December 2008, Volume 50 Issue 12, Pages 1497-1601.

Cover Caption:
The Brittleness of Rice
As an important agronomic trait, brittleness of the strew in rice affects not only the grain production but also its sefulness as animal feed. The brittleness culm mutant of rice was obtained from 60Co-radiated rice population. The mutation affected the anatomical structure of the vascular bundles and chemical composition of the cell walls, but not the photosynthetic dynamics and apoplastic transport. See pages 1508¨C1517 for details (Cover design: Ying Wang).


Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1497-1498
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00796.x
Abstract (Browse 1002)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Cell and Developmental Biology
Location of Caspase 3-like Protease in the Development of Sieve Element and Tracheary Element of Stem in Cucurbita moschata
Author: Xia Hao, Jie Qian, Shan Xu, Xin Song and Jian Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1499-1507
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00719.x
    The casepase is considered to regulate the process of programmed cell death in the development of organisms. In this study, caspase 3-like protease was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy during the development of sieve element and tracheary element of stem in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Antibody with brown color (under light microscopy) and gold particles (under transmission electron microscopy) for detecting caspase 3-like protease was mainly displayed in inner phloem, external phloem and xylem in the region close to procambium. From the results it was considered that caspase 3-like protease did exist in vascular elements and played different roles during the development of sieve and tracheary elements, and different types of programmed cell death might be carried out. The caspase 3-like protease mainly participated in making cytoplasmic streaming cease and in degrading P-protein bodies; however, it rarely participated in the function for signal transferring in the developmental sieve element. However, it might induce calcium accumulation for rupturing the tonoplast in the signal of PCD in the developmental tracheary element.
Abstract (Browse 1084)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Anatomical and Chemical Alterations but not Photosynthetic Dynamics and Apoplastic Transport Changes are Involved in the Brittleness Culm Mutation of Rice  
Author: Zhuang-Qin Duan, Jun-Min Wang, Lei Bai, Zhi-Guang Zhao and Kun-Ming Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1508-1517
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00718.x
    Brittleness culm is an important agronomic trait that has a potential usefulness in agricultural activity as animal forage although the developmental mechanism is not clear yet. In the present study, the anatomical and chemical characteristics as well as some ecophysiological features in the brittleness culm mutation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Compared with the wild type (WT), the brittleness culm mutant (bcm) exhibited higher culm vascular bundle distance and lower culm wall thickness, leaf interveinal distance and leaf thickness. Ratio of bundle sheath cell/whole bundle and areas of whole vascular bundles and bundle sheath of leaves were reduced while ratios of xylem and phloem to whole bundles were elevated in bcm. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy analysis and further histochemical and physiological measurements revealed that the different contents and depositions of cell wall components such as pectins, lignin, suberin and cellulose all participated in the mutation of brittleness. However, the mutant presented no significant changes in leaf photosynthetic dynamics and apoplastic transport ability. These results strongly indicate that the alterations in anatomical and chemical characteristics, rather than changes in major ecophysiological features such as photosynthesis and apoplastic transport were involved in the brittleness mutation of rice.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Wheat Seed Germination and Alleviates the Oxidative Damage against Copper Stress
Author: Hua Zhang, Lan-Ying Hu, Kang-Di Hu, Yun-Dong He, Song-Hua Wang and Jian-Ping Luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1518-1529
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00769.x
    With the enhancement of copper (Cu) stress, the germination percentage of wheat seeds decreased gradually. Pretreatment with NaHS, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cu stress in a dose dependent manner; while little visible symptom was observed in germinating seeds and radicle tips cultured in NaHS solutions. It was verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS attribute to the potential role in promoting seed germination against Cu stress. Further studies showed that NaHS could promote amylase and esterase activities, reduce Cu-induced disturbance of plasma membrane integrity in the radicle tips, and sustain lower levels of MDA and H2O2 in germinating seeds. Furthermore, NaHS pretreatment increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and decreased that of lipoxygenase (LOX), but showed no significant effect on ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Alternatively, NaHS prevented the uptake of Cu and promoted the accumulation of free amino acids in seeds exposure to Cu. In addition, a rapid accumulation of endogenous H2S in seeds was observed at the early stage of germination, and higher level of H2S in NaHS-pretreated seeds. These data indicated that H2S was involved in the mechanism of germinating seeds¡¯responses to Cr stress.
Abstract (Browse 2346)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
AtMGT7: An Arabidopsis Gene Encoding a Low-Affinity Magnesium Transporter  
Author: Dan-Dan Mao, Lian-Fu Tian,Le-Gong Li, Jian Chen, Pei-Yi Deng, Sheng Luan and Dong-Ping Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1530-1538
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00770.x
    Magnesium (Mg2+) is one of the essential cations in all cells. Although the Mg2+ transport mechanism has been well-documented in bacteria, less is known about Mg2+ transporters in eukaryotes. The AtMGT gene family encoding putative magnesium transport proteins had been described previously. We report here that one of the Arabidopsis MGT family members, the AtMGT7 gene, encodes two mRNAs that have resulted from alternative splicing variants, designated AtMGT7a and AtMGT7b. Interestingly, the two mRNA variants were expressed with different patterns with AtMGT7a expressing in all organs, but AtMGT7b appearing only in root and flowers. The AtMGT7a variant functionally complemented a bacterial mutant lacking Mg2+ transport capacity, whereas AtMGT7b did not. The 63Ni2+ tracer uptake analysis in the bacterial model showed that AtMGT7a mediated low-affinity transport of Mg2+. Consistent with the complementation assay result, 63Ni2+ tracer uptake analysis revealed that AtMGT7b did not transport Mg2+. This study therefore has identified from a higher plant the first low-affinity Mg2+ transporter encoded by a gene with alternatively spliced transcripts that produce proteins with distinct functions.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Carbon Monoxide-induced Stomatal Closure Involves Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Vicia faba Guard Cells
Author: Xiao-Ping She and Xi-Gui Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1539-1548
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00716.x
    Here the regulatory role of CO during stomatal movement in Vicia faba L. was surveyed. Results indicated that, like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), CO donor Hematin induced stomatal closure in dose- and time-dependent manners. These responses were also proven by the addition of gaseous CO aqueous solution with different concentrations, showing the first time that CO and H2O2 exhibit the similar regulation role in the stomatal movement. Moreover, our data showed that ascorbic acid (ASA, an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase) not only reversed stomatal closure by CO, but also suppressed the H2O2 fluorescence induced by CO, implying that CO induced-stomatal closure probably involves H2O2 signal. Additionally, the CO/NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) and CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX, ASA and DPI reversed the darkness-induced stomatal closure and H2O2 fluorescence. These results show that, perhaps like H2O2, the levels of CO in guard cells of V. faba are higher in the dark than in light, HO-1 and NADPH oxidase are the enzyme systems responsible for generating endogenous CO and H2O2 in darkness respectively, and that CO is involved in darkness-induced H2O2 synthesis in V. faba guard cells.
Abstract (Browse 1275)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Possible Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Enzymes in Desiccation Sensitivity of Antiaris toxicaria Seeds and Axes
Author: Hongyan Cheng and Song-Quan Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1549-1556
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00723
    The relationships among desiccation sensitivities of Antiaris toxicaria seeds and axes, changes in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and dehydroascorbate reductase, (DHAR), production rate of superoxide radical (¡¤O2−), and the contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid(TBA)-reactive substance were studied. Desiccation tolerance of seeds and axes decreased with dehydration. Desiccation tolerance of axes was higher than that of seeds, and that of epicotyls was higher than radicles. Activities of SOD, CAT and DHAR of seeds increased during the initial phase of dehydration, and then decreased with further dehydration, whereas activities of APX and GR decreased with dehydration. These five enzyme activities of axes, however, increased during the initial phase of dehydration, and then decreased with further dehydration. The rate of superoxide radical production, and the contents of H2O2 and TBA-reactive products of seeds and axes gradually increased with dehydration. These results show that the A. toxicaria seed is a typical recalcitrant seed. Loss of desiccation tolerance in seeds and axes was correlated with the increase in ¡¤O2− production rate, content of H2O2 and TBA-reactive products, and the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and axes.
Abstract (Browse 1158)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Iron Deficiency-induced Increase of Root Branching Contributes to the Enhanced Root Ferric Chelate Reductase Activity
Author: Chong-Wei Jin, Wei-Wei Chen, Zhi-Bin Meng and Shao-Jian Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1557-1562
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00654.x
    In various plant species, Fe deficiency increases lateral root branching. However, whether this morphological alteration contributes to the Fe deficiency-induced physiological responses still remains to be demonstrated. In the present research, we demonstrated that the lateral root development of red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was significantly enhanced by Fe deficient treatment, and the total lateral root number correlated well with the Fe deficiency-induced ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity. By analyzing the results from Dasgan et al. (2002), we also found that although the two tomato genotypes line227/1 (P1) and Roza (P2) and their reciprocal F1 hybrid lines (¡°P1¡ÁP2¡± and ¡°P2¡ÁP1¡±) were cultured under two different lower Fe conditions (10−6 and 10−7 MFeEDDHA), their FCR activities are significantly correlated with the lateral root number. More interestingly, the -Fe chlorosis tolerant ability of these four tomato lines displays similar trends with the lateral root density. Taking these results together, it was proposed that the Fe deficiency-induced increases of the lateral root should play an important role in resistance to Fe deficiency, which may act as harnesses of a useful trait for the selection and breeding of more Fe-efficient crops among the genotypes that have evolved a Fe deficiency-induced Fe uptake system.
Abstract (Browse 1815)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Simple Traits among Diaspore Weight/Number, Plant Height and Ability of Vegetative Propagation
Author: Božena Ser¨¢
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1563-1569
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00731.x
    Several expected correlations among followed internal plant traits were confirmed using the dataset of 492 herbaceous species from the temporal zone of Central Europe. Average diaspore weight (seed mass), reproductive capacity of population (number of produced diaspores), species height, and ability of lateral spread were the plant traits considered. The evident correlations were confirmed among all investigated traits: (i) The reproductive capacity of population negatively correlated with diaspore weight, plant height, and vegetative propagation. The diaspore weight and their number are closely correlated and co-adapted. (ii) Bigger plant species produce bigger diaspores. These trends are obvious at the inter- and intra-family levels. (iii) Larger plant species showed higher ability to vegetative propagation.
Abstract (Browse 1041)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Intensity and Importance of Competition for a Grass (Festuca rubra) and a Legume (Trifolium pratense) Vary with Environmental Changes
Author: Junyan Zhang, Genwei Cheng, Feihai Yu, Norbert Krauchi and Mai-He Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1570-1579
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00699.x
    How plant competition varies across environmental gradients has been a long debate among ecologists. We conducted a growth chamber experiment to determine the intensity and importance of competition for plants grown in changed environmental conditions. Festuca rubra and Trifolium pratense were grown in monoculture and in two- and/or threespecies mixtures under three environmental treatments. The measured competitive variations in terms of growth (height and biomass) were species-dependent. Competition intensity for Festuca increased with decreased productivity, whilst competition importance displayed a humpback response. However, significant response was detected in neither competition intensity nor importance for Trifolium. Intensity and importance of competition followed different response patterns, suggesting that they may not be correlated along an environmental gradient. The biological and physiological variables of plants play an important role to determine the interspecific competition associated with competition intensity and importance. However, the competitive feature can be modified by multiple environmental changes which may increase or hinder how competitive a plant is.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Assessing the Response of Seasonal Variation of Net Primary Productivity to Climate Using Remote Sensing Data and Geographic Information System Techniques in Xinjiang
Author: Liang-Dai Peng, Feng-Jing Huang, Xia-Cheng Cai, Rui Deng and Feng-Jun Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1580-1588
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00696.x
    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of energy and matter transformation in the terrestrial ecosystem, and the responses of NPP to global change locally and regionally have been one of the most important aspects in climatevegetation relationship studies. In order to isolate causal climatic factors, it is very important to assess the response of seasonal variation of NPP to climate. In this paper, NPP in Xinjiang was estimated by NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The impact of climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation and sunshine percentage) on seasonal variations of NPP was studied by time lag and serial correlation ageing analysis. The results showed that the NPP for different land cover types have a similar correlation with any one of the three climatic factors, and precipitation is the major climatic factor influencing the seasonal variation of NPP in Xinjiang. It was found that the positive correlation at 0 lag appeared between NPP and precipitation and the serial correlation ageing was 0 d in most areas of Xinjiang, which indicated that the response of NPP to precipitation was immediate. However, NPP of different land cover types showed significant positive correlation at 2month lag with air temperature, and the impact of which could persist 1month as a whole. No correlation was found between NPP and sunshine percentage.
Abstract (Browse 1780)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen on the Performance of Aerobic Rice in Northern China
Author: Changying Xue, Xiaoguang Yang, B.A.M Bouman, Wei Deng, Qiuping Zhang, Jie Yang, Wiexiong Yan, Tianyi Zhang, Aji Rouzi, Huaqi Wang and Pu Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1589-1600
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00771.x

Aerobic rice is a new production system in which specially-developed varieties are grown under nonflooded, nonpuddled, and nonsaturated soil conditions. Insight is needed into water and fertilizer N response and water by N interaction to develop appropriate management recommendations. In 2003-2004, irrigation x N experiments were done near Beijing using variety HD297. Water treatments included four irrigation levels, and N treatments included different fertilizer N application rates and different number of N splits. The highest yields were 4.5 t ha-1 with 688 mm of total (rain plus irrigation) water input in 2003 and 6.0 t ha-1 with 705 mm of water input in 2004. Because of quite even distribution of rainfall in both years, the four irrigation treatments did not result in large differences of soil water conditions. There were few significant effects of irrigation on biomass accumulation, but yield increased with total amount of water applied. High yields coincided with high harvest index and high percentage of grain filling. The application of fertilizer N either reduced biomass and yield or kept it at the same level as 0 N and consistently reduced percentage grain filling and 1000-grain weight. There were no or inconsistent interactions between water and N. With the highest water application, five splits of N gave higher yield than three splits, whereas three splits gave higher yield than five splits with lower water applications. High yields with 0 N were probably caused by frequent overfertilization in the past, leading to high levels of indigenous soil N supply. A longer-term (over three years) experiment may be needed to quantify the N response of aerobic rice and how much N fertilizer can be saved in N-saturated soils.

Abstract (Browse 2177)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(12): 1601-1601
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00789.x
Abstract (Browse 1001)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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