April 1962, Volume 10 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Production of Indole Acetic Acid by Ustilago esculenta P. Henn.
Author: Y邦 Yung-nien
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    A metabolic product, present in the culture media of Ustilago esculenta P. Henn., has been identified as indole acetic acid (IAA). The identification of this compound was based upon the split-soybean curvature test, four independent color tests, paper chromatography and the absorption spectrum in ultra-violet light, as compared with those of the known synthetic compound. Peptone, gelatin, casein hydrolysate, fat-free milk and a number of amino acids were used as the nitrogen source in the culture media. Tryptophan appeared to be the only primary precursor of IAA in Ustilago esculenta. One of the intermediary products identified by paper chromatography seemed to be indole acetaldehyde. The indole acetaldehyde is thought to be produced from tryptophan through indole pyruvic acid. Evidence is presented to show that tryptamine is not an intermediate metabolite for IAA production in this microorganism.
Abstract (Browse 2067)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reproductive Organs of Red Algae II. The genus Dermonema
Author: Fan Kung-chu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    A study on the reproductive organs of Dermonema frappieri (Mont. et Mill.) Boergesen and Nemalion pulvinatum Grunow has been made. In both species the carpogonial branch is accessory, and is a specialized organ from its time of inception. The fertilized carpogonium undergoes no transverse division but directly sends out the gonimoblast which is diffuse and filamentous in structure. No cytoplasmic connection between the fecundated carpogonium and its supporting cell is seen. The antheridia arise as proliferations from the distal cells of the assimilative filament but the terminal cell of which usually remains sterile. All evidences at hand strongly indicate that the plant known as Nemalion pulvinatum Grunow is actually a member of the genus Dermoneraa. Accordingly, Dermonema pulvinata (Grunow) comb. nov. is suggested as the proper disposition of this alga.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Inheritance of Stipe Length in Haidai (Laminaria japonica Aresch.)
Author: T. C. Fang, B. Y. Jiang and J. J. Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    The present paper deals statistically with the causes of variation in the stipe length of haidai, Laminaria japonica (Fig. 1); currently cultivated commercially in China, and with the mechanism of the appearance of the long stipe character in a new breed named Haiqing No. 1 of haidai, which has appeared recently by selection. A study has been made on the average stipe length of three different populations of haidai cultivated under almost similar conditions in Tuangtao Bay at Tsingtao. The so-called "natural" population was taken from the cultivation industry, and is a population arising from crossing of many gametophytes grown from the spores of mature sporophytes. It may be taken to represent the present commercial haidai populations cultivated at Tsingtao. The differences in stipe length in the three populations given in Table 1, when tested by using the formula, are statistically significant. The difference in the stipe length of the ※natural§ and inbred populations is considered to be partly due to the different growth densities and consequently different amounts of light received, since in the ※natural§ population more than 40 sporophytes: were fastened to a small palm rope with a length of 1.5 meters, while in the other two. populations only 10每15 sporophytes were fastened to a similar small palm rope with a length of 0.3 meter. The sporophytes were all grown in the 1 meter layer below sea surface. However, the difference in growth density cannot explain all the differences in the three populations, for although the Haiqing No. 1 breed and the inbred population were cultivated under similar growth conditions, the former has very much longer stipe. Cultivating gametophytes under high temperature (20 ⊥ or 22⊥) seems to have some effects on the stipe growth, however no definite variation has been observed (Table 2). What effect high temperature has on the subsequent growth in length on the: stipe needs further studies. The average length of stipe of the populations from autumn and summer sporelings was quite similar, and no significant difference in the four populations has been Observed (Table 3). Since the autumn sporelings were from parents; that had undergone several months of high' temperature, different temperature conditions under which the sporophytes lived apparently have little effect on the stipe length of their offspring. On the other hand, a study of the stipe length of the parent sporophytes and that of their offspring showed a close correlation of stipe length between parents and offsprings, an indication of inheritance of the character under consideration~ (Table 4). Similar results have been obtained with the stipe length between the parent and the offspring in the new breed Haiqing No. 1. Thus, the same parent with stipe length of 6.0 cm. gives four groups of offsprings all with similar average stipe length of from 5.9 cm. to 6.9 cm. (Table 5). This also supports the hypothesis that stipe lengtl of haidai is an inheritable character. It should be noted that the data from the experiments conducted at Amoy do not support Parke's view that stipe grows shorter in the south. A discussion on the origin of the genetic basis of stipe length has also been made. We are of the opinion that the character of long stipe in the new breed did not arise- from directed variation due to high temperature treatment applied to the gametophytes, nor from induced mutation, but has rather come from the segregation and recombination of genetic factors in the hybrid parent through the interaction of selection and in- breeding. From the different frequency distributions of stipe 1.ength in different pedigrees (Table 6 and Fig. 2), We can clearly see a genetic process of segregation from a hybrid parent population into short and long stipe populations, and the gradual appearance of long stipe population. It is suspected that a number of genetic factors is involved in the stipe growth character.
Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Carbohydrate Metabolism of Bai-Lan Melons. III. The Relationship between Sucrose Synthesis and Phosphorylation during the Development of Fruits
Author: C. S. L邦, H. K. Lian, P. S. Wang, P. M. Wang, M. C. Li and Z. P. Shao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    The effects of respiratory inhibitors and various substrates on the biosynthesis of sucrose and the respiratory activity of Bai-Lan melon fruits were investigated. The content of organic phosphate and the rate of high-energy phosphate formation were also determined at different stages of fruit development. After infiltrating the fruit slices with inorganic phosphate and adenosine triphosphate, the rate of sucrose synthesis and the respiratory activity were increased to different extents, the effectiveness of ATP in increasing sucrose synthesis and respiration was higher than inorganic phosphate. Fruits at later stage of development showed a greater response to the above treatments than those at early stage. When KCN was added to the substrates, synthesis of sucrose and the intensity of respiration were reduced, but the fruits at early stage were more susceptible to it than those at later stage. The content of organic phosphates and the rate of high-energy phosphate formation were higher in fruits at later stage than those at early stage. The above results show that phosphorylation is closely connected with .the synthesis of sucrose in fruits at both stages of development. The low rate of phosphorylation is, however, not the principal factor responsible for the lower capacity of sucrose synthesis in fruits at early stage. It is very possible that the metabolic mechanism is different at different stages of development and it is this mechanism which allows the energy and metabolites to be flowed into canals of growth and associated processes in fruits at early stage, and to be switched to canals of sucrose synthesis and related processes at later stage of fruit development. The implications of this suggestion is briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological and Cytological Observations of the Process of Fertilization of the Wheat
Author: S. Y. Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    The aim of this study was to follow the dynamics of nucleic acid and polysaccharide, as well as the distribution of mitochondria, based on the morphological observations in the development of the embryo sac and in the process of fertilization in the winter wheat, variety "Early premium". The following results are obtained: 1. The full equipment of the embryo sacegg aparatus, antipodal cells and polar nucleiis attained 6每5 days before flowering. From this time on the female elements and their nuclei gradually increase in size. Until at anthesis, the diameters of fully ma- tured female nuclei are about twice as large as those of newly formed elements. The mature egg cell is highly vacuolated, but it becomes unvacuolated and has dense cytoplasm after fertilization. 2. The fertilization process of wheat is of the premitotic type. 3. During the development of the embryo sac and fertilization, the female nuclei always give a clearly positive Feulgen reaction, which indicates the existence of DNA in their nuclei at any stage. In the mature egg, however, the fine DNA particles are scattered in the enlarged nucleus, that they are visible only with the aid of oil immersion objective. Methyl green-pyronin method also very clearly demonstrates the same condition. 4. The RNA content in the cytoplasm of the egg cell, demonstrated by the intensity of pyronin staining, shows a regularly variation during the development. In young egg cell, being in a juvenile condition, is rich in RNA. content, With the growth of the embryo sac the RNA content of the egg cell gradually shows a transient drop up to fertilization. After fertilization the egg cell is rich in RNA again and presents small pyroninphilic lumps in cytoplasm. These changes in RNA content is correlated with the vacuolation of cytoplasm and probably with physiological state of the egg cell. 5. Starch grains are always present in the cytoplasm of egg cell and zygote, as well as the central cytoplasm of embryo sac during the development of embryo sac and the process of fertilization. In synergids, starch grains have been found only in their early developmental stage, but in antipodal cells starch grains have not been found at any stage. This plastic substance in form of temporary starch grains is a reserve food for further development of the female element of embryo sac. 6. There are mitochondria in the mature male and female gametophyte. The distribution of the mitochondria in the embryo sac before and after fertilization shows no apparent change. In several-celled proembryo stage, the mitochondria of the antipodal cells gradually disappear. 7. The results of this observation support the conception that the embryo sac is a complete physiological system and all the elements of embryo sac contribute to sound development of the egg cell.
Abstract (Browse 2325)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Leaf Cells of Wheat. II. Observations on the Leaf Cells of Normal and Weak Seedlings of Winter Wheat
Author: Hs邦 Lin-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    1. By means of paraffin sectioning and Tuan's cell separation technique, leaf cells of normal and weak seedlings of winter wheat were studied. These seedlings belong to 3 varieties of winter wheat, they are, North China 187, Agricultural University 15 and 90. 2. The mesophyll cells of winter wheat seedlings are of many types, many of them are in the shape of comb, chain, etc., however the young leaves have more single cells than those of the flag leaves as described by Tuan. 3. The mesophyll cells of winter wheat are arranged inside the leaf with their wide axes parallel to the longitudinal axis of the leaf. The high axes of mesophyll cells are often at right angles to the epidermis of the leaf. 4. The average size of the mesophyll cells and average size of chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of normal seedlings are larger than those of the weak seedlings. 5. The percentages of large chloroplasts (the longest diameter of the chloroplasts= 6每8米) are more than 51% (51%每77.5%) in the normal seedlings, they are less than 14% (2.5%每1.4%) in the weak seedlings. 6. The cell-shape and cell-arrangement of the mesophyll cells of wheat, and the size differences of the mesophyll cells and chloroplasts between normal and weak seedlings have been discussed. 7. It is advantageous to use the technique of cell separation and paraffin sectioning together in the studies of leaf cells.
Abstract (Browse 1906)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Leaf Cells of Wheat. I. Morphology of the Mesophyll Cells
Author: Tuan Hs邦-chuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    1. By means of cell separation technique, morphology of the mesophyll cells of two varieties of wheat and a species of Elytrigia were described. 2. The mesophyll cells of wheat consist of one or more nearly similar cell-segments or links. Any cell consisted of more than two links is differentiated into peaks, dales, isthmus and links (or cell segments). 3. Mesophyll cell-types observed in variety Tin-district 72 can also be found in Southern University 2419. 4. The mesophyll cells of Tin-District 72 are somewhat larger than those of Southern University 2419. 5. The mesophyll cells of Elytrigia sp. are also differentiated into peaks, dales, isthmus and links. 6. Whether these cell-types can be used in distinguishing varieties of wheat or not, further research might reveal. 7. The mesophyll cells of wheat and Elytrigia sp. are similar in many respects. Whether these similarities are constant or not, no conclusion can be drawn at the present. 8. Although chloroplasts may change their shapes after dark treatment, they change gradually within the range of recognition. Chloroplasts of different cell-types may vary in their shapes.
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
圾抖我攸扶我快 我扶忱抉抖我抖批抗扼批扼扶抉抄 抗我扼抖抉找抑 ㄛ 忍我忌忌快把快抖抖我扶抑 我 抗忘抗抉扼抉志抉忍抉 扼抉抗忘 扶忘 把抉扼找 抗忘抖抖批扼忘 我 扶忘 抉忌把忘戒抉志忘扶我快 抗抉把扶快抄 我 我抒 志戒忘我技抉抉找扶抉扮快扶我快
Author: 完快扶忍 妥戒批我 我 妣我 孛我扶 - 攻抄
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1962 10(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2213)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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