nutrient utilization efficiency, indicating that the D genome may carry genes controlling high efficient utilization of water and nutrient. Significant relationships were found between WUE and N, P and K utilization efficiency.
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          New Technology
High-density Linkage Map of Cultivated Allotetraploid Cotton Based on SSR, TRAP, SRAP and AFLP Markers  
Author: Jiwen Yu, Shuxun Yu, Cairui Lu, Wu Wang, Shuli Fan, Meizhen Song,Zhongxu Lin, Xianlong Zhang and Jinfa Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(5): 716-724
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00459.x
      
    A high-density linkage map was constructed for an F2 population derived from an interspecific cross of cultivated allotetraploid species between Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L. A total of 186 F2 individuals from the interspecific cross of “CRI 36 ?Hai 7124?were genotyped at 1 252 polymorphic loci including a novel marker system, target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP). The map consists of 1 097 markers, including 697 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 171 TRAPs, 129 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms, 98 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and two morphological markers, and spanned 4 536.7 cM with an average genetic distance of 4.1 cM per marker. Using 45 duplicated SSR loci among chromosomes, 11 of the 13 pairs of homologous chromosomes were identified in tetraploid cotton. This map will provide an essential resource for high resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci and molecular breeding in cotton.
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