March 1962, Volume 10 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
妞把我找我折快扼抗我抄 抉忌戒抉把 把抉忱忘 Delphinium Linn. 我戒 抖攻找我抗抉志抑抒 扳抖抉把抑 妞我找忘攸 (扭把抉忱抉抖忪快扶我快 j. )
Author: 圾忘扶 圾改扶抆 - 扯忘抄
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
Abstract (Browse 1714)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Nomenclature of the Compound-leaved Polysticha
Author: R. C. Ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
      
    Since the publication in 1934 of my monograph on the compound-leaved Polysticha under the generic name Rumohra Raddi, there has been a general agreement among the fern students the world over that this group of compound-leaved dryopteroid ferns, some of which had been previously referred to Polystichum, others to Dryopteris of C. Chr. Index Filicum, is phyletically distinct from both genera, and many pteridologists actually followed me in nomenclature for this group of ferns until 1954. Since then, perhaps no group of ferns has ever suffered from such great vicissitudes in nomenclature within such a short span of time as the group of ferns now under review. In the Ferns of Malaya (1954) 484, R. E. Holttum pointed out, I think properly, that Rumohra Raddi, as represented by R. adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching of a wide geographic distribution but not known in Asia, is not congeneric with Rumohra aristata (Forst.) Ching and its allies chiefly occurring in the Sino-Himalayas, and he chosed Polystichopsis for the latter group of ferns, calling the genus Polystichopsis (C. Chr.) Holttum, with reference to Christensen in Verdoorn's Manual of Pteridology (1938) 543. While choosing the generic name for Rumohra aristata (Forst.) Ching and its allies, Holttum, however, overlooked the fact that Dryopteris Subgenus Polystichopsis (J. Sm.) C. Chr. is based upon Dryopteris pubescens (L.) O. Ktze. of the West Indies, which proves generically different from Rumohra aristata (Forst.) Ching, as has been pointed out by Tindale, but almost a direct synonym to Arachniodes Bi., for A. aspidioides BI., type of the genus, has heretofore been considered as identical with Rumohra aristata (Forst.) Ching. Evidently not knowing the existence of Arachniodes BI., C. V. Morton in American Fern Journal L (1960) 149 proposed a new genus Byrsopteris Morton to replace Polystichopsis Holttum. While properly pointing out that Holttum should not choose Polystichopsis as a genus for Rumohra aristata (Forst.) Ching and its allies, which are not congeneric with Dryopteris pubescens (L.) O. Ktze., the type of Dryopteris Subgenus Polystichopsis (J. Sm.) C. Chr., Morton likewise made a mistake by stating that Chris- tensen raised Dryopteris Subgenus Polystichopsis (J. Sm.) C. Chr. to generic rank in Ver- doorn's Manual of Pteridology (1938) 543, but in fact it seems to be more than evident that Christensen even not had the intention there to raise his Subgenus Polystichopsis to generic rank, as has been correctly pointed out by Tindale in Contr. New South Wales Nat. Herb. Flora Series Nos. 208每211 (1961) 57. And, therefore, Morton's statement, which runs ※the proper authority for the genus is Polystichopsis (J. Sm.) C. Chr.§ is entirely groundless and it also naturally follows that the new transfers made by him of names of the four American species to Polystichopsis (loc. cit. 155) are illegitimate, since his ※Polystichopsis (J. Sm.) C. Chr.§ is invalidated by Polystichopsis Holttum, thus leaving the American Dryopteris pubescens (L.) O. Ktze. and its allies yet without a proper generic name, if they are really distinct from Lastreopsis Ching, as Morton has thought it to be the case. In conclusion, I wish to thank Professor M. N. Karavaev of the Herbarium of Mosco University for very kindly sending me photographic prints of the isotype of Polypodium aristatum Forster, recently rediscovered by him among G. Forster's collections conserved there, and Dr. Marry D. Tindale of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, for a representative specimen for comparison of Arachniodes aristata (Forster) Tindale (basionym: Polypodium aristatum Forster), which was collected at Lake Barrine, north-eastern Queensland. It may be stated that without the assistance rendered by them both, it would have been well-nigh impossible for me to identify the plant from the mainland of Asia and Japan, which was previously but enonemously named as Forster's species by all authors in the floras of file regions concerned.
Abstract (Browse 2194)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cardioteucris C. Y. Wu, Holocheila (Kudo) S. Chow--Duo Genera nova Labiatarum ex Provencia Yunnan
Author: C. Y. Wu et S. Chow
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
De Genere Cathaya Chun et Kuang
Author: Chun Woon-Young et Kuang Ko-zen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
坏快抖快扶我快 抗抖快找抉抗 我 忱我扶忘技我抗忘 扶批抗抖快我扶抉志抑抒 抗我扼抖抉找 志 扭把抉扯快扼扼快 把忘戒志我找我攸 我戒抉抖我把抉志忘扶扶抑抒 我 扶抉把技忘抖抆扶抑抒 ㄛ 扶快抉找忱快抖快扶扶抑抒 抉找 戒忘把抉忱抑扮忘 ㄛ 扼快技攸忱抉抖快抄 扭抉忱扼抉抖扶快折扶我抗忘 志 抒抉忱快 扭把抉把忘扼找忘扶我攸 扼快技攸扶
Author: 宋.孚忘抉
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2043)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Biology of Beauveria Bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. with Reference to Microbial Control of Insect Pests
Author: C. Teng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
      
    Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., a widespread entomogenous fungus of wide host range, has been used in many countries, with success in many cases, for the microbial control of insect pests. Since 1954, it has been employed in China for combating Grapholithe glycinivosella, Cylas formicarius and Dendrolimus spp. In the present work, attempts have been made to study the biology of B. bassiana with reference to its practical application to the control of insect pests, and the following results have been obtained: 1. Mycelial growth has been found to occur between 13每36 ⊥ and to cease at 8 ⊥ and 40 ⊥, the optimal temperature for mycelial growth as well as for spore germination being about 24 ⊥ which, according to laboratory tests with Dendrolimus punctatus, has been shown to be also conducive to infection. The optimal temperature for spore production has been found to be 30 ⊥, deviating from the results of previous workers (33, 36) who claimed that the optimum for mycelial growth was the same as that for spore production. 2. Although the relative humidity, most favorable for mycelial growth and spore germination is about 100%, the spores of certain strains of B. bassiana are able to germinate at as low as 56.8%. Laboratory tests with aphids show that the percentages of mortality are higher when the relative humidity is above 80%, the degree of relative humidity most favorable for spore germination and mycelial growth being also most effective for infection. On the contrary, lower percentages of relative humidity (about 25%每50%) favor sporulation. Desiccation has detrimental effect upon spore viability. 432 hours of desiccation at (22 ㊣ l) ⊥ causes complete loss of vitality of the spores of B. bassiana. It has also been found that the spores will not germinate after 15 months when the culture medium has dried out, but will retain their viability if the moisture content of the medium is still sufficient. These results confirm the investigation of Masera, but disagree with those of Steinhaus and G6sswaldt331. 3. Light has been shown to favor the radial expansion of the mycelium, but to cause a decrease in its density. For sporulafion, light has been proved to be indispensable. Within certain limits, the amount of spore production is in direct proportion to the intensity of light. The most effective wave length for sporulation is in the blue region (under 500 m米) of the spectrum. Diffuse light also exerts stimulative effect on spore germination. The germination percentage increases 4每5 times or more as compared with the check (without light). Spores of B. bassiana do not completely lose their germinative capacity after accumulative exposure to direct sunlight (up to (44 ㊣ 1) ⊥) for about 150 hours. Within 90 hours of actual radiation, direct sunlight seems to exert an invigorating effect as revealed by the percentages of germination as well as by the lengths of germ-tubes. This stimulative action is probably due to the ultra-violet rays in the sunlight. Further experiments have shown that spores of strain I, after being exposed to ultraviolet radiation (220y, 30w, at a distance of 30 cm) for as long as 8 hours, germinate more vigorously than those of the check. As for strain II, the mycelium is able to stand 8 hours' exposure to ultraviolet rays without apparent injury, but spores are rendered nonviable by the same duration of exposure. 4. Results of experiments indicate that, regardless of light conditions, adequate supply of oxygen encourages the growth of mycelium and the germination of spores, but hinders spore formation, causing an increase by 30%每80% in the radial expansion of mycelium and a decrease by 46%每71% in spore production, the percentages of spore germination under poorly aerated conditions as compared with that under adequate oxygen supply being 1.43% and 15.4% respectively. 5. Evidences have been obtained to show that spore germination takes place at pH 3.0每9.4 and ceases at pH 2.4 and 10.0, the optimum being about 4.4, and that vigorous mycelial growth occurs at pH 4每5. Although the pH range for sporulation is the same as that for mycelial growth, optimal pH for spore production is about 6. 6. From the data secured, it seems evident that B. bassiana is non-specific in nitrogen requirement, making good to very good use of both organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen. Among the inorganic sources, nitrate nitrogen is more utilizable than ammonium nitrogen. Urea is very effective for sporulation, especially at high concentrations. The beneficial effect of organic nitrogen on spore production is obvious in the presence of light but not in the dark. B. bassiana is capable of utilizing maltose, sucrose, raffinose, glycerin, soluble starch as well as glucose, among which sucrose is most favorable for sporulation. Among the carbohydrates tested, lactose, inulin and sorbitol rank next in utilizability; xylose, rhamnose, cellulose or lactic acid are poor carbon sources for B. bassiana so far as spore production is concerned. It is interesting to find that B. bassiana generally causes the final pH to rise to 7.8每8.0 in those culture media containing the above-mentioned poor sources of carbon, and to lower to 5.0每5.2 in the media containing suitable sources of carbon. Within certain limits, the amount of spore production is in direct proportion to the concentration of glucose (1%每5%) in the culture medium, but mycelial growth bears no such relations. By adding 0.2 mg% of manganese or of iron to the culture medium, an increase in spore production by 150% and 20% respectively can be obtained. In tap or distilled water, the germination percentage of spores is always very low and the time required for germination much delayed. In 0.5% sugar solution or in decoctions of leaves of various higher plants, or by adjusting the pH of distilled water to 4.4, the spores germinate much more readily and the percentage of germination becomes much higher. 7. The spores of B. bassiana have been demonstrated to be highly resistant to various insecticides and fungicides. They have been found to be viable after being treated with the following: <1/500 1605 (46.6% emulsion), <0.5% dipterex (50% alcoholic solution), <0.5% DDT (5%), <1.5% 666 (6%), <0.05% nicotine (redistilled), <1/400 lead arsenate, 1/400 rotenone (2.5%), and <0.25% ceresan. Besides, at lower concentrations, 1605 (1/12000) and dipterex (0.01%每0.3%) apparently stimulate spore germination. Tests have been made with the outcome indicating that the volatile substances or gases emitted by tissues (leaves or flowers) of various kinds of higher plants (woody and herbaceous) are not only non-injurious to the spores, but appear to bring forth beneficial influence on spore germination, causing an increase in germination by 30%每90%. It has also been observed that the spores of B. bassiana remain viable in solutions of sucrose of 2.0 molarity or of sodium chloride of 1.5 normality, under a temperature of 25⊥. The vitality of spores differs according to their age. Spores from 20-day-old cultures give a germinating percentage not to exceed 2.5%, while spores from 3-9-15 months old cultures yield 8%每9% germination. 8. Results of the present investigation likewise indicate that the spores of B. bassiana are highly resistant to both low and high temperatures. They are able to germinate normally after being subjected to 每21 ⊥ for 400 hours; and within 300 hours of exposure, this low temperature promotes the growth of germ-tubes. This stimulative effect seems more evident under humid conditions. Spores of B. bassiana do not completely lose their viability after being exposed to 80 ⊥ up to 2 hours, but become incapable of germination after being subjected to 100 ⊥, 90 ⊥, and 86 ⊥ for 5, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. This disagrees with the result obtained by Headlee who states that spores ※may be exposed for five hours to as high as 209 ˚F (98.3 ⊥) without injuring the germination§. The discrepancy may be due to the difference in the experimental methods employed. Under high relative humidity (95%), the spores are killed by 144 hours exposure to 40 ⊥, while under dry air conditions, they lose their viability only after a prolonged exposure of about 200 hours to the same temperature. 9. Having analyzed the results so far acquired, it is not difficult to find that mycelial growth and sporulation are two different developmental stages. Environmental conditions most suitable for sporulation differ from those for mycelial growth, but conditions suitable for spore germination are usually similar to the latter. For examples, the optimal temperature for spore formation is 30 ⊥, and that for mycelial growth and spore germination is about 24 ⊥; low relative humidity (25%每50%)favorable to spore production is deleterious for mycelial growth or spore germination; adequate oxygen supply is essential for spore germination and mycelial growth, but retards spore production; the most effective pH for sporulation is about 6, but that for mycelial growth or spore germination is 4每5. A thorough understanding regarding the requirements of the different developmental stages is helpful in devising means for propagating the fungus. 10. The high adaptability and high resistance of B. bassiana to adverse conditions account for its universal distribution, wide host range and the practicability of employing it as an agent in the microbial control of insect pests.
Abstract (Browse 3227)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Breeding of a New Breed of Haidai (Laminaria japonica Aresch.) and its Preliminary Genetic Analysis
Author: T. C. Fang, C. Y. Wu, B. Y. Jiang, J. J. Li and K. Z. Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
      
    Although the utilization of the various species of Laminaria in various parts of the world has a long history, and the cultivation of one of the species (L. japonica Aresch. vernacularly called ※haidai§) has been practised in China for some thirty years, the industry having developed tremendously since 1950, yet the genetic study of this marine alga, and indeed of nearly all other algae has not yet begun. No selection work has been done in the haidai cultivation industry. Parke (1948) has done extensive works on the growth of Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Tseng, Wu and Sun (1957) have carried out similar studies on Laminaria japonica Aresch. The present paper describes a new line of work begun in 1958 on the haidai, resulting in the breeding of a new breed named Haiqing No. 1 of Laminaria japonica. The original materials used in this breeding work were all summer sporelings of the haidai cultivated at low temperature in the summer, 1958. The methods of laboratory and sea cultivation of Laminaria described by Tseng etc. (1957) were adopted. As different fronds of Laminaria under similar conditions vary in regards to growing rate, size, and degree of natural casting away of distal frondal tissues, and as sexual process together with crossing takes place regularly every year during reproductive season, the present Laminaria populations under cultivation are assumed to possess a high level of hibridity. It follows that the main breeding work on such a population should be inbreeding plus selection. Inbreeding was carried out by using single mature sporophytes to yield spores. Selection was performed on gametophytes and sporophytes in three steps: (1) cultivating gametophytes under 20 ⊥ or 22 ⊥ for more than one month to kill those gametophytes unable to resist such high termeratures; (2) selecting fast growing spore- lings for transplantation, and (3) selecting healthy and large sized mature sporophytes to yield spores for further cultivation. From four years work with successive inbreeding and selection, a new Laminaria population has been obtained. This is the beginning of a new breed, Haiqing No. 1. The breeding work has been carried out at Tsingtao, 36˚ North Latitude, in the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica. The new breed of Laminaria differs statistically significantly in several important characters from the control population: it grows faster, and matures much later, being more resistant against higher temperatures, and having a longer growing period; it has longer and broader blade with a longer stipe and is heavier in weight. The new breed has been tested in Amoy in south China, 24˚ 30∩ North Latitude, and similar results have been obtained. Tables 1每4 and figures 2每4 give the main results of the various experiments. Figure 1 shows diagrammatically the history of the new breed. The results have been analysed from geneticat point of view. The data do not support the hypothesis of directed variation or that of induced mutation. It is argued that the new breed has been produced through the interaction of the following factors: (1) the hybrid individual sporophytes which possess rich genetic basis being the object of selection, (2) inbreeding which is naturally followed by segregation and recombination of genetic factors having given rise to a variety of forms, and (3) selection which controls the direction of development of the population having given rise to the type of population we wanted. It is the successive inbreeding and selection on the hybrid genetic factors which gave the new breed. The inheritance of the length of the stipe has been analysed for the first time. This is surely an inheritable character, although it is influenced by some environmental condition such as the intensity of light. Treating gametophytes with sufficiently high temperatures appeared to have little effect on the length of the stipe. Tables 5每7 summarize the materials regarding the inheritance of the stipe character. We are greatly indebted to Dr. C. K. Tseng, the vice-director of the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, who first noticed the significance of the new line of research and gave us stimulating interest and encouragement throughout the course of the investigation.
Abstract (Browse 2003)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reproductive Organs of Red Algae I.
Author: K. C. Fan and Y. P. Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
Abstract (Browse 1791)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Embryos of Pinus koraiensis Grown In Vitro II.
Author: C. L. Lee and Chang Hsin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(3)
      
    Four kinds of cultures were provided for comparing the growth rate and development between excised embryos and those within intact megagametophyte, namely: a) embryos in intact megagametophyte grown in culture medium supplemented with 5% sucrose; b) same as a), grown in culture medium without sugar; c) excised embryos grown in ※double tube§, with the upper tube containing 5% sucrose, but none in the lower; d) excised embryos grown in ※double tube§, with the lower tube containing 5% of sucrose, but none in the upper tube. Results from a series of aseptic cultures, substantiated with certainty that there is no dormancy factor either in the embryo itself or in those enclosed in the megagametophyte, whereas the stony seed coat is the only inhibiting factor. If the seed coat was removed and embryo in the intact megagametophyte was grown in the sterile culture medium without sugar under aseptic techniques (b), some seeds exhibited initial germination within one week. After three weeks in culture, the percentage of germination increased rapidly and the seedling growth continued vigorously. Hence, they could be transplanted into pods. In instances where the embryos within the megagametophyte were grown in a culture medium containing 5% sucrose (a), however, the germination rate declined markedly and there was no expansion of the cotyledons as seen in the culture (b). Growth of the excised embryo in type c double tube continued as usual, get the rate of growth was way below that enclosed in the megagametophyte. When the excised embryos were cultured as in type d, they exhibited a pale, feeble appearance. Furthermore, root development usually failed to occur and seedlings ceased to grow. Finally, some of the morphological changes of the excised embryos and those within the intact megagametophyte were discribed.
Abstract (Browse 1805)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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