June 2008, Volume 50 Issue 6, Pages 641-767.

Cover Caption:
Stephanokont zoospore of alga, Bryopsis plumosa
Bryopsis plumosa is a dedicated seawater algae with feather-like thalli. In nature, it has alternating haploid and diploid generations. In this issue, Tatsuya Togashi and Paul Alan Cox (648−652) observed the sexual propagation of the green algae under controlled condition. The results showed that the ratio between male and female gametophytes is statistically 1:1, suggesting that no environmental factor differentially affects the survival of male and female gametophytes in nature.


          Bioenergy Plants
Phenotypic Plasticity of Life History Characteristics: Quantitative Analysis of Delayed Reproduction of Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis) in the Songnen Plain of China
Author: Hai-Yan Li and Yun-Fei Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 641-647
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00646.x
    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis L.) is a common weed species in temperate regions. Research on the effect of delayed reproduction on the phenotypic plasticity and regularity of the vegetative and reproductive growth is of vital significance for understanding population regulation and control of the weed in the growing season. Green foxtail seeds were sown every 10 days from 25 June to 24 August of 2004. The growth and production metrics were measured via harvesting tufts and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that the reproductive tillers, seed number, seed biomass and one thousand-seed weight of plants at the first sowing (25 June) approximately increased 28.8, 7 827.0, 1 104.0 and 12.3 times compared with that at the last sowing (24 August), respectively. Total tillers, reproductive tillers and height increased linearly as the reproductive period delayed, however, biomass increased exponentially. Quadratic equations best explained the relationships between the delayed reproductive period and seed number, inflorescence length, one thousand-seed weight, seed biomass. Based on the quantity and quality of seed production, weeding young seedlings emerging before July can be the most effective weed-control strategy in the Songnen Plain.
Abstract (Browse 1506)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Equal Sex Ratios of a Marine Green Alga, Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh.  
Author: Tatsuya Togashi and Paul Alan Cox
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 648-652
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00665.x
    By finding some important culture conditions as below, we succeeded in experimentally controlling the whole life history of a dioecious marine green alga, Bryopsis plumosa. In this study, we focused on the primary and secondary sex ratios (i.e. at inception and maturity) using these culture techniques. Gametogenesis was induced by culturing haploid gametophytes with PES medium under a 14:10 (Light:Dark) condition at 14˚C. Formed zygotes grew into diploid sporophytes, which were cultured for three months with PES medium under a 14:10 (L:D) condition at 18˚C. Then they were transferred into Schreiber medium and cultured under a 10:14 (L:D) condition at 22˚C. Within one week, zoosporogenesis was observed. Zoospores were released within a couple of days. Each zoospore soon germinated and grew into an unisexual gametophyte. The primary sex ratio was examined in gametophytes that originated from a single sporophyte. The secondary sex ratio was studied in the field. Both were estimated as 1:1. Synchronized meiotic cell divisions might occur during zoosporogenesis dividing each sex determining factor evenly among zoospores. Given the equal sex ratio at maturity, there seems to be no environmental factor that differentially affects survival of male or female gametophytes in nature.
Abstract (Browse 2106)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Soral Crypsis: Protective Mimicry of a Coccid on an Indian Fern
Author: Biplab Patra, Subir Bera and R. James Hickey
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 653-658
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00664.x
    Herbivory with crypsis is not well documented in ferns. The present record of cryptic coloration of coccid Saissetia filicum Boisduval (Homoptera: Coccidae) to the sori of a fern species Asplenium nidus L. (Aspleniaceae) is unique. Predatory beetles (Jauravia sp., Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) that feed on the coccids, are suggested to be selective pressure for the development of the present homopteran soral crypsis. A higher rate of effective predation is noticed in the vegetative leaves than the fertile leaves. Aggressive ants were found harvesting honeydew secretions from the coccids and defending the trophobionts as well as the host fern from their natural enemies. In addition, a possible three-way mutualistic relationship among the coccids, its host fern and the tending ant is suggested. Differential number of coccids on vegetative and fertile leaves is correlated with their phenol content and degree of predation by beetle. Such coloration mimicry by the coccids may enable them to obtain the necessary blend of sorus of the host fern needed to evade beetle detection and attack.
Abstract (Browse 1736)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Response of Polygonum viviparum Species and Community Level to Long-term Livestock Grazing in Alpine Shrub Meadow in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Author: Zhihong Zhu, Jeremy T Lundholm, Yingnian Li and Xiaoan Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 659-672
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00676.x
    Grazing by domestic herbivores is generally recognized as a major ecological factor and an important evolutionary force in grasslands. Grazing has both extensive and profound effects on individual plants and communities. We investigated the response patterns of Polygonum viviparum species and the species diversity of an alpine shrub meadow in response to long-term livestock grazing by a field manipulative experiment controlling livestock numbers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Here, we hypothesize that within a range of grazing pressure, grazing can alter relative allocation to different plant parts without changing total biomass for some plant species if there is life history trade-offs between plant traits. The same type of communities exposed to different grazing pressures may only alter relative species' abundances or species composition and not vary species diversity because plant species differ in resistant capability to herbivory. The results show that plant height and biomass of different organs differed among grazing treatments but total biomass remained constant. Biomass allocation and absolute investments to both reproduction and growth decreased and to belowground storage increased with increased grazing pressure, indicating the increasing in storage function was attained at a cost of reducing reproduction of bulbils and represented an optimal allocation and an adaptive response of the species to long-term aboveground damage. Moreover, our results showed multiform response types for either species groups or single species along the gradient of grazing intensity. Heavy grazing caused a 13.2% increase in species richness. There was difference in species composition of about 18%¨C20% among grazing treatment. Shannon-Wiener (H') diversity index and species evenness (E) index did not differ among grazing treatments. These results support our hypothesis.
Abstract (Browse 1655)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Is Mass-based Metabolism Rate Proportional to Surface Area in Plant Leaves? A Data Re-analysis
Author: Dongmei Jin, Yiqiang Dai, Li Sun and Shucun Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 673-681
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00674.x
    We re-analyzed two large published databases on leaf traits of plant species from seven different biomes, and determined the scaling relationship between leaf metabolism rate (mass-based photosynthesis capacity, Amass, and mass-based dark respiration, Rdmass) and specific leaf area (SLA) across biomes, using a standardized major axis (SMA) method. Overall pooled data produced a scaling exponent of 1.33 for the relationship between Amass and SLA, significantly larger than 1.0; and 1.04 between Rdmass and SLA. The scaling exponent of the relationship between Amass and SLA ranged between 1.23 (in tropical forest) and 1.66 (in alpine biome), and it was significantly larger in alpine (1.66) and grass/meadow (1.52) biomes than in tropical forest (1.23) and wetland (1.27). The exponent of the relationship between Rdmass and SLA, however, was much smaller in wetland (1.05) than in temperate forest (1.29) and tropical rainforest (1.65). In general, the predicated universal scaling relationship that the mass-based metabolism rate should be proportional to surface area in organisms is not applicable at the leaf-level in plants. Rather, the large slope difference of the relationship between leaf metabolism rate and SLA found among biomes indicates that the strength of the selective forces driving the scaling relationship is different among the biomes. The result basically suggests the importance of increasing SLA to plant carbon gain in stressful environments and to carbon loss in favorable habitats, and therefore has an important implication for survival strategies of plants in different biomes.
Abstract (Browse 1498)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Stress & Phytochemistry
A Confocal Technique Applicable to Studies of Cellular pH-related Signaling in Plants
Author: Bing-Bing Li, Zhi-Hui Gao, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Hui-Bo Ren, Min Xie, Yi-Juan Fan, Jian-Fang Hu and Wen-Suo Jia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 682-690
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00667.x
    pH may act as a crucial signal in both animal and plant cells. It is very difficult to monitor pH signals and this has largely hindered progress in the investigation of pH signaling, particularly systematic pH signaling. Here, we report the development of a confocal technique to monitor leaf apoplastic pH in intact plants, which is particularly suitable for the studies on root to shoot signaling. A variety of different pH indicators and plant species were tested. It was found that different pH indicators, for example, 2',7'-Bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluoresce (BCECF), SNARF-4F 5-(and-6)-carboxylic acid (SNARF) and DM-NERF (NERF), were of different properties, and to successfully monitor pH at a sub-cellular level, the comparability between the pH indicator and plant species must be involved according to their suitable pH range and loading characteristics. The loading characteristics of different pH indicators differ with different plant species, cell types and their developing stages. No matter what methods were adopted, BCECF and SNARF could not be loaded specifically in the leaf apoplast in sunflower, tomato, and Comelina communis L. In contrast, regardless of the methods adopted, NERF could be loaded efficiently and specifically in the leaf apoplast in C. communis, but not in other plants. In C. communis, the determination coefficient for in vitro and in situ calibration of NERF was very high, which was respectively 0.995 1 and 0.991 6, and therefore, the adoption of NERF together with C. communis could construct an ideal experimental system that is suitable for the investigation of pH systematic signaling. Ratio image analysis demonstrated that the leaf apoplastic pH was about 5.5 in non-stressed conditions, and water deficit could trigger an increase in pH by about half a pH unit, which is the first evidence to directly indicate that pH is able to act as a systematic signal under water deficit conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1016)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Accumulation of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead in Four Populations of Sedum alfredii Hance Growing on Lead/Zinc Mine Spoils: Field Investigation
Author: Dong-Mei Deng, Jin-Chuan Deng, Jun Zhang, Min Hu, Zhou Lin and Bin Liao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 691-698
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00669.x
    Sedum alfredii is a newly reported zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator native to China. In this study, four populations of S. alfredii were collected from Yejiwei (YJW), Jinchuantang (JCT) and Qiaokou (QK) lead (Pb)/Zn mines located in Hunan Province as well as Quzhou (QZ) Pb/Zn mine located in Zhejiang Province for exploring the intraspecies difference of this plant in metal accumulation. Although they grew in the Pb/Zn spoils with relatively similar levels of Zn, Cd and Pb, remarkable differences among the four populations in tissue heavy metal concentrations were observed. The shoot Zn concentration of QZ population (11,116 mg kg-1) was highest and nearly 5 times higher than that of JCT population (1,930 mg kg-1). Furthermore, the shoot Cd concentration observed in QZ population (1,090 mg kg-1) was also highest and 144 times higher than that found in JCT population (7.5 mg kg-1). As to Pb concentrations in shoot of different populations, a 4-fold difference between the highest and the lowest was also found. Such difference on metal accumulation was population specific and was might be significantly explained by differences in the soil properties such as pH, organic matter (OM), and electrical conductivity (EC). Taking biomass and metal concentration in plants into consideration, QZ, YJW and QK populations had high potential in Zn phytoremediation, QZ population had the highest potential in Cd phytoremediation, and QK population was most useful in Pb phytoremediation.
Abstract (Browse 1104)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two New neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata
Author: Sheng-Jun Dai, Li Shen and Yan Ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 699-702
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00672.x
    Two new neo-clerodane diterpenoids, 6,7-dibenzoyloxybarbatin C (1, named barbatin D) and 6-(2-acetoxy-3-methylbutanoloxy)-7-(2-carbonyl-3-methylbutanoyloxy) barbatin C (2, named barbatin E) were isolated from the whole plant of Scutellaria barbata D. Don. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In vitro, compounds 1¨C2 showed cytotoxic activities against three human cancer lines, namely, HONE-1 nasopharyngeal, KB oral epidermoid carcinoma, and HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells, and with IC50 values in the range of 3.5¨C6.7 ¦ÌM.
Abstract (Browse 1058)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Intraspecific Variations of Phosphorus Absorption and Remobilization, P Forms, and Their Internal Buffering in Brassica Cultivars Exposed to a P-Stressed Environment
Author: M. Shahbaz Akhtar, Yoko Oki and Tadashi Adachi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 703-716
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00675.x
    Translocation of absorbed phosphorus (P) from metabolically inactive sites to active sites in plants growing under P deprivation may increase its P utilization efficiency (PUE). Acclimation to phosphate (Pi) starvation may be caused by a differential storage pool of vacuolar P, its release, and the intensity of re-translocation of absorbed P as P starvation inducible environmental cues (PSIEC) from ambient environment. Biomass assay and three P forms, namely inorganic (Pi), organic (Po), and acid-soluble total (Ptas) were estimated in Brassica cultivars exposed to 10 d P deprivation in the culture media. Considering that −¦ÄPi/¦Ät denotes the rate of Pi release, Pi release velocity (RSPi) was determined as the tangent to the equations obtained for Pi f(t) at the mean point in the period of greatest Pi decrease, whereas the inverse of the RSPi was an estimate of the internal Pi buffering capacity (IBCPi). Inter cultivar variations in size of the non-metabolic Pi pool, RSPi, re-translocation of Pi from less to more active metabolic sites, and preferential Pi source and sink compartments were evaluated under P starvation. The cultivar ¡®Brown Raya¡¯ showed the highest Pi storage ability under adequate external P supply, and a more intensive release than ¡®Rain Bow¡¯ and ¡®Dunkled¡¯ under P stress. Cultivar ¡®B.S.A¡¯ was inferior to ¡®Con-1¡¯ in its ability to store and use Pi. Roots and upper leaves were the main sink of Pi stored in the lower and middle leaves of all cultivars and showed lower IBCPi and larger RSPi values than lower and middle leaves. In another trial, six cultivars were exposed to P-free nutrition for 29 d after initial feeding on optimum nutrition for 15 d. With variable magnitude, all of the cultivars re-translocated P from the above ground parts to their roots under P starvation, and [P] at 44 d after transplanting was higher in developing leaves compared with developed leaves. Under P deprivation, translocation of absorbed P from metabolically inactive to active sites may have helped the tolerant cultivars to establish a better rooting system, which provided a basis for tolerance against P starvation and increased PUE. A better understanding of the extent to which changes in the flux of P absorption and re-translocation under PSIEC will help to scavenge Pi from bound P reserves and will bring more sparingly soluble P into cropping systems and obtain capitalization of P reserves.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Steroids from the Roots of Asparagus officinalis and Their Cytotoxic Activity
Author: Xue-Feng Huang, Yu-Ying Lin and Ling-Yi Kong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 717-722
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00651.x
    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells.
Abstract (Browse 1076)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Development & Photosynthesis
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Growth, Carbon Assimilation, Photosynthate Accumulation and Related Enzymes in Rice Leaves during Sink-Source Transition
Author: Jun-Ying Li, Xing-Hua Liu, Qing-Sheng Cai, Hui Gu, Shan-Shan Zhang, Yan-Yan Wu and Chun-Jiao Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 723-732
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00666.x
    To study the effects of growing rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under the treatment of the short-term elevated CO2 during the period of sink-source transition, several physiological processes such as dynamic changes in photosynthesis, photosynthate accumulation, enzyme activities (sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and sucrose synthase (SS)), and their specific gene (sps1 and RSus1) expressions in both mature and developing leaf were measured. Rice seedlings with fully expanded sixth leaf (marked as the source leaf, L6) were kept in elevated (700 ¦Ìmol/mol) and ambient (350 mol/L) CO2 until the 7th leaf (marked as the sink leaf, L7) fully expanded. The results demonstrated that elevated CO2 significantly increased the rate of leaf elongation and biomass accumulation of L7 during the treatment without affecting the growth of L6. However, in both developing and mature leaves, net photosynthetic assimilation rate (A), all kinds of photosynthate contents such as starch, sucrose and hexose, activities of SPS and SS and transcript levels of sps1 and RSus1 were significantly increased under elevated CO2 condition. Results suggested that the elevated CO2 had facilitated photosynthate assimilation, and increased photosynthate supplies from the source leaf to the sink leaf, which accelerated the growth and sink-source transition in new developing sink leaves. The mechanisms of SPS regulation by the elevated CO2 was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1085)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Acid Phosphatase Activity May Affect the Tuber Swelling by Partially Regulating Sucrose-mediated Sugar Resorption in Potato
Author: Da-Yong Wang, Yong Lian and De-Wei Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 733-741
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00673.x
    APase activity is involved in regulating many physiological and developmental events by affecting the resorption process. In this study, we investigate the role of APase activity in tuber development in potato. APase activities were mainly localized in cytoplasm, gaps among cells and stroma of amyloplasts of parenchyma cells at the stage of tuber swelling. AP1, encoding a putative APase, was also highly expressed in swelling tubers and a low level of expression was observed in elongated stolons and matured tubers. Inhibition of APase activity by applying Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of APase production and secretion, significantly suppressed the tuber swelling and moderately affected the stolon elongation and the tuberization frequency. During tuber development, sucrose serves as the main soluble sugar for long-distance transportation and resorption. Moreover, inhibition of APase activity by Brefeldin A markedly reduced the sucrose content in tubers and further decreased the starch accumulation, suggesting that the function of APase in regulating the tuber swelling might be at least partially mediated by the sugar resorption. Exogenous sucrose treatments further indicate the important role of sucrose-mediated sugar resorption in tuber swelling. These results suggest that the APase activity might affect the tuber swelling by partially regulating the sucrose-mediated sugar resorption.
Abstract (Browse 1674)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Establishing a Gene Trap System Mediated by T-DNA(GUS) in Rice
Author: Shi-Yan Chen, Ai-Min Wang, Wei Li, Zong-Yang Wang and Xiu-Ling Cai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 742-751
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00611.x
    Two plasmids, p13GUS and p13GUS2, were constructed to create a gene trap system containing the promoterless ¦Â-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the T-DNA region. Transformation of these two plasmids into the rice variety Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv.), mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, resulted in 942 independent transgenic lines. Histochemical GUS assays revealed that 31 T0 plants had various patterns of the reporter gene expression, including expression in only one tissue, and simultaneously in two or more tissues. Hygromycin-resistant (hygr) homozygotes were screened and the copy number of the T-DNA inserts was determined in the GUS-positive transgenic plants. The flanking sequences of the T-DNA were isolated by inverse-polymerase chain reaction and the insert positions on the rice genome of T-DNA were determined by a basic local alignment search tool in the GUS-positive transgenic plants transformed with plasmid p13GUS. Moreover, calli induced from the seeds of the T1 generation of 911 GUS-negative transgenic lines were subjected to stress and hormone treatments. Histochemical GUS assays were carried out on the calli before and after treatment. The results revealed that calli from 21 lines displayed differential GUS expression after treatment. All of these data demonstrated that this trap system is suitable for identifying rice genes, including those that are sensitive to induction.
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Assembly of the Protoplasm of Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) into New Protoplasts  
Author: Demao Li, Fang L¨¹, Guangce Wang and Baicheng Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 752-760
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00671.x
    The cell organelles of the coenocytic alga Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot aggregated rapidly and protoplasts were formed when its protoplasm was extruded out in seawater. Continuous observation showed that there were long and gelatinous threads connecting the cell organelles. The threads contracted, and thus the cell organelles aggregated into protoplasmic masses. The enzyme digestion experiments and Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Anthrone stainings showed that the long and gelatinous threads involved in the formation of the protoplasts might include protein and saccharides as structure components. Nile Red staining indicated that the protoplast primary envelope was non-lipid at first, and then lipid materials integrated into its surface gradually. The fluorescent brightener staining indicated that the cell wall did not regenerate in the newly formed protoplasts and they all disintegrated within 72 h after formation. Transmission electron microscopy of the cell wall of wild C. fragile showed electron-dense material embedded in the whole cell wall at regular intervals. The experiments indicated that C. fragile would be a suitable model alga for studying the formation of protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 2126)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Signal Transduction
Root-fed Salicylic Acid in Grape Involves the Response Caused by Aboveground High Temperature
Author: Hong-Tao Liu, Yue-Ping Liu and Wei-Dong Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2008 50(6): 761-767
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00640.x
    In order to investigate the transportation and distribution of salicylic acid (SA) from root to aboveground tissues in response to high temperature, the roots of grape plant were fed with 14C-SA before high temperature treatment. Radioactivity results showed that progressive increase in SA transportation from root to aboveground as compared with the control varied exactly with the heat treatment time. Radioactivity results of leaves at different stem heights indicated that the increase in SA amount at the top and middle leaves during the early period was most significant in comparison with the bottom leaves. The up-transportation of SA from root to aboveground tissues was dependent on xylem rather than phloem. Auto-radiographs of whole grape plants strongly approved the conclusions drawn above. Root-derived SA was believed to be a fundamental source in response to aboveground high temperature.
Abstract (Browse 1123)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       


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