July 2007, Volume 49 Issue 7, Pages 961-1086.


Cover Caption:
Genetic Relationship among 5 Triticeae Genomes
Most wheat chromosomes can be easily identified via FISH of two tandem repeats, pAs1 (green) and pSc119.2 (red). This was successfully used to reveal genome relationship between wheat and wheatgrass (Thinopyrum). Genomic in situ hybridization showed that the St and E genomes (two basic genomes of wheat-grass) are most closely related to the D genome in wheat. This explains why most of the spontaneous wheat-Thinopyrum translocations and substitutions occur in the D genome. See pages 1080-1086 for details.

 

          Invited Expert Reviews
Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids Biosynthesis and Metabolic Engineering in Catharanthus roseus  
Author: Dong-Hui Liu, Hong-Bin Jin, Yu-Hui Chen, Li-Jie Cui, Wei-Wei Ren, Yi-Fu Gong and Ke-Xuan Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7): 961-974
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00457.x
      
    Catharanthus roseus L. (Madagascar periwinkle) biosynthesizes a diverse array of secondary metabolites including anticancer dimeric alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) and antihypertensive alkaloids (ajmalicine and serpentine). The multi-step terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthetic pathway in C. roseus is complex and is under strict molecular regulation. Many enzymes and genes involved in the TIAs biosynthesis have been studied in recent decades. Moreover, some regulatory proteins were found recently to control the production of TIAs in C. roseus. Based on mastering the rough scheme of the pathway and cloning the related genes, metabolic engineering of TIAs biosynthesis has been studied in C. roseus aiming at increasing the desired secondary metabolites in the past few years. The present article summarizes recent advances in isolation and characterization of TIAs biosynthesis genes and transcriptional regulators involved in the second metabolic control in C. roseus. Metabolic engineering applications in TIAs pathway via overexpression of these genes and regulators in C. roseus are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3663)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Analysis of Soluble Leaf Proteins of a Salt-sensitive (Triticum aestivum) and a Salt-tolerant (T. durum) Cultivar in Response to NaCl Stress
Author: Mustafa YILDIZ∗
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00465.x
      
    In this research, 3-day-old etiolated wheat seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ceyhan-99 (salt-sensitive) and T. durum Desf. cv. Fırat-93 (salt-tolerant) were grown in control and salt (150 mmol/L NaCl) treatments at a 15/25 ◦C temperature regime in the light for 12 days. Soluble proteins extracted from the first leaf tissues of two cultivars were analyzed by twodimensional (2-D) electrophoresis in order to detect NaCl-induced changes. The soluble leaf protein profiles of cultivars were observed to be similar. However, quantitative differences in 74 proteins were detected in the salt treatment group, compared to the control. Among the 74 protein spots, 14 were common for two cultivars. As a result of NaCl treatment, two low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins (28.9 and 30.0 kDa) and one intermediate-molecular-weight (IMW) protein (44.3 kDa) in cv. Ceyhan-99 and six LMW proteins (18.6, 19.4, 25.7, 25.9, 26 and 27.6 kDa) in cv. Fırat-93 were newly synthesized. The newly synthesized proteins were specific to each cultivar. In the Fırat-93 cultivar, four proteins with LMW (24.8每27.9 kDa) were completely lost in NaCl treatment. Moreover, these four protein spots were not observed in both protein profiles of cv. Ceyhan-99. Most of these proteins were in acidic character (pl <6.0每6.9) and low molecular weight (<31.6 kDa). It is suggested that the newly synthesized or completely lost LMWproteins may be important for cultivars differing in sensitivity towards NaCl.
Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Kinetics of the Anti-oxidant Response to Salinity in the Halophyte Cakile maritima
Author: Nader Ben Amor, Ana Jim´enez, Wided Megdiche, Marianne Lundqvist, Francisca Sevilla and Chedly Abdelly
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00497.x
      
    The effects of NaCl stress on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD),ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR)), anti-oxidant molecules (ascorbate and glutathione), and parameters of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations) were investigated in Cakile maritima, a halophyte frequent along the Tunisian seashore. Seedlings were grown in the presence of salt (100, 200, and 400 mmol/L NaCl). Plants were harvested periodically over 20 days. Growth was maximal in the presence of 0每100 mmol/L NaCl. At 400 mmol/L NaCl, growth decreased significantly. The salt tolerance of C. maritima, at moderate salinities, was associated with the lowest values of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress, namely the highest activities of POD, CAT, APX, DHAR, and GR and high tissue content of ascorbate and glutathione. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity resulted in a decrease in anti-oxidant activities and high MDA content, electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations. These results suggest that anti-oxidant systems participate in the tolerance of C. maritima to moderate salinities.
Abstract (Browse 1561)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced ※Defense Lignin§ Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp. pekinensis)  
Author: Song-He Zhang, Qing Yang and Rong-Cai Ma
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7): 993-1002
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00478.x
      
    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3 -Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S) monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All threemonomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced ※defense lignin§ were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that ※defense lignin§ was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.
Abstract (Browse 2940)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Seed Treatment with Auxins Modulates Growth and Ion Partitioning in Salt-stressed Wheat Plants
Author: Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Ashraf
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00488.x
      
    Experiments were performed to determine whether seed priming with different concentrations (100, 150, and 200 mg/L) of auxins (indoleacetic acid (IAA), indolebutyric acid (IBA), or their precursor tryptophane (Trp)) could alter salinity induced perturbances in salicylic acid and ion concentrations and, hence, growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely M.H.-97 (salt intolerant) and Inqlab-91 (salt tolerant). Primed and non-primed seeds were sown in Petri dishes in a growth room, as well as in a field treated with 15 dS/m NaCl salinity. All priming agents, except IBA, increased the final germination percentage in both cultivars. The seedlings of either cultivar raised from Trp-treated seeds had greater dry biomass when under salt stress. In field experiments, Trp priming was much more effective in mediating the increase in grain yield, irrespective of the cultivar, under salt stress. The alleviatory effect of Trp was found to be associated with reduced uptake of Na+ in the roots and subsequent translocation to the shoots, as well as increased partitioning of Ca2+ in the roots of salt-stressed wheat plants. Plants of both cultivars raised from Trp- and IAA-treated seeds accumulated free salicylic acid in their leaves when under salt stress. Overall, the Trp priming-induced improvement in germination and the subsequent growth of wheat plants could be related to ion homeostasis when under salt stress. The possible involvement of salicylic acid in the Trp priming-induced better growth under conditions of salt stress is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2165)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effect of Salinity on the Composition, Number and Size of Epidermal Cells along the Mature Blade of Wheat Leaves
Author: Yuncai Hu and Urs Schmidhalter
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00455.x
      
    Salinity inhibits leaf growth in association with changes in cell size. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distributions of the composition, number and dimensions of epidermal cells in the mature blades of leaf four of wheat seedlings under saline conditions. Plants were grown in loamy soil either with or without 120 mmol/L NaCl in a growth chamber, and harvested after leaf four was fully developed. The results of the spatial distribution analyses of width along the blade showed that salinity not only reduced the width of the leaf blade, but that it also altered the distribution pattern of blade width along the leaf axis. The reduction in the final size of the leaf blade was associated with a reduction in the total number of epidermal cells and in their widths and lengths. This study also revealed the spatial effects of salinity on the blade and epidermal cell dimensions along the leaf axis. In particular, salinity inhibited the total cell number for interstomatal, sister and elongated cells, implying that cell division in wheat leaves is inhibited by salinity. However, the lengths of interstomatal cells were not affected by salinity (unlike those for the sister and elongated cells), suggesting the relative contributions of cell length and numbers to the reduction in the final length of the blade under salinity is dependent on cell type.
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Lanthanum Prevents Salt Stress-induced Programmed Cell Death in Rice Root Tip Cells by Controlling Early Induction Events
Author: Jian-You Li, Ai-Liang Jiang, Hai-Yan Chen, Ying Wang and Wei Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00458.x
      
    In a previous study, a salt stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD) model was established in rice root tip cells. Here, by using Wuyunjing 8th rice seedlings, the effects of lanthanum on salt stress-induced PCD early events were studied. The results indicated that low concentrations (10 µmol/L), but not high concentrations (100 µmol/L) of LaCl3 could effectively prevent salt stress-induced PCD. Further study demonstrated that in the early stages of salt-induced PCD process, 10 µmol/L of La3+ could prevent the increase of cytoplasmic calcium levels, inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and enhance the ROS-scavenging enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Imidazole (20 mmol/L), the inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase), could alleviate the occurrence of PCD obviously, and such alleviation could be enhanced by the addition of La3+,indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the salt stress-induced PCD process. Taken together, lanthanum could prevent salt stress-induced PCD occurrence in the rice root tip cells by blocking the calcium influx under stress, which was followed by inhibiting calcium-dependent NADPH oxidase activity to prevent O2− production and, enhancing the cytosolic antioxidative enzyme activities to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.
Abstract (Browse 2234)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
RNA Interference-mediated Silencing of Phytochelatin Synthase Gene Reduce Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Seeds
Author: Jiang-Chuan Li, Jiang-Bo Guo, Wen-Zhong Xu and Mi Ma
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00473.x
      
    Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in heavy metal resistance and accumulation. To reduce the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice seeds, the expression of phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene OsPCS1 was suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi). A hairpin construct of a PCS fragment was designed in the pRNAi-OsPCS1 under the control of ZMM1, a seed-specific promoter from maize. The construct was introduced into rice (japonica) through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The RNAi rice plantlets were selected and cultivated in pots exposured to 10 mg/kg Cd. The transcriptional level of OsPCS1 declined in seeds of some RNAi rice compared to the wild type. As a result Cd accumulation was reduced by about half in the seeds of RNAi rice. As expected, no apparent difference of growth appeared between RNAi and wild-type plants. The results suggest that this new approach can be used to control heavy metal accumulation in crops.
Abstract (Browse 2328)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Comparative Development of Lint and Fuzz Using Different Cotton Fiber-specific Developmental Mutants in Gossypium hirsutum
Author: Da-Yong Zhang, Tian-Zhen Zhang, Zhi-Qin Sang and Wang-Zhen Guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00454.x
      
    A series of fiber-specific mutants, or germplasms, have been recently used in the study of fiber development. In the current study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate developmental differences in lint and fuzz initiation in different genotypes (Gossypium hirsutum) of upland cotton. These fiber mutants included dominant naked seed N1, recessive naked seed n2, Xuzhou-142 lintless-fuzzless (XZ142WX), Xinxiangxiaojilintless-fuzzless (XinWX), Xinxiangxiaojilinted-fuzzless (XinFLM), with TM-1, the cytogenetic and genetic experimental standard stock, as the control. Characteristics of fiber initiation were analyzed from 每1 to +1 days post anthesis (dpa) and at 4 and 5 dpa for fuzz initiation. Our data suggested that lint initiation centered on day of anthesis (0 dpa), and elongated significantly at 1 dpa, while fuzz initiation began at 4 dpa, although the shape of fuzz protrusions differed from that of lint fibers. Fiber initiation occurred first on the ovule funicular crest. Compared to TM-1, there was a noted retardation in development and fiber protrusion in N1 and XinFLM. Microscopy data also demonstrated that lintless-fuzzless mutants (XZ142WX and XinWX) developed irregular protrusions during early developmental stages, which were unable to grow into fiber.
Abstract (Browse 1994)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Xanthophyll Cycle and Inactivation of Photosystem II Reaction Centers Alleviating Reducing Pressureto Photosystem I in Morning Glory Leaves under Short-term High Irradiance
Author: Xin-Guo Li, Jian-Yong Li, Jin-Ping Zhao, Ping-Li Xu and Qi-Wei He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00451.x
      
    Under 30-min high irradiance (1500 米mol m2 s1), the roles of the xanthophyll cycle and D1 protein turnover were investigated through chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in morning glory (Ipomoea setosa) leaves, which were dipped into water, dithiothreitol (DTT) and lincomycin (LM), respectively. During the stress, both the xanthophyll cycle and D1 protein turnover could protect PSI from photoinhibition. In DTT leaves, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was inhibited greatly and the oxidation level of P700 (P700+) was the lowest one. However, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in DTT leaves was higher than that of LM leaves and was lower than that of control leaves. These results suggested that PSI was more sensitive to the loss of the xanthophyll cycle than PSII under high irradiance. In LM leaves, NPQ was partly inhibited, Fv/Fm was the lowest one among three treatments under high irradiance and P700+ was at a similar level as that of control leaves. These results implied that inactivation of PSII reaction centers could protect PSI from further photoinhibition. Additionally, the lowest of the number of active reaction centers to one inactive reaction center for a PSII cross-section (RC/CSo), maximal trapping rate in a PSII cross-section (TRo/CSo), electron transport in a PSII cross-section (ETo/CSo) and the highest of 1-qP in LM leaves further indicated that severe photoinhibition of PSII in LM leaves was mainly induced by inactivation of PSII reaction centers, which limited electrons transporting to PSI. However, relative to the LM leaves the higher level of RC/CSo, TRo/CSo, Fv/Fm and the lower level of 1-qP in DTT leaves indicated that PSI photoinhibition was mainly induced by the electron accumulation at the PSI acceptor side, which induced the decrease of P700+ under high irradiance.
Abstract (Browse 1690)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Mutation of Residue Arginine18 of Cytochrome b55汐-Subunit and its Effects on Photosystem II Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Author: Jing-Jing Ma, Liang-Bi Li, Yu-Xiang Jing and Ting-Yun Kuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00486.x
      
    It has been known that arginine is used as the basic amino acid in the 汐-subunit of cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) except histidine. However, previous studies have focused on the function of histidine in the activities of photosystem (PS) II and there are no reports regarding the structural and/or functional roles of arginine in PSII complexes. In the present study, two arginine18 (R18) mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis, in which R18 was replaced by glutamic acid (E) and glycine (G). The results show that the oxygen evolution of the PSII complex in the R18G and R18E mutants was approximately 60% of wild-type (WT) levels and that, after irradiation at high light intensity, oxygen evolution for the PSII of mutants was reduced to zero compared with 40% in WT cells. The efficiency of light capture by PSII (Fv/Fm) of R18G and R18E mutants was approximately 42%每46% that of WT cells. Furthermore, levels of the 汐-subunit of Cyt b559 and PsbO proteins were reduced in thylakoid membranes compared with WT. Overall, these data suggest that R18 plays a significant role in helping Cyt b559 maintain the structure of the PSII complex and its activity, although it is not directly bound to the heme group.
Abstract (Browse 1416)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Variation in the Coat Protein Gene of Papaya ringspot Virus Isolates from Multiple Locations of China
Author: Jun-Ya Wei, De-Bing Liu, Xiao-Ying Li and Peng Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00477.x
      
    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an important pathogen of papaya that causes severe losses in economic crops for papaya production globally. The coat protein (CP) genes of five PRSV isolates originating from different locations in China were cloned and sequenced. The CP-coding region varied in size from 864每873 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 288每291 amino acids. The five Chinese isolates of PRSV have been characterized as papaya-infecting (PRSV-P). The CP sequences of the Chinese isolates were compared with those of previously published PRSV isolates originating from different countries at amino acid levels. A number of KE repeat boxes in the N terminus of the PRSV-CP were found in all Chinese isolates. The phylogenetic branching pattern revealed that there was certain extended grouping between geographic locations, and the Asian type probably represents the oldest population of PRSV. The information of CP genes will be useful in designing and developing durable virus resistant-PRSV transgenic papaya in China. Meanwhile broad-spectrum-virus resistant, strongly resistant-PRSV and good safe papaya lines are required.
Abstract (Browse 1549)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
Carbon Monoxide Promotes Lateral Root Formation in Rapeseed
Author: Ze-Yu Cao, Wei Xuan, Zhao-Yang Liu, Xin-Na Li, Nan Zhao, Peng Xu, Zhe Wang,Rong-Zhan Guan and Wen-Biao Shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00482.x
      
    Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, tasteless and colorless gas, has recently proved to be an important bioactive or signal molecule in mammalian cells, with its effects mediated mainly by nitric oxide (NO). In the present report, we show that exogenous CO induces lateral root (LR) formation, an NO-dependent process. Administration of the CO donor hematin to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Yangyou 6) seedlings for 3 days, dose-dependently promoted the total length and number of LRs. These responses were also seen following the application of gaseous CO aqueous solutions of different saturated concentrations. Furthermore, the actions of CO on seedlings were fully reversed when the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or the CO-specific synthetic inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX) were added. Interestingly, depletion of endogenous NO using its specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), led to the complete abolition of LR development, illustrating an important role for endogenous NO in the action of CO on LR formation. However, the induction of LR development by 200 米mol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, was not affected by the presence or absence of ZnPPIX. Furthermore, using an anatomical approach combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy with the NO-specific fluorophore 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, we observed that both hematin and SNP increased NO release compared with control samples and that the NO signal was mainly distributed in the LR primordia (LRP), especially after 36 h treatment. The LRP were found to have similar morphology in control, SNP- and hematin-treated seedlings. Similarly, the enhancement of the NO signal by CO at 36 h was differentially quenched by the addition of cPTIO, l-NAME, ZnPPIX and Hb. In contrast, the induction of NO caused by SNP was not affected by the application of ZnPPIX. Therefore, we further deduced that CO induces LR formation probably mediated by the NO/NOS pathway and NO may act downstream of CO signaling, which has also been shown to occur in animals.
Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Evolution
Genetic Relationships Among Five Basic Genomes St, E, A, B and D in Triticeae Revealed by Genomic Southern and in situ Hybridization
Author: Zhao Liu, Dayong Li and Xueyong Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2007 49(7)
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2007.00462.x
      
    The St and E are two important basic genomes in the perennial tribe Triticeae (Poaceae). They exist in many perennial species and are very closely related to the A, B and D genomes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genomic Southern hybridization and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to analyze the genomic relationships between the two genomes (St and E) and the three basic genomes (A, B and D) of T. aestivum. The semi-quantitative analysis of the Southern hybridization suggested that both St and E genomes are most closely related to the D genome, then the A genome, and relatively distant to the B genome. GISH analysis using St and E genomic DNA as probes further confirmed the conclusion. St and E are the two basic genomes of Thinopyrum ponticum (StStEeEbEx) and Th. intermedium (StEeEb), two perennial species successfully used in wheat improvement. Therefore, this paper provides a possible answer as to why most of the spontaneous wheat-Thinopyrum translocations and substitutions usually happen in the D genome, some in the A genome and rarely in the B genome. This would develop further use of alien species for wheat improvement, especially those containing St or E in their genome components.
Abstract (Browse 1580)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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