January 2008, Volume 50 Issue 1, Pages 1-127.

Cover Caption:
The lotus flower grows in muddy waters and rises above the surface to bloom with remarkable beauty, symbolizing the purity of heart and mind. The flower was chosen as the cover to celebrate the new JIPB website, since we, the JIPB editors, strongly believe that the purity of a journal is important to create scientific quality. JIPB's new homepage combines all existing JIPB resources into one location, where authors can submit their manuscripts and read all papers published in Acta Botanica Sinica (1952C2004) and JIPB (2004Cnow), JIPB news and all accepted articles online. JIPB also has a policy to have all special issues freely accessible. Cover photo provided by Chun-Ming Liu.


A Change of Course: JIPB to Focus on Fundamental Questions in Plant Sciences  
Author: Xingguo Han, Hong Ma and Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 1-1
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00634.x

Benefited from the speedy development of omic tools and the use of model plants, such as rice, Arabidopsis and Medicargo, plant biologists have recently made tremendous breakthroughs in understanding plant growth, development, and response to environmental changes. Many fundamental questions, such as flower initiation, light signal transduction, intercellular communication, genomic composition and epigenetic regulation, etc., have been resolved during the past two decades. Several dedicated plant science journals, such as The Plant Cell, The Plant Journal and Plant & Cell Biology contributed to this progress through the publication of seminal articles that allowed scientists in the community to communicate with each other, to share their expertise and experimental materials. However, in large part, these journals have defined their scope to the micro-scale, using molecular, genetic and biochemical tools to study gene function. JIPB, as the name reflects, intends to establish it's niche under the theme of integrative plant biology, by publishing articles that provide answers to fundamental questions in both macro- and micro-scale, and the inter-talk between them. This is the change to be made in 2008. We have defined the following 10 core topics for JIPB: 1) Molecular evolution 2) Molecular & chemical ecology 3) Functional omics 4) Molecular physiology 5) Systems biology 6) Primary and secondary metabolism 7) Inter- and intra-cellular communication 8) Stress and defense 9) Structural biology and biophysics 10) Cell and developmental biology As a consequence, purely descriptive studies using single techniques to report phytochemical, physiological, ecological and anatomical phenomena will no longer be considered within the scope of the journal. In addition, we would also like to announce our new Associate Editor, William Lucas, who currently is Distinguished Professor at the University of California, Davis. Bill is well-known for his elegant studies in intercellular communication and long distance signal transduction in plants. Recently his group, together with several other labs, has defined the long sought after florigen: the FT protein (Plant Cell, 2007, 19:1488–1506). Last, but not least, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all authors who submitted their papers to JIPB, along with the reviewers who provided critical views of our manuscripts, and the Handling Editors who have spent a lot of their valuable time in the peer-review process. In the future, the editorial board will strive to ensure that all manuscripts are processed in an efficient and professional manner. Xingguo Han, Chief Editor Hong Ma, Chief Editor Chun-Ming Liu, Executive Editor

Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
Hydrogen Peroxide in Plants: A Versatile Molecule of Reactive Oxygen Species Network  
Author: Li-Juan Quan, Bo Zhang, Wei-Wei Shi and Hong-Yu Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 2-18
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00599.x
    Plants often face the challenge of severe environmental conditions, which include various biotic and abiotic stresses that exert adverse effects on plant growth and development. During evolution, plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stressors. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are subsequently converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Even under normal conditions, higher plants produce ROS during metabolic processes. Excess concentrations of ROS result in oxidative damage to or the apoptotic death of cells. Development of an antioxidant defense system in plants protects them against oxidative stress damage. These ROS and, more particularly, H2O2, play versatile roles in normal plant physiological processes and in resistance to stresses. Recently, H2O2 has been regarded as a signaling molecule and regulator of the expression of some genes in cells. This review describes various aspects of H2O2 function, generation and scavenging, gene regulation and cross-links with other physiological molecules during plant growth, development and resistance responses.
Abstract (Browse 3623)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Bioenergy Plants
Role of GA3, GA4 and Uniconazole-P in Controlling Gravitropism and Tension Wood Formation in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. Seedlings  
Author: Sha Jiang, Ke Xu, Yong-Zhou Wang, Yan-Ping Ren and Song Gu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 19-28
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00552.x
    GA3 and GA4 (gibberellins) play an important role in controlling gravitropism and tension wood formation in woody angiosperms. In order to improve our understanding of the role of GA3 and GA4 on xylem cell formation and the G-layer, we studied the effect of GA3 and GA4 and uniconazole-P, which is an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, on tension wood formation by gravity in Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var. japonica Maxim. seedlings. Forty seedlings were divided into two groups; one group was placed upright and the other tilted. Each group was further divided into four sub-groups subjected to the following treatments: 3.43 10−9 mol acetone as control, 5.78 10−8 mol gibberellic acid (GA3), 6.21 10−8 mol GA4, and 6.86 10−8 mol uniconazole-P. During the experimental period, GAs-treated seedlings exhibited negative gravitropism, whereas application of uniconazole-P inhibited negative gravitropic stem bending. GA3 and GA4 promoted wood fibers that possessed a gelatinous layer on the upper side, whereas uniconazole-P inhibited wood formation but did not inhibit the differentiation of the gelatinous layer in wood fibers on the upper side. These results suggest that: (i) both the formation of gelatinous fibers and the quantity of xylem production are important for the negative gravitropism in horizontally-positioned seedlings; (ii) GA3 and GA4 affect wood production more than differentiation of the gelatinous layer in wood fibers; G-layer development may be regulated by other hormones via the indirect-role of GA3 and GA4 in horizontally-positioned F. mandshurica seedlings rather than the direct effect of GAs; and (iii) the mechanism for upward wood stem bending is different to the newly developed shoot bending in reaction to gravity in this species.
Abstract (Browse 2249)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Eco-physiological Characteristics of Alfalfa Seedlings in Response to Various Mixed Salt-alkaline Stresses  
Author: Yong-Lin Peng, Zhan-Wu Gao, Ying Gao, Guo-Fang Liu, Lian-Xi Sheng and De-Li Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 29-39
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00607.x
    Soil salinization and alkalization frequently co-occur in nature, but little is known about the mixed effects of salt-alkaline stresses on plants. An experiment with mixed salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) and 30 salt-alkaline combinations (salinity 24C120 mmol/L and pH 7.03C10.32) treating Medicago sativa seedlings was conducted. The results demonstrated that salinity and alkalinity significantly affected total biomass and biomass components of seedlings. There were interactive effects of salt composition and concentration on biomass (P 0.001). The interactions between salinity and alkalinity stresses led to changes in the root activity along the salinity gradient (P 0.001). The effects of alkalinity on seedling survival rate were more significant than those of salinity, and the seedlings demonstrated some physiological responses (leaf electrolyte leakage rate and proline content) in order to adapt to mixed salt-alkaline stresses. It was concluded that the mixed salt-alkaline stresses, which differ from either salt or alkali stress, emphasize the significant interaction between salt concentration (salinity) and salt component (alkalinity). Further, the effects of the interaction between high alkalinity and salinity are more severe than those of either salt or alkali stress, and such a cooperative interaction results in more sensitive responses of ecological and physiological characteristics in plants.
Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Selenium-induced Changes in Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes and Contents of Photosynthetic Pigments in Spirulina platensis  
Author: Tian-Feng Chen, Wen-Jie Zheng, Yum-Shing Wong and Fang Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 40-48
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00600.x
    Spirulina platensis exposed to various selenium (Se) concentrations (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 150, 175, 200, 250 mg/L) accumulated high amounts of Se in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Under low Se concentrations (150 mg/L), Se induced increases in biomass concentration, content of photosynthetic pigments, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Gua-dep peroxidases (POD), which indicates that antioxidant enzymes play an important role in protecting cells from Se stress. Higher Se concentrations ( 175 mg/L) led to higher Se accumulation and increases in activities of GPX, SOD, CAT and POD, but also induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) coupled with potassium leakage and decreases in biomass concentration and contents of photosynthetic pigment. The results indicate that increases in activities of the antioxidant enzymes were not sufficient to protect cell membranes against Se stress. Time-dependent variations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoid and the LPO level were also investigated under representative Se concentrations of 40 and 200 mg/L. Opposite variation trends between SOD-CAT activities, and GPX-POD-APX activities were observed during the growth cycles. The results showed that the prevention of damage to cell membranes of S. platensis cells could be achieved by cooperative effects of SOD-CAT and GPX-POD-APX enzymes. This study concludes that S. platensis possessed tolerance to Se and could protect itself from phytotoxicity induced by Se by altering various metabolic processes.
Abstract (Browse 2338)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nitric Oxide Potentiates Oligosaccharide-induced Artemisinin Production in Artemisia annua Hairy Roots  
Author: Li-Ping Zheng, Yu-Ting Guo, Jian-Wen Wang and Ren-Xiang Tan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 49-55
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00589.x
    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Artemisia annua roots induced by an oligosaccharide elicitor (OE) from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the potentiation role of NO in the elicitation of artemisinin accumulation. The OE (0.3 mg total sugar/mL) induced a rapid production of NO in cultures, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 8 h of OE treatment. Artemisinin content in 20-day-old hairy roots was increased from 0.7 mg/g dry wt to 1.3 mg/g dry wt by using the OE treatment for 4 d. In the absence of OE, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 10, 50 M and 100 M enhanced the growth of hairy roots, but had no effect on artemisinin synthesis. The combination of SNP with OE increased artemisinin content from 1.2 mg/g dry wt to 2.2 mg/g dry wt, whereas the maximum production of artemisinin in cultures was 28.5 mg/L, a twofold increase over the OE treatment alone. The effects of SNP on the OE-induced artemisinin were suppressed strongly by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). The results suggest that NO can strongly potentiate elicitor-induced artemisinin synthesis in A. annua hairy roots.
Abstract (Browse 2235)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Stress Responsive Zinc-finger Protein Gene of Populus euphratica in Tobacco Enhances Salt Tolerance  
Author: Jun-Ying Wang, Xin-Li Xia, Jun-Ping Wang and Wei-Lun Yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 56-61
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00590.x
    The Populus euphratica stress responsive zinc-finger protein gene PSTZ, which encodes a protein including typical Cys2/His2 zinc finger structure, was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from P. euphratica. Northern hybridization revealed that its expression was induced under drought and salt stress conditions. To examine its function, cDNA of the PSTZ gene, driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector pBin438 and introduced into tobacco plants. Transgenic tobacco showed an enhanced salt tolerance, suggesting that PSTZ may play a role in plant responsiveness to salt stress.
Abstract (Browse 2304)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Omics & Epigenetics
Cloning and Expression Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa) Sucrose Transporter Genes OsSUT2M and OsSUT5Z  
Author: Ai-Jun Sun, Hong-Lin Xu, Wan-Kui Gong, Hong-Li Zhai, Kun Meng, Yong-Qin Wang, Xiao-Li Wei, Gui-Fang Xiao and Zhen Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 62-75
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00596.x
    Two sucrose transporter (SUT) cDNAs, OsSUT2M and OsSUT5Z, were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequencing results indicate they are 1 531 bp and 1 635 bp in length including complete open reading frame 1 506 bp and 1 608 bp, which encode 502 amino acids and 536 amino acids, respectively. The TopPred program suggested that both sucrose transporter proteins, OsSUT2M and OsSUT5Z, consist of potentially 12 transmembrane domains. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to investigate the gene expression patterns of OsSUT2M and OsSUT5Z. In vegetative organs, transcripts of OsSUT2M were higher in source leaf blades than in other organs at the same development stage, whereas transcripts of OsSUT5Z were less traceable in all organs investigated. In reproductive organs, both transcripts of these two genes were high in panicles from the booting stage to 7 days after flowering (DAF) and then sharply declined. The potential physiology functions of these two sucrose transporters are discussed. OsSUT2M and OsSUT5Z. In vegetative organs, transcripts of OsSUT2M were higher in source leaf blade than in other organs at the same development stage, whereas transcripts of OsSUT5Z were less traceable in all organs investigated. In reproductive organs, both transcripts of these two genes were high in panicles from booting stage to 7 day after flowering (DAF) and then sharply declined. The potential physiology functions of these two sucrose transporters are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2602)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Analysis of Cell Division and Elongation Rate in Growing Wheat Leaves Under Saline Conditions  
Author: Yuncai Hu and Urs Schmidhalter
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 76-83
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00379.x
    Leaf growth in grasses is determined by the cell division and elongation rates, with the duration of cell elongation being one of the processes that is the most sensitive to salinity. Our objective was to investigate the distribution profiles of cell production, cell length and the duration of cell elongation in the growing zone of the wheat leaf during the steady growth phase. Plants were grown in loamy soil with or without 120 mmol/L NaCl in a growth chamber, and harvested at day 3 after leaf 4 emerged. Results show that the elongation rate of leaf 4 was reduced by 120 mmol/L NaCl during the steady growth phase. The distribution profile of the lengths of abaxial epidermal cells of leaf 4 during the steady growth stage shows a sigmoidal pattern along the leaf axis for both treatments. Although salinity did not affect or even increased the length of the epidermal cells in some locations in the growth zone compared to the control treatment, the final length of the epidermal cells was reduced by 14% at 120 mmol/L NaCl. Thus, we concluded that the observed reduction in the leaf elongation rate derived in part from the reduced cell division rate and either the shortened cell elongation zone or shortened duration of cell elongation. This suggests that more attention should be paid to the effects of salinity on those properties of cell production and the period of cell maturation that are related to the properties of cell wall.
Abstract (Browse 2023)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Crop Development on the Emission of Volatiles in Leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum and its Inhibitory Activity to Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum  
Author: Peng-Ying ZHANG, Kao-Shan CHEN, Pei-Qing HE, Shenghao Liu, Wan-Feng JIANG
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 84-91
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00597.x
    Volatiles emitted from the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum at the two-, ten-leaf and anthesis periods were collected by a gas absorbing method and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry. In total, 33 compounds of volatiles emitted from three developmental stage plants were separated and identified, and quantitatively analyzed by the internal standard addition method. All of the samples of volatile were found to be rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. -phellandrene and caryophyllene predominated in the volatiles of the leaves of plants at the two- and ten-leaf stages. Furthermore, (E)-2-hexenal were the dominant components in the volatiles emitted from anthesis plants. The results of volatiles analyzed show that the compositions varied depending on the developmental stages. The volatiles emitted from crushed tomato leaves of plants at the anthesis stage had the most strongly inhibitory activity against the spore germination and hyphal growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, followed by ten- and two-leaf plants. However, the activity of volatiles, emitted from the leaves of plants at the two-leaf stage, in inhibiting F. oxysporum was greater than B. cinerea.
Abstract (Browse 1322)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
Synergistic Action between Jasmonic Acid and Nitric Oxide in Inducing Matrine Accumulation of Sophora flavescens Suspension Cells  
Author: Mao-Jun Xu and Ju-Fang Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 92-101
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00570.x
    Secondary metabolites not only play important ecological roles in plants but also are important pharmaceutical and source compounds for derivative synthesis. Production of plant secondary metabolites is believed to be controlled by the endogenous signal network of plants. However, the molecular basis is still largely unknown. Here we show that matrine production of Sophora flavescens Ait. cells treated with low levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) is significantly increased although treatment with low concentrations of JA or NO alone has no effects on matrine production, showing that JA and NO may act synergistically in triggering matrine production. Moreover, treatment with NO triggers lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and enhances JA levels of the cells, showing that NO may activate the endogenous JA biosynthesis of S. flavescens cells. External application of JA induces nitric oxide synthase-like activities and stimulates NO generation of S. flavescens cells, which suggests that JA may trigger NO generation of the cells. Thus, the results reveal a mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO in S. flavescens cells. Furthermore, JA and NO inhibitors suppress not only the mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO but also the synergistic effects of NO and JA on matrine production. Therefore, the data demonstrate that the synergistic action of JA and NO in inducing matrine production might be due to the mutually amplifying reaction between JA and NO in the cells.
Abstract (Browse 2042)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Primary Core Collection of Peach (Prunus persica)  
Author: Tian-Hong Li, Yin-Xia Li, Zi-Chao Li, Hong-Liang Zhang, Yong-Wen Qi and Tao Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 102-110
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00598.x
    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisp peach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Bauhinia blakeana (Caesalpinioideae)  
Author: Chun Yin MAK, Ka Shing CHEUNG, Pui Ying YIP and Hoi Shan KWAN
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 111-118
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00591.x
    Bauhinia blakeana Dunn is the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region emblem and a popular horticultural species in many Asian countries. It was first described as a new species from Hong Kong almost a century ago. This plant is sterile and has long been considered a hybrid, possibly from two related species, B. purpurea and B. variegata. However, not much evidence based on molecular methods was available to support this hypothesis. In this study, sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), rbcL and atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer for five Bauhinia species and two varieties of one of the species were determined and compared. There were two types of ITS1 sequences in B. blakeana, one indistinguishable from that of B. purpurea and the other one identical to that of B. variegata. This confirmed that B. blakeana was a hybrid of these two species. Chloroplast atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer sequence of B. blakeana was identical to that of B. purpurea, indicating that B. purpurea was the female parent. The hybridization event seemed to occur only recently and was a rare incident. Its occurrence was likely facilitated by interspecific pollen competition. It appeared that human efforts played a crucial role in the preservation and ubiquity of B. blakeana.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
New Species of the Isolated Psaroniaceous Rachis from the Early Permian in China  
Author: Ning Xiang, Shi-Min Ma, Bao-Lin Tian, Shi-Jun Wang and Ming-Shan Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(1): 119-127
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00595.x
Abstract (Browse 1387)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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