Special Issue: Abiotic Stresses in Plants   

October 2008, Volume 50 Issue 10, Pages 1185-1335.


Cover Caption:
Special Issue: Abiotic Stresses in Plants
Accelerated global warming, increased concentration of CO2 in atmosphere, accumulation of salts in soils and water deficient in most part of the world have greatly impacted our agriculture. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance in natural stress-tolerant plants will assist plant biotechnology. The cover picture shows an extremely saline-resistant plant species, Achnatherum splendens (Trin.) Nevski (Gramineae). The picture was taken by Dr. Yin-Xin Li in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China (Cover design: Ying Wang).

 

          Editorial
Understanding Abiotic Stresses and the Solution  
Author: Qi Xie and Zhizhong Gong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1185-1186
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00774.x
      
    The abilities to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt to different environmental conditions are hallmarks of all living organisms. Understanding this information flow between organisms and their environment remains a hot topic in life sciences. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem. A major challenge in plant biology is the uncovering of the developmental process from a single cell into a mature plant. Some aspects of plant development are entirely genetically programmed, but most are influenced by the environment, allowing plants to adapt to prevailing conditions. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction pathways in higher plant are essential to vital processes such as hormone and light perception, plant and environment recognition and interaction. Stress biology is one of the most important branch of plant molecular biology, due to accelerated global warming, increased concentration of CO2 in air, accumulation of salts in soils, and water deficient all around the world. All those un-favorite factors greatly affect agricultures and lead the problem of food safety. State orientated, increased academic interests and so as increased involvement of private companies greatly push the quick development of abiotic stress biology. In addition, Arabidopsis thaliana used as a model plant and application of state-of-art technologies promote the fast development of stress biology. This could be seen from the most cited plant scientist around the world for 1997¨C2007, according to a survey by http://ScienceWatch.com, an open Web resource for science metrics and analysis. Dr. Kazuo Shinozaki, from RIKEN Plant Science Center, Japan, was ranked as the top cited plant scientist. In addition, two other scientists, Dr. Jiankang Zhu from University of California, Riverside and Dr. Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, from Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, and University of Tokyo, were ranked as No.4 and No.8 in the list of most cited plant scientist list. Those data indicate not only the importance but also the large volume of research community of stress biology. In this special issue, 10 invited reviews resumed the latest developments in different aspects of stress biology. In addition, five research papers also described the novel finding in this related field. Most of the review articles are based on author's own works and the most recent developments in the field. For the past several years Epigenetic has turned to be an important and quickly developed research topic in life sciences. In plant Epigenetic control has been revealed to be an important regulation of plant growth and plant-environment interaction. Chinnusamy et al. resumed the novel findings on ABA regulated epigenetic may act through affecting histone modification, such as monoubiquitination and histone deacetylation. And in addition, they also proposed that ABA probably regulate abiotic stress response through DNA methylation and siRNA pathways. The occurrence of trehalose and trehalose biosynthesis pathway in plants has been discovered recently. Iordachescu et al. resumed the importance of trehalose biosynthesis in stress response. The concentration of metallic elements in soil could either the resource of nutrient or toxicity. Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important elements for plant growth and crop production. Whether the transcription regulation of genes in P-signal transduction pathway can correlate to the morphological and physiological adaptations evolved by plants to cope with P starvation has been reviewed by analyzing the current knowledge of transcriptional regulation of P starvation responses in Arabidopsis vis-¨¤-vis legumes. No metallic element, Boron (B) is essential for plant development. The amount of B in soil could be either the favorite effecter or source of toxicity. An update on recent findings related to the molecular basis of B deficiency and toxicity responses in plants is presented by Camacho et al. Same as no metallic elements, most of metals are essential for plant growth but high concentration of metals in soil could be also toxicity stress sources. Toxic heavy metals are normally present as soil constituents or can also be spread out in the environment by human activity and agricultural techniques to produce heavy metal stress. Cadmium (Cd) stress response and how to be prevented are resumed by DalCorso et al. Overexpression of a Myb transcription factor from Malus xiaojinensis in Arabidopsis leads to down expression of two Fe-related genes encoding an iron transporter AtIRT1 and an iron storage protein ferritin AtFER1. It has been proposed MxMYB1 has a potential role in iron nutrition stress response (Jie et al.). High salt imposes negative impacts on the growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity of plants. With the knowledge learned from Arabidopsis, Phang et al. summarized the relevant works at molecular level on salt stress responses in soybean. The Brassicaceae family halophyte Thellungiella halophila has high salinity tolerant capacity and serves as a valuable halophytic genetic model plant with experimental convenience similar to A. thaliana. Zhang et al. presented the competitive analysis of potential salt tolerance genes in Thellungiella. These results provide a broader coverage of Thellungiella transcriptome and may help to identify salt tolerance related genes. Light, gas and heat can greatly affect plant photosynthesis and water evaporation, thus they are important factors controlling plant growth and developmental processes. Nau et al. reported the systemic response of chloroplast movement to local high light or burning stress in tobacco plants. It is very important to know the quantitative physiological changes of plant under drought condition. Li et al. described the interactive effects of drought stresses and elevated CO2 concentration on photochemistry efficiency by measuring the chlorophyll content, and the Imaging-PAM was used to image the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and rapid light response curves (RLC) of leaves. Temperature changes out of scope are used to bring harmful effects to plants. Heat stress, a major abiotic stress is always accompanied with burning and drought stresses. Huang and Xu provided an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress. Drought stress affects not only plant growth and development but also the quality of seed harvest. Due to improper growth plants reduced tolerance to plant pathogens and those microbes could be the dangerous resources of seed contamination. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to A. flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance (Guo et al.). Because global industrial greatly affects ozone concentration in air, ozone stress has become much more severe in the last decade. Ludwikow et al. summarized the recent progress in the transcriptomics of ozone stress response by microarray analyses identifying gene networks responsible for response and tolerance to elevated ozone concentration. The cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress could be linked by nitric oxide (NO). NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects in plants. Qiao and Fan summarized the NO signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions. Due et al. reported the comprehensive functional analysis of catalase gene family in A. thaliana and their roles in controlling ROS homeostasis upon different stresses.
Abstract (Browse 3872)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
Abscisic Acid-mediated Epigenetic Processes in Plant Development and Stress Responses  
Author: Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Zhizhong Gong and Jian-Kang Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1187-1195
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00727.x
      
    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates diverse plant processes, growth and development under non-stress conditions and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress tolerance. Although ABA-regulated genetic processes are well known, recent discoveries reveal that epigenetic processes are an integral part of ABA-regulated processes. Epigenetic mechanisms, namely, histone modifications and cytosine DNA methylation-induced modification of genome give rise to epigenomes, which add diversity and complexity to the genome of organisms. Histone monoubiquitination appears to regulate ABA levels in developing seeds through histone H2B monoubiquitination. ABA and H2B ubiquitination dependent chromatin remodeling regulate seed dormancy. Transcription factor networks necessary for seed maturation are repressed by histone deacetylases (HDACs)-dependent and PICKLE chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs), whereas ABA induces the expression of these genes directly or through repression of HDACs. Abiotic stress-induced ABA regulates stomatal response and stress-responsive gene expression through HDACs and HOS15-dependent histone deacetylation, as well as through the ATP-dependent SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING CRC. ABA also probably regulates the abiotic stress response through DNA methylation and short interfering RNA pathways. Further studies on ABA-regulated epigenome will be of immense use to understand the plant development, stress adaptation and stress memory.
Abstract (Browse 2791)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Soybean  
Author: Tsui-Hung Phang, Guihua Shao and Hon-Ming Lam
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1196-1212
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00760.x
      
    Soybean is an important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (i) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to describe its salt stress responses at the molecular level.
Abstract (Browse 3075)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Transcriptional Regulation and Signaling in Phosphorus Starvation: What About Legumes?  
Author: Oswaldo Vald¨¦s-L¨®pez and Georgina Hern¨¢ndez
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1213-1222
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00758.x
      
    The availability of soil phosphorus (P), an essential element, is one of the most important requirements for plant growth and crop production. The morphological and physiological adaptations evolved by plants to cope with P starvation have been well characterized. Several P deficiency plant responses are regulated at the transcriptional level. Microarray analysis has generated valuable information on global gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under P-stress. Despite the identification of P responsive genes, little is known about the regulation of gene expression changes. Four transcription factors, PHR1, WRKY75, ZAT6 and BHLH32, involved in P starvation signaling have been characterized in Arabidopsis, and signaling pathways are deciphered. This review analyzes the current knowledge of transcriptional regulation of P starvation responses in Arabidopsis vis-¨¤-vis legumes such as lupine, common bean and Medicago truncatula. The knowledge on regulatory and signaling mechanisms involved in P acquisition and use in legumes will be useful for improvement of these crops, which account for a large proportion of the world's crop production, providing good nutritional quality feed and food.
Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Trehalose Biosynthesis in Response to Abiotic Stresses  
Author: Mihaela Iordachescu and Ryozo Imai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1223-1229
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00736.x
      
    Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that is present in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria and fungi to invertebrates, in which it serves as an energy source, osmolyte or protein/membrane protectant. The occurrence of trehalose and trehalose biosynthesis pathway in plants has been discovered recently. Multiple studies have revealed regulatory roles of trehalose-6-phosphate, a precursor of trehalose, in sugar metabolism, growth and development in plants. Trehalose levels are generally quite low in plants but may alter in response to environmental stresses. Transgenic plants overexpressing microbial trehalose biosynthesis genes have been shown to contain increased levels of trehalose and display drought, salt and cold tolerance. In-silico expression profiling of all Arabidopsis trehalose-6-phosphate synthases (TPSs) and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatases (TPPs) revealed that certain classes of TPS and TPP genes are differentially regulated in response to a variety of abiotic stresses. These studies point to the importance of trehalose biosynthesis in stress responses.
Abstract (Browse 2337)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Identification and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress  
Author: Bingru Huang and Chenping Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1230-1237
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00735.x
      
    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to heat stress would facilitate the development of heat-tolerant cultivars for improving productivity in warm climatic regions. Protein metabolism involving protein synthesis and degradation is one of the most sensitive processes to heat stress. Changes in the level and expression pattern of some proteins may play an important role in plant adaptation to heat stress. The identification of stress-responsive proteins and pathways has been facilitated by an increasing number of tools and resources, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the rapidly expanding nucleotide and amino acid sequence databases. Heat stress may induce or enhance protein expression or cause protein degradation. The induction of heat-responsive proteins, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs), plays a key role in plant tolerance to heat stress. Protein degradation involving various proteases is also important in regulating plant responses to heat stress. This review provides an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress.
Abstract (Browse 2696)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plant Responses to Abiotic Stresses  
Author: Weihua Qiao and Liu-Min Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1238-1246
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00759.x
      
    Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in plants. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in plant cells. This review is focused on NO synthesis and the functions of NO in plant responses to abiotic environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses mostly induce NO production in plants. NO alleviates the harmfulness of reactive oxygen species, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions.
Abstract (Browse 2372)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Boron in Plants: Deficiency and Toxicity  
Author: Juan J. Camacho-Crist¨®bal, Jes¨²s Rexach and Agust¨ªn Gonz¨¢lez-Fontes
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1247-1255
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00742.x
      
    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient for normal growth of higher plants, and B availability in soil and irrigation water is an important determinant of agricultural production. To date, a primordial function of B is undoubtedly its structural role in the cell wall; however, there is increasing evidence for a possible role of B in other processes such as the maintenance of plasma membrane function and several metabolic pathways. In the last years, the knowledge of the molecular basis of B deficiency and toxicity responses in plants has advanced greatly. The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent findings related to these topics, which can contribute to a better understanding of the role of B in plants.
Abstract (Browse 2418)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Gene Networks in Plant Ozone Stress Response and Tolerance  
Author: Agnieszka Ludwikow and Jan Sadowski
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1256-1267
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00738.x
      
    For many plant species ozone stress has become much more severe in the last decade. The accumulating evidence for the significant effects of ozone pollutant on crop and forest yield situate ozone as one of the most important environmental stress factors that limits plant productivity worldwide. Today, transcriptomic approaches seem to give the best coverage of genome level responses. Therefore, microarray serves as an invaluable tool for global gene expression analyses, unravelling new information about gene pathways, in-species and cross-species gene expression comparison, and for the characterization of unknown relationships between genes. In this review we summarize the recent progress in the transcriptomics of ozone to demonstrate the benefits that can be harvested from the application of integrative and systematic analytical approaches to study ozone stress response. We focused our consideration on microarray analyses identifying gene networks responsible for response and tolerance to elevated ozone concentration. From these analyses it is now possible to notice how plant ozone defense responses depend on the interplay between many complex signaling pathways and metabolite signals.
Abstract (Browse 2325)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
How Plants Cope with Cadmium: Staking All on Metabolism and Gene Expression  
Author: Giovanni DalCorso, Silvia Farinati, Silvia Maistri and Antonella Furini
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1268-1280
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00737.x
      
    Environmental pollution is one of the major problem for human health. Toxic heavy metals are normally present as soil constituents or can also be spread out in the environment by human activity and agricultural techniques. Soil contamination by heavy metals as cadmium, highlights two main aspects: on one side they interfere with plants life cycle and therefore reduce crop yields, on the other hand, once adsorbed and accumulated into the plant tissues, they enter the food chain poisoning animals and humans. Considering this point of view, understanding the mechanism by which plants handle heavy metal exposure, in particular cadmium stress, is a primary goal of plant-biotechnology research or plant breeders whose aim is to create plants able to recover high amounts of heavy metals, which can be used for phytoremediation, or identify crop varieties that do not accumulate toxic metal in grains or fruits. In this review we will focus on the main symptoms of cadmium toxicity both on root apparatus and shoots. We will elucidate the mechanisms that plants activate to prevent absorption or to detoxify toxic metal ions, such as synthesis of phytochelatins, metallothioneins and enzymes involved in stress response. Finally we will consider new plant-biotechnology applications that can be applied for phytoremediation.
Abstract (Browse 2943)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Drought Stress and Preharvest Aflatoxin Contamination in Agricultural Commodity: Genetics, Genomics and Proteomics  
Author: Baozhu Guo, Zhi-Yuan Chen, R. Dewey Lee and Brian T. Scully
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1281-1291
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00739.x
      
    Throughout the world, aflatoxin contamination is considered one of the most serious food safety issues concerning health. Chronic problems with preharvest aflatoxin contamination occur in the southern US, and are particularly troublesome in corn, peanut, cottonseed, and tree nuts. Drought stress is a major factor to contribute to preharvest aflatoxin contamination. Recent studies have demonstrated higher concentration of defense or stress-related proteins in corn kernels of resistant genotypes compared with susceptible genotypes, suggesting that preharvest field condition (drought or not drought) influences gene expression differently in different genotypes resulting in different levels of ¡°end products"--PR-proteins in the mature kernels. Because of the complexity of Aspergillus-plant interactions, better understanding of the mechanisms of genetic resistance will be needed using genomics and proteomics for crop improvement. Genetic improvement of crop resistance to drought stress is one component and will provide a good perspective on the efficacy of control strategy. Proteomic comparisons of corn kernel proteins between resistant or susceptible genotypes to A. flavus infection have identified stress-related proteins along with antifungal proteins as associated with kernel resistance. Gene expression studies in corn developing kernels are in agreement with the proteomic studies that defense-related genes could be up- or down-regulated by abiotic stresses.
Abstract (Browse 2438)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Research Articles
Is Chloroplast Movement in Tobacco Plants Influenced Systemically after Local Illumination or Burning Stress?  
Author: Jan Nauš, Monika Rolencov¨¢ and Vladim¨ªra Hlav¨¢ckov¨¢
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1292-1299
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00743.x
      
    Chloroplast movement has been studied in many plants mainly in relation to the local light, mechanical or stress effects. Here we investigated possible systemic responses of chloroplast movement to local light or burning stress in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun). Chloroplast movement was measured using two independent methods: one with a SPAD 502 Chlorophyll meter and another by collimated transmittance at a selected wavelength (676 nm). A sensitive periodic movement of chloroplasts was used in high or low (2 000 or 50 ¦Ìmol/m2 per s photosynthetically active radiation, respectively) cold white light with periods of 50 or 130 min. Measurements were carried out in the irradiated area, in the non-irradiated area of the same leaf or in the leaf located on the stem below the irradiated or burned one. No significant changes in systemic chloroplast movement in non-irradiated parts of the leaf and in the non-treated leaf were detected. Our data indicate that chloroplast movement in tobacco is dependent dominantly on the intensity and spectral composition of the incident light and on the local stimulation and state of the target tissue. No systemic signal was strong enough to evoke a detectable systemic response in chloroplast movement in distant untreated tissues of tobacco plants.
Abstract (Browse 2164)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
An MYB Transcription Factor from Malus xiaojinensis Has a Potential Role in Iron Nutrition  
Author: Jie Shen, Xuefeng Xu, Tianzhong Li, Dongmei Cao and Zhenhai Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1300-1306
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00761.x
      
    Regulation of iron uptake and use is critical for plant survival and growth. We isolated an MYB gene from Malus xiaojinensis named MxMYB1, which is induced under Fe-deficient conditions. Expression of MxMYB1 was upregulated by Fe starvation in the roots but not in leaves, suggesting that MxMYB1 might play a role in iron nutrition in roots. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MxMYB1 exhibited lower iron content as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal (40 ¦ÌM) and Fe-deficient conditions (Fe omitted and Ferrozine 300 ¦ÌM). However, the contents of Cu, Zn and Mn were not changed in these transgenic plants. Gene chip and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that the expression of two Fe-related genes encoding an iron transporter AtIRT1 and an iron storage protein ferritin AtFER1 might be negatively regulated by MxMYB1 as the expression levels of these genes were lower in MxMYB1 expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants as compared with wild type plants under both Fe-normal and Fe-deficient conditions. These results suggest that MxMYB1 may function as a negative regulator of iron uptake and storage in plants.
Abstract (Browse 2161)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Interactive Effects of Drought Stresses and Elevated CO2 Concentration on Photochemistry Efficiency of Cucumber Seedlings  
Author: Qing-Ming Li, Bin-Bin Liu, Yang Wu and Zhi-Rong Zou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1307-1317
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00686.x
      
    To reveal and quantify the interactive effects of drought stresses and elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on photochemistry efficiency of cucumber seedlings, the portable chlorophyll meter was used to measure the chlorophyll content, and the Imaging-PAM was used to image the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and rapid light response curves (RLC) of leaves in two adjacent greenhouses. The results showed that chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced significantly with drought stress aggravated. Minimal fluorescence (Fo) was increased while maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly by severe drought stress. The significant decrease of effective quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)) accompanied by the significant increase of quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ)) was observed under severe drought stress condition, but there was no change of quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation (Y(NO)). We detected that the coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) decreased, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased significantly under severe drought stress. Furthermore, we found that maximum apparent electron transport rate (ETRmax) and saturating photosynthetically active radiation (PPFDsat ) decreased significantly with drought stress aggravated. However, elevated [CO2] significantly increased Fv/Fm, qP and PPFDsat , and decreased NPQ under all water conditions, although there were no significant effects on chlorophyll content, Fo, Y(II), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and ETRmax. Therefore, it is concluded that CO2-fertilized greenhouses or elevated atmospheric [CO2] in the future could be favorable for cucumber growth and development, and beneficial to alleviate the negative effects of drought stresses to a certain extent.
Abstract (Browse 2692)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comprehensive Functional Analysis of the Catalase Gene Family in Arabidopsis thaliana  
Author: Yan-Yan Du, Peng-Cheng Wang, Jia Chen and Chun-Peng Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1318-1326
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00741.x
      
    In Arabidopsis, catalase (CAT) genes encode a small family of proteins including CAT1, CAT2 and CAT3, which catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and play an important role in controlling homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we analyze the expression profiles and activities of three catalases under different treatments including drought, cold, oxidative stresses, abscisic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis. Our results reveal that CAT1 is an important player in the removal of H2O2 generated under various environmental stresses. CAT2 and CAT3 are major H2O2 scavengers that contribute to ROS homeostasis in light or darkness, respectively. In addition, CAT2 is activated by cold and drought stresses and CAT3 is mainly enhanced by abscisic acid and oxidative treatments as well as at the senescence stage. These results, together with previous data, suggest that the network of transcriptional control explains how CATs and other scavenger enzymes such as peroxidase and superoxide dismutase may be coordinately regulated during development, but differentially expressed in response to different stresses for controlling ROS homeostasis.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Comparison Analysis of Transcripts from the Halophyte Thellungiella halophila  
Author: Yiyue Zhang, Jianbin Lai, Shouhong Sun,Yin Li Yuanyuan Liu,Liming Liang, Mingsheng Chen and Qi Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(10): 1327-1335
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00740.x
      
    The Brassicaceae family halophyte Thellungiella halophila has a high salinity tolerance and serves as a valuable halophytic genetic model plant with experimental convenience similar to Arabidopsis thaliana. A cDNA library of Thellungiella was generated from salt-treated seedlings including rosettes and roots. More than 1 000 randomly selected clones were sequenced and 946 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated. The accession numbers of our EST data are available online in the GenBank database from EC598928 to EC599965. In total 679 unique clusters were assembled, and 632 (93%) had BLASTX hits in the nr databases and 7% are Thellungiella unique. According to the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy, 385 of 679 unigenes were categorized. Compared with public Arabidopsis microarray data, our results provide more potential salt tolerance genes in Thellungiella. These results will provide a broader coverage into Thellungiella transcriptome and benefit the discovery of salt tolerance related genes.
Abstract (Browse 2269)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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