May 2008, Volume 50 Issue 5, Pages 513-638.


Cover Caption:
Flexible Reproduction of Coastal Seaweed Green tide, caused by mass propagation of smelly seaweeds such as Enteromorpha prolifera, is really an environmental problem at the beach. In this issue, Lin et al. investigated the reproduction strategy of E. prolifera, and discovered that this seaweed can propagate itself sexually, asexually and vegetatively. The flexible reproduction may have contributed to the invasion of the seaweed at the beach. See pages 622每629 for details.

 

          Bioenergy Plants
Seed Dynamics in Relation to Gaps in a Tropical Montane Rainforest of Hainan Island, South China: (II) Seed Bank
Author: Run-Guo Zang, Yi Ding and Wei-Yin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 513-521
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00662.x
      
    Spatial and temporal patterns of seed bank dynamics in relation to gaps in an old growth tropical montane rainforest of Hainan Island, South China, were studied over two consecutive years. From June 2001 to June 2003, soil seed bank sampling blocks were taken near each of the four sides of each seed trap and immediately put into a nursery for observation of seedling emergence dynamics in four seasons (each experiment in each season). The abundances of seedlings that emerged from seed banks showed the trend of vine functional group (VFG) > shrub functional group (SFG) > tree functional group (TFG) > herb functional group (HFG), but the trend in species richness of seedlings that emerged from the soil seed banks was TFG > VFG > SFG > HFG. The abundances of seedlings that emerged from seed banks in the three gap zones showed no significant differences, but significant differences did exist for the species richness. The time of sampling or seasons of experiments had significant influences on both the species richness and seedling abundances. The seedling emergence processes of each experiment all revealed the unimodal patterns. Few emergences occurred 1 year after each experiment. Compared with those under closed canopies, the recruitment rates from seed to seedlings and from seedlings to saplings in gaps were higher, but the mortality rates from saplings to big trees were also higher in the gaps.
Abstract (Browse 1435)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Invasion Possibility and Potential Effects of Rhus typhina on Beijing Municipality
Author: Guangmei Wang, Gaoming Jiang, Shunli Yu, Yinghao Li and Hui Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 522-530
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00660.x
      
    Rhus typhina, an alien species introduced from North America, was identified as a main afforestation species in Beijing municipality. However, its invasiveness is still at odds. To clarify this problem, we applied the North American Screening System and the Australian Screening System to preliminarily predict its invasion possibility. Both screening systems gave the same recommendation to "reject". The geographical distribution was surveyed, with the population features of R. typhina against the native plant communities being assessed. With anthropogenic assistance, R. typhina has been scattered on almost all habitats from downtown to mountains, including roadsides, farmlands and protected areas. As a clonal shrub, R. typhina possessed a high spreading rate, varying from 6.3 m/3 years at sterile habitats to 6.7 m/3 years at fertile ones. Significantly lower species richness, individual density and diversity were observed in the R. typhina community than those of the native Vitex negundo Linn.var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. community at both sterile and fertile habitats. Continual wide plantation of R. typhina may further foster its population expansion, which helps the species to overcome spatial isolation. The fact that each root fragment can develop into a new individual makes R. typhina very difficult to be eradicated once established. From a biological point of view, we believe that R. typhina is a plant invader in Beijing. We therefore suggest the government should remove the name of R. typhina from the main tree species list in afforesting Beijing.
Abstract (Browse 1477)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Modeling Size-number Distributions of Seeds for Use in Soil Bank Studies
Author: Hugo Casco, Alexandra Soveral Dias and Lu赤s Silva Dias
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 531-535
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00659.x
      
    Knowledge of soil seed banks is essential to understand the dynamics of plant populations and communities and would greatly benefit from the integration of existing knowledge on ecological correlations of seed size and shape. The present study aims to establish a feasible and meaningful method to describe size-number distributions of seeds in multi-species situations. For that purpose, size-number distributions of seeds with known length, width and thickness were determined by sequential sieving. The most appropriate combination of sieves and seeds dimensions was established, and the adequacy of the power function and the Weibull model to describe size-number distributions of spherical, non-spherical, and all seeds was investigated. We found that the geometric mean of seed length, width and thickness was the most adequate size estimator, providing shape-independent measures of seeds volume directly related to sieves mesh side, and that both the power function and the Weibull model provide high quality descriptions of size-number distributions of spherical, non-spherical, and all seeds. We also found that, in spite of its slightly lower accuracy, the power function is, at this stage, a more trustworthy model to characterize size-number distributions of seeds in soil banks because in some Weibull equations the estimates of the scale parameter were not acceptable.
Abstract (Browse 1350)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Age Structure and Growth of Degraded Populus euphratica Floodplain Forests in NW China and Perspectives for Their Recovery
Author: Janneke Westermann, Stefan Zerbe and Dieter Eckstein
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 536-546
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00626.x
      
    The Populus euphratica floodplain forests along the lower reaches of the Tarim river in continental-arid Xinjiang (NW China) have been declining in recent decades as a result of dam constructions and the withdrawal of water from the river. Since 2000, controlled flooding is carried out to counteract this process of degradation. However, the consequences of a changing water regime for the floodplain ecosystem are not yet sufficiently investigated. In 2004, we sampled a total of 150 P. euphratica trees along two transects at the middle and lower reaches of Tarim river to compare the age structure and growth of these two tree populations. The anthropogenic drawdown of the groundwater table had no effect on the average growth of the trees at the lower reaches. However, tree growth abruptly increased after controlled flooding, thus showing distinct signs of recovery.
Abstract (Browse 1638)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Spatiotemporal Patterns and Dynamics of Species Richness and Abundance of Woody Plant Functional Groups in a Tropical Forest Landscape of Hainan Island, South China
Author: Zhi-Dong Zhang, Run-Guo Zang and Yao-Dong Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 547-558
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00663.x
      
    Tropical forests are among the most species-diverse ecosystems on Earth. Their structures and ecological functions are complex to understand. Functional group is defined as a group of species that play similar roles in an ecosystem. The functional group approach has been regarded as an effective way of linking the compositions of complex ecosystems with their ecological functions. To understand the variation of functional groups in species-rich ecosystems after disturbance, the present study investigated the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of woody plants in a typically fragmented natural forest landscape of Hainan Island in South China. The study area was classified into eight landscape types based on vegetation type, disturbance manner and the time of recovery. The woody plant species were aggregated into seven functional groups based on the growth form, successional status and plant size. The results gained from the present study showed that all functional groups, except for the emergent and canopy tree species, were present in all eight landscape types. Each landscape type had different numbers of dominant functional groups. There are similar species richness and stem abundance structure among functional groups between mid-successional clear cut lowland rainforest and old growth tropical coniferous forest. This similarity exists in selective logged lowland rainforest and old-growth lowland rainforest, as well as among landscape types of montane rainforest. The functional groups with the same successional status had similar patterns of species richness and stem abundance ratios among different landscape types. The variation patterns of functional groups along the successional stages in terms of species richness and stem abundance among the tropical lowland rainforest landscape types were more similar to each other than those in the tropical montane rainforest landscape types. This study provides further support for the competition-colonization tradeoff and successional niche theory as opposed to models of neutrality and ecological equivalence.
Abstract (Browse 1586)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Inhibition of Ageratina adenophora on Spore Germination and Gametophyte Development of Macrothelypteris torresiana
Author: Kai-Mei Zhang, Lei Shi, Chuang-Dao Jiang and Zhen-Yu Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 559-564
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00648.x
      
    Allelopathy of Ageratina adenophora plays an important role in its invasion. However, we have little knowledge of its allelpathic effects on ferns. In Petri dish bioassays, the inhibitory potential of aqueous leachates from roots, stems and leaves of Ageratina adenophora was studied on the spore germination and gametophyte development of Macrothelypteris torresiana. All leachates inhibited the spore germination and growth of first rhizoid of M. torresiana and inhibitory effects increased with increasing leachate concentrations. Root leachates proved most inhibitory. Gametophyte rhizoids of M. torresiana treated with stem and leaf leachates of A. adenophora exhibited erect, similar with those of the control. However, gametophyte rhizoids of M. torresiana treated with root leachates of A. adenophora were erect, curving, or swollen. Moreover, curving and swollen rhizoids increased with increasing concentrations. As time went by, rhizoids treated with root leachates were not so curving and the swollen almost disappeared. Possible causes were discussed in this study. The increasing concentrations of leaf leachates also delayed the stages of gametophyte development. With the treatment of root leachates, the delay was more obvious. Thus A. adenophora inhibited the spore germination and gametophyte development of M. torresiana and the root leachates were most inhibitory.
Abstract (Browse 1620)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Species-specific Response of Photosynthesis to Burning and Nitrogen Fertilization
Author: Yanfang Zhang, Shuli Niu, Wenhua Xu and Yi Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 565-574
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00658.x
      
    The present study was conducted to examine photosynthetic characteristics of three dominant grass species (Agropyron cristatum, Leymus chinensis, and Cleistogenes squarrosa) and their responses to burning and nitrogen fertilization in a semiarid grassland in northern China. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) showed strong temporal variability over the growing season. C. squarrosa showed a significantly higher Pn and WUE than A. cristatum and L. chinensis. Burning stimulated Pn of A. cristatum and L. chinensis by 24每59% (P < 0.05) in the early growing season, but not during other time periods. Light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) in A. cristatum and the maximum apparent quantum yield (朴max) in A. cristatum and L. chinensis were significantly enhanced by burning (16每67%) in both the fertilized and unfertilized plots. The main effect of burning on Pn, Pmax and 朴max was not significant in C. squarrosa. The burning-induced changes in soil moisture could explain 51% (P = 0.01) of the burning-induced changes in Pn of the three species. All three species showed positive responses to N fertilization in terms of Pn, Pmax, and 朴max. The stimulation of Pn under N fertilization was mainly observed in the early growing season when the soil extractable N content was significantly higher in the fertilized plots. The N fertilization-induced changes in soil extractable N content could explain 66% (P = 0.001) of the changes in Pn under N fertilization. The photosynthetic responses of the three species indicate that burning and N fertilization will potentially change the community structure and ecosystem productivity in the semiarid grasslands of northern China.
Abstract (Browse 1638)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Pseudohypericin and Hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum from Northern Turkey: Variation among Populations, Plant Parts and Phenological Stages
Author: C邦neyt Çirak, Jolita Radusiene, Valdimaras Janulis and Liudas Ivanauskas
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 575-580
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00657.x
      
    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial medicinal plant known as "St. John's wort" in Western Europe and has been used in the treatment of several diseases for centuries. In the present study, morphologic, phenologic and population variability in pseudohypericin and hyperforin concentrations among H. perforatum populations from Northern Turkey was investigated for the first time. The aerial parts of H. perforatum plants representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering from 10 sites of Northern Turkey to search the regional variation in the secondary metabolite concentrations. For morphologic and phenologic sampling, plants from one site were gathered in five phenological stages: vegetative, floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting. The plant materials were air-dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography. Secondary metabolite concentrations ranged from traces to 2.94 mg/g dry weight (DW) for pseudohypericin and traces 每6.29 mg/g DW for hyperforin. The differences in the secondary metabolite concentrations among populations of H. perforatum were found to be significant. The populations varied greatly in hyperforin concentrations, whereas they produced a similar amount of pseudohypericin. Concentrations of both secondary metabolites in all tissues increased with advancing of plant development and higher accumulation levels were reached at flowering. Among different tissues, full opened flowers were found to be superior to stems, leaves and the other reproductive parts with regard to pseudohypericin and hyperforin accumulations. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested plant material and obtain increased concentrations of these secondary metabolites.
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
Determination of Anthocyanins and Exploration of Relationship between Their Composition and Petal Coloration in Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia hybrid)
Author: Jie Zhang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Jin-Ming Gao, Qing-Yan Shu, Chong-Hui Li, Juan Yao, Qing Hao and Jing-Jing Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 581-588
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00649.x
      
    Petal coloration and pigment components in 12 American crape myrtle cultivars (Lagerstroemia indica ℅ Lagerstroemia fauriei) and five Chinese crape myrtle cultivars (L. indica hybrids) were studied. Color was measured by CIEL*a*b* scale and anthocyanin composition of crape myrtle was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The presence of the previously reported delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside were confirmed. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was identified in crape myrtle for the first time. We explored the relationship between petal color and anthocyanin contents by multiple linear regression analyses. The results indicated that total flavones and flavonols were important variables and contributed to blue-enhancing in crape myrtle. Based on anthocyanins and co-pigments analysis, flower color breeding in crape myrtle towards true-red and blue were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1079)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre
Author: Xu-Min Zhu, Ping Xie, Ying-Tong Di, Shu-Lin Peng, Li-Sheng Ding and Ming-Kui Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 589-592
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00661.x
      
    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 汕-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[汕-D-glucopyranosyl (1↙6)-汕-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 汕,21 汕,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOH/H2O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.
Abstract (Browse 1018)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Expression of a High Mobility Group Protein Isolated from Cucumis sativus Affects the Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under Abiotic Stress Conditions
Author: Ji Young Jang, Kyung Jin Kwak and Hunseung Kang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 593-600
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00650.x
      
    Although high mobility group B (HMGB) proteins have been identified from a variety of plant species, their importance and functional roles in plant responses to changing environmental conditions are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the functional roles of a CsHMGB isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Under normal growth conditions or when subjected to cold stress, no differences in plant growth were found between the wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing CsHMGB. By contrast, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants displayed retarded germination compared with the wild-type plants when grown under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Germination of the transgenic plants was delayed by the addition of abscisic acid (ABA), implying that CsHMGB affects germination through an ABA-dependent way. The expression of CsHMGB had affected only the germination stage, and CsHMGB did not affect the seedling growth of the transgenic plants under the stress conditions. The transcript levels of several germination-responsive genes were modulated by the expression of CsHMGB in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that ectopic expression of a CsHMGB in Arabidopsis modulates the expression of several germination-responsive genes, and thereby affects the germination of Arabidopsis plants under different stress conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1614)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
In vitro Selection for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Gladiolus
Author: Idrees Ahmad Nasir and Sheikh Riazuddin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 601-612
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00656.x
      
    Cormels pieces of four Fusarium susceptible Gladiolus cultivars (Friendship, Peter Pears, Victor Borge and Novalux) formed friable calli when cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. The friable calli established cell suspensions. Plantlet regeneration was obtained from the control callus, control cell suspension derived callus and in vitro selected Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. resistant cell-lines of Friendship. The in vitro cormlets showed 85每95% germination after breaking dormancy of 8 weeks at 4 ∼C. Cell suspensions of all four Gladiolus cultivars were found to be highly sensitive to fusaric acid. Gradual increase in fusaric acid concentrations to the cell-suspension cultures decreased cell growth considerably. One albino plant was found from the second generation of the in vitro selected cell line of Friendship. The albino plant was found to be highly susceptible to F. oxysporum. The cormlets of all in vitro selected cell lines of Friendship were inoculated with a conidial suspension of the F. oxysporum before planting and were also sprayed with the same spore suspension for further characterization when the height of plants was about 6 cm. The four selected cell lines showed the same response whether or not they were inoculated with conidia of the F. oxysporum. Plantlets of all of the selected cell lines exhibited significant growth as compared with the control after application of conidia of the F. oxysporum.
Abstract (Browse 950)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Overexpression of Sweet Pepper Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferase Gene Enhanced Thermotolerance of Photosynthetic Apparatus in Transgenic Tobacco
Author: Kun Yan, Na Chen, Yan-Yan Qu, Xin-Chun Dong, Qing-Wei Meng and Shi-Jie Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 613-621
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00652.x
      
    In order to investigate the relationship between the lipid composition in thylakoid membrane and thermostability of photosynthetic apparatus, tobacco transformed with sweet pepper sense glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene were used to analyze the lipid composition in thylakoid membrane, the net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under high temperature stress. The results showed that the saturated extent of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol in thylakoid membrane of transgenic tobacco T1 lines increased generally. Particularly, the saturated extent in MGDG increased obviously by 16.2% and 12.0% in T1-2 and T1-1, respectively. With stress temperature elevating, the maximum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light (朴PSII) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the two lines and wild type tobacco plants decreased gradually, but those parameters decreased much less in transgenic plants. Even though the recovery process appeared differently in the donor and acceptor side of PSII in transgenic tobacco compared with wild-type plants, the entire capability of PSII recovered faster in transgenic tobacco, which was shown in the parameters of PI, Fv/Fm and 朴PSII, as a result, the recovery of Pn was accelerated. Conclusively, we proposed that the increase in saturated extent of thylakoid membrane lipids in transgenic plants enhanced the stability of photosynthetic apparatus under high temperature stress.
Abstract (Browse 1676)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Reproduction Diversity of Enteromorpha prolifera  
Author: Apeng Lin, Songdong Shen, Jianwei Wang and Binlun Yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 622-629
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00647.x
      
    Enteromorpha prolifera (Muell.) J. Agardh (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae), which is distributed widely in the inter-tidal zone of the ocean, is one of the most common fouling green algae. However, the present understandings of the life history of E. prolifera have been insufficient to explain their seasonal abundances. Thus it is essential to investigate how many reproductive strategies are likely to contribute to the successful colonization and flourishing of the green alga. In the present study the reproduction diversity of E. prolifera was observed and studied systematically by culturing chopped tissues. Our results showed that there are in total seven pathways of reproduction for E. prolifera including sexual, asexual and vegetative reproduction. It was indicated that the variety of the reproductive ways and the large quantity of reproductive cells produced and released during the reproductive season are the two key factors that facilitate colonization of E. prolifera. The reproduction of the alga E. prolifera mainly depends on asexual methods. The results presented here contribute to increasing our understanding about how the opportunistic macroalgae successfully maintain colonization and excessive growth.
Abstract (Browse 1684)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
Transcription Factor WRKY70 Displays Important but No Indispensable Roles in Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Signaling  
Author: Chun-Mei Ren, Qi Zhu, Bi-Da Gao, Shao-Ying Ke, Wan-Cong Yu, Dao-Xin Xie and Wen Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 630-637
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00653.x
      
    The transcription factor WRKY70 was previously reported to be a common component in salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) mediated signal pathways in Arabidopsis. Here, we present that the inactivation of the WRKY70 gene in wrky70-1 mutant does not alter the responses of both JA and SA, and that wrky70 mutation is unable to restore the coi1 mutant in JA responses. However, overexpression of WRKY70 reduces JA responses such as expression of JA-induced genes and JA-inhibitory root growth, and activates expression of SA-inducible PR1. These data indicate that the WRKY70 is important but not indispensable for JA and SA signaling, and that other regulators may display the redundant role with WRKY70 in modulation of JA and SA responses in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we showed that JA inhibits expression of WRKY70 and PR1 by both COI1-dependent and COI1-independent pathways.
Abstract (Browse 2062)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Retraction  
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(5): 638-638
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00678.x
      
    Miao Z. (2007). Modeling Responses of Leafy Spurge Dispersal to Control Strategies. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 49(12): 1681-1692. Upon re-analysis of the model, an error was discovered and the results published in the Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 49(12): 1681-1692 are no longer valid. As such, I retract the above article. I am sorry for any inconvenience to the JIPB journal. Zewei Miao Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing & Spatial Analysis Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551, USA E-mail: zmiao@crssa.rutgers.edu
Abstract (Browse 1471)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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