February 2008, Volume 50 Issue 2, Pages 129-252.


Cover Caption:
How Chinas tallest tree cope with height? Through analyzing the leaf morphological and anatomical structures as well as 13C at different heights of Wangtian tree (Parashorea chinensis), the tallest broadleaved tree known in China, He et al. shows in this issue that the leaf structures and 13C differ significantly along the vertical gradient and the top-crown leaves exhibit xeromorphic characteristics. These observations indicate that top-crown leaves endure a relatively high water deficiency stress, providing strong evidence to support the hydraulic limitation hypothesis. See pages 168C173 for more details.

 

          Bioenergy Plants
Lead Induced Changes in the Growth and Antioxidant Metabolism of the Lead Accumulating and Non-accumulating Ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance
Author: Dan Liu, Ting-Qiang Li, Xiao-Fen Jin, Xiao-E Yang, Ejazul Islam and Qaisar Mahmood
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 129-140
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00608.x
      
    The phytotoxicity and antioxidative adaptations of Pb accumulating ecotype (AE) and non-accumulating ecotype (NAE) of Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated under different Pb treatments involving 0, 0.02 mmol/L Pb, 0.1 mmol/L Pb and 0.1 mmol/L Pb/0.1 mmol/L EDTA for 6 days. With the increasing Pb level, the Pb concentration in the shoots of AE plants enhanced accordingly, and EDTA supply helped 51% Pb translocation to shoots of AE compared with those treated with 0.1 mmol/L Pb alone. Moreover, the presence of EDTA alleviated Pb phytotoxicity through changes in plant biomass, root morphology and chlorophyll contents. Lead toxicity induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation in both ecotypes of S. alfredii. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD,), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) elevated in both leaves and roots of AE as well as in leaves of NAE with the increasing Pb levels, but SOD and G-POD declined in roots of NAE. Enhancement in glutathione reductase (GR) activity was only detected in roots of NAE while a depression in catalase (CAT) activity was recorded in leaves of NAE. A significant enhancement in GSH and AsA levels occurred in both ecotypes exposed to Pb and Pb/EDTA treatment compared with CK, however, the difference between this two treatments were insignificant. The dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents in roots of both ecotypes were 1.41 to 11.22-folds higher than those in leaves, whereas the ratios of AsA to DHA (1.38 to 6.84) in leaves altering more to the reduced AsA form were much higher than those in roots. These results suggested that antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants played an important role in counteracting Pb stress in S. alfredii.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Reproductive Allocation Patterns in different density populations of Spring Wheat
Author: Jing Liu, Gen-Xuan Wang, Liang Wei and Chun-Ming Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 141-146
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00602.x
      
    The effects of increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2 = 0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners in competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.
Abstract (Browse 1544)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pathways and Determinants of Early Spontaneous Vegetation Succession in Degraded Lowland of South China
Author: Wen-Jun Duan, Hai Ren, Sheng-Lei Fu, Qin-Feng Guo and Jun Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 147-156
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00603.x
      
    Continuous and prolonged human disturbances have caused severe degradation of a large portion of lowland in South China and how to restore such degraded ecosystems becomes an increasing concern. The process and mechanisms of the spontaneous succession, which plays an important role in vegetation restoration, have not been adequately examined. To identify the pathways of early spontaneous vegetation succession, 41 plots representing plant communities abandoned over different times were established and investigated. The communities and indicator species of the vegetation were classified by analyzing the important values of plant species using multivariate analyses. The results indicated that the plant species could be classified into 9 plant communities representing 6 succession stages. The pathway and species composition also changed in the process of succession. We also measured 13 environmental variables of microtopography, soil structure and soil nutrition in each plot to examine the driving forces of succession and the vegetation-environment relationships. Our results showed that the environmental variables changed in diverse directions, and the soil bulk density, soil water capacity and soil acidity were considered to be the most important factors.
Abstract (Browse 1534)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Excessive Copper Induces the Production of ROS, which is Mediated by Phospholipase D, NADPH Oxidase and Antioxidant Systems  
Author: Zhong-Lian Yu, Jin-Guang Zhang, Xue-Chen Wang and Jia Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 157-167
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00609.x
      
    Tobacco BY-2 suspension cells were used to study the chemical damage and its associated mechanisms caused by Cu2+. Treatment with 100 mol/L Cu2+ generated a large amount of H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in cells. Using phospholipase D (PLD) specific inhibitor (1-butanol) or phosphatidic acid (PA), we demonstrated that PLD plays an important role in the generation of H2O2 and TBARS. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme activity assays with wild type and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-overexpressing BY-2 cells revealed that PLD and PA are the key factors leading to NADPH oxidase activation, which is responsible for H2O2 and TBARS production induced by Cu2+. Moreover, the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), an effective antioxidant, was sharply reduced in BY-2 cells exposed to excessive Cu2+. Furthermore, a significant downregulation of the enzymes of AsA biosynthesis and the antioxidant system was found. This evidence suggests that excessive Cu2+-elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is caused by upregulated PLD that elevates the activity of NADPH oxidase and its collapsed antioxidant systems that scavenges ROS.
Abstract (Browse 2493)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Changes of Leaf Morphological, Anatomical Structure and Carbon Isotope Ratio with the Height of the Wangtian Tree (Parashorea chinensis) in Xishuangbanna, China
Author: Chun-Xia He, Ji-Yue Li, Ping Zhou, Ming Guo and Quan-Shui Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 168-173
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00620.x
      
    Leaf morphological and anatomical structure and carbon isotope ratio (13C) change with increasing tree height. To determine how tree height affects leaf characteristics, we measured the leaf area, specific leaf mass (ratio of leaf mass to leaf area [LMA]), thickness of the total leaf, cuticle, epidermis, palisade and sponge mesophyll, stomata traits and 13C at different heights of Parashorea chinensis with methods of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The correlation and stepwise regression between tree height and leaf structure traits were carried out with SPSS software. The results showed that leaf structures and 13C differed significantly along the tree height gradient. The leaf area, thickness of sponge mesophyll and size of stomata decreased with increasing height, whereas the thickness of lamina, palisade mesophyll, epidermis, and cuticle, ratios of palisade to spongy thickness, density of stomata and vascular bundles, LMA and 13C increased with tree height. Tree height showed a significant relationship with all leaf indices and the most significant relationship was with epidermis thickness, leaf area, cuticle thickness, 13C. The 13C value showed a significantly positive relationship with LMA (R = 0.934). Our results supported the hypothesis that the leaf structures exhibited more xeromorphic characteristics with the increasing gradient of tree height.
Abstract (Browse 1042)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Genes in Cotton
Author: Hong-Mei Wang, Zhong-Xu Lin, Xian-Long Zhang, Wei Chen, Xiao-Ping Guo, Yi-Chun Nie and Yun-Hai Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 174-182
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00612.x
      
    Verticillium wilt is one of the most serious constraints to cotton production in almost all of the cotton-growing countries. In this study, "XinLuZao1" (XLZ1), a susceptible cultivar Gossypium hirsutum L. and "Hai7124" (H7124), a resistant line G. barbadense, and their F2:3 families were used to map and study the disease index induced by verticillium wilt. A total of 430 SSR loci were mapped into 41 linkage groups; the map spanned 3 745.9 cM and the average distance between adjacent loci was 8.71 cM. Four and five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the disease index investigated on July 22 and August 24 in 2004, respectively. These nine QTLs explained 10.63−28.83% of the phenotypic variance, six of them were located on the D sub-genome. Two QTLs located in the same marker intervals may partly explain the significant correlation of the two traits. QTLs explaining large phenotypic variation were identified in this study, which may be quite useful in cotton anti-disease breeding.
Abstract (Browse 1091)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Characters of DNA Constitution in the Rye B Chromosome
Author: Hong Long, Zhong-Xia Qi, Xiao-Ming Sun, Cheng-Bin Chen, Xiu-Lan Li, Wen-Qin Song and Rui-Yang Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 183-189
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00588.x
      
    We have used chromosome microdissection and microcloning to construct a DNA library of the entire B chromosome (B) of rye. New rye B-specific sequences have been screened from this pool, blasted with other sequences and analyzed to elucidate the characters of DNA constitution and the possible pathway of the origin of the rye B chromosome. We report the discovery of a new sequence that is specific to the rye B centromere.
Abstract (Browse 942)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population
Author: Su Young Woo, Jong-Hwan Lim and Don Koo Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 190-193
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00587.x
      
    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing in Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33 13C36' N and 126 12C57' E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1 950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15 C, 20 C and 25 C. The irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.
Abstract (Browse 1200)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Relationships between Phosphatidylglycerol Molecular Species of Thylakoid Membrane Lipids and Sensitivities to Chilling-induced Photoinhibition in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Su-Qin Zhu, Hua Zhao, Jian-Sheng Liang, Ben-Hua Ji and De-Mao Jiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 194-202
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00610.x
      
    In an attempt to explore the relationships between phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecular species of thylakoid membrane lipids and sensitivities to chilling-induced photoinhibition, PG molecular species, D1 protein, electron transport activities of thylakoid membrane and the potential quantum yield (Fv/Fm) in rice treated under middle and low PFD at 11 were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), enzyme hydrolysis, gas phase chromatography (GC) and so on. Results showed that the major molecular species of PGs in rice thylakoid membrane were 18:3/16:0, 18:3/16:1(3t), 18:2/16:0, 18:2/16:1(3t), 18:1/16:0, 18:1/16:1(3t), 16:0/16:0, 16:0/16:1(3t). There were large differences in contents of unsaturated PG molecular species such as 18:1~3/16:0~16:1(3t) and saturated PG molecular species like 16:0/16:0~16:1(3t) among japonica cv 9516 (j-9516), japonica-indica hybrid F1 j-9516/i-SY63 (ji-95SY) and indica cv Shanyou 63 (i-SY63). J-9516 containing higher contents of unsaturated PG molecular species was manifest in stable D1 protein contents under chill and tolerant to chill-induced photoinhibition. In contrast to j-9516, i-SY63 with lower contents of unsaturated PG molecular species, exhibited unstable D1 protein contents under chill and was sensitive to chill-induced photoinhibition. ji-95SY containing middle contents of unsaturated PG molecular species between those of j-9516 and i-SY63, exhibited mid extent of sensitivity to chill-induced photoinhibition. The loss in D1 protein has been also accounted for the inhibition in electron transport activity of thylakoid membrane and the observed decline in Fv/Fm. The PG molecular species efficient in raising chilling-resistant capacity were those containing unsaturated fatty acids, namely, unsaturated PG molecular species. These results implied that the substrate selectivity of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) in chloroplasts towards 16:0 or 18:1 and the activity of fatty acid desaturases displayed greatly difference between japonica and indica rice. It was possible to enhance the capacity of resistance to chilling-induced photoinhibition by improving or modifying GPAT gene.
Abstract (Browse 1116)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Influences of Cross Pollination on Pollen Tube Growth and Fruit Set in Zuili Plums (Prunus salicina)
Author: Hui-Juan Jia, Feng-Jie He, Cai-Zhen Xiong, Fu-Rong Zhu and Goro Okamoto
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 203-209
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00382.x
      
    Zuili plum trees usually set fruit poorly, although they produce high quality fruit. To elucidate the causes of the poor fruit set, pollen tube growth into pistils and fruit set percentage were investigated after cross-, self- and open-pollination. Ovule development in Zuili pistils was also investigated. Pollen tube penetration into the ovules via the obturator and micropyle was best when Zuili pistils were pollinated by cv. Black Amber (P. domestica L.) pollen grains, although cross-pollinations with Hongxinli and Miili (P. salicina, L.) pollen were more effective than self- and open-pollination. The fruit set percentage was also highest in pistils pollinated with Black Amber pollen grains. Morphological observation of Zuili pistils revealed that the trees produce double pistils, developing two ovaries from a basal pistil, at a rate as high as 28%. In such abnormal pistils, most ovules were lacking an embryo sac or were entirely degenerated. The percentage of normally developed ovules was 24.3% and 8.9% in normal and double pistils, respectively. From these results, we conclude that the main causes of poor fruit set of Zuili plums are a lack of effective cross-pollination and the production of high percentages of double pistils in which normally developed ovules are scarcely formed.
Abstract (Browse 1675)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Seasonal Variation and Correlation with Environmental Factors of Photosynthesis and Water Use Efficiency of Juglans regia and Ziziphus jujuba
Author: Hai-Bo Yang, Shu-Qing An, Osbert-Jianxin Sun, Zuo-Min Shi, Xin-Song She, Qing-Ye Sun and Shi-Rong Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 210-220
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00391.x
      
    Both the photosynthetic light curves and CO2 curves of Juglans regia L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa in three seasons were measured using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system. The maximal net photosynthetic rate (Amax), apparent quantum efficiency(), maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and water use efficiency (WUE) of the two species were calculated based on the curves. The results showed that Amax of J. regia reached its maximum at the late-season, while the highest values of Amax of Z. jujuba occurred at the mid-season. The Amax of J. regia was more affected by relative humidity (RH) of the atmosphere, while that of Z. jujuba was more affected by the air temperature. Light saturation point (LSP) and Light compensation point (LCP) of J. regia had a higher correlation with RH of the atmosphere, those of Z. jujuba, however, had a higher correlation with air temperature. Vcmax of both J. regia and Z. jujuba had negative correlation with RH of the atmosphere. WUE of J. regia would decrease with the rise of the air temperature while that of Z. jujuba increased. Thus it could be seen that RH, temperature and soil moisture had main effect on photosynthesis and WUE of J. regia and Z. jujuba. Incorporating data on the physiological differences among tree species into forest carbon models will greatly improve our ability to predict alterations to the forest carbon budgets under various environmental scenarios such as global climate change, or with differing species composition.
Abstract (Browse 1531)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
Role of Soybean GmbZIP132 under Abscisic Acid and Salt Stresses
Author: Yong Liao, Jin-Song Zhang, Shou-Yi Chen and Wan-Ke Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 221-230
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00593.x
      
    Plant basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in many biological processes. In the present study, a bZIP gene, GmbZIP132, was cloned from soybean and its biological function under abiotic stresses was studied. The transcription of GmbZIP132 was induced by drought and high salt treatments. Among all of the organs analyzed, its expression was the highest in cotytledon and stems. GmbZIP132 could weakly bind to the GCN4-like motif (GLM) (5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') in yeast one-hybrid assay. Compared with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GmbZIP132 showed reduced abscisic acid sensitivity and increased water loss rate. At the stage of germination, transgenic plants were more tolerant to salt treatment than wild-type plants. The expression of some abiotic stress-related genes, such as rd29B, DREB2A, and P5CS, were upregulated in the transgenic plants. These results indicated that GmbZIP132 was an abiotic stress-related gene, and its overexpression could increase the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants during germination, yet no significant difference of tolerance to abiotic stresses was found between transgenic and wild type plants at the seedling stage.
Abstract (Browse 1781)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Nitric Oxide Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation Involved in Water Stress-Induced Subcellular Antioxidant Defense in Maize Plants  
Author: Jianrong Sang, Mingyi Jiang, Fan Lin, Shucheng Xu, Aying Zhang and Mingpu Tan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 231-243
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00594.x
      
    Nitric oxide is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as prooxidant as well as antioxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation and subcellular activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress induced increases in the generation of NO in maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced increases in the production of NO were blocked by the pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were reduced by the pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular antioxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water stress-induced NO production and NOS is the major source NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of subcellular antioxidant defense.
Abstract (Browse 4039)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Evolution
Pollen Morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a Group Endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains Region
Author: Wen-Bin Yu and Hong Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(2): 244-252
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00364.x
      
    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a grex or section and included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species in sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolate exine ornamentation was found in trisyncolpate pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.
Abstract (Browse 1007)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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