Special Issue: Crop Biology   

January 2009, Volume 51 Issue 1, Pages 1-112.

Cover Caption:
The growing population in many developing countries such as China put more pressure on plant biologists, to work on crops, to improve the quality and resistance, and to increase the yield. This special issue of JIPB focuses on crop biology, to study different aspects of crop species. The cover picture shows a developing embryo sac of rice at the eight-nucleate stage, with two polar nuclei beginning to move toward the center of the sac. Because the embryo sac is enclosed within the ovary, it is technically challenging to observe using conventional techniques. The eosin B staining coupled with confocal laser scanning microscope allows easy examination of the developing embryo sac (Cover design: Ying Wang).


Future Prospects: Scientific Quality Relies on the Critical Reviews from Our Peers  
Author: Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 1-2
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00806.x

From Executive Editor to Editor-in-Chief is a big jump for me, and means many more responsibilities. I could feel the pressure on my shoulders; from the hopes of my predecessors, my colleagues, and the board members. As a journal with a 57-year history, JIPB has built its credit over the years, publishing many original works in both Chinese and English. However, in the international scientific community, JIPB is still a minor player, especially under the current not-so-healthy impact factor-driven publishing environment.

Achievements in 2008

With the support from the editors, the funding agencies (Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the National Science & Technology Committee), and the Wiley Blackwell Publishing Group, JIPB is moving forward, step by step. 2008 was a year of significant accomplishments for JIPB.

1) We finally entered the PubMed database. The accessibility through PubMed has provided a tremendous change to the journal, since it allows much quicker online browsing and reading. Moreover, JIPB articles can now be accessed through Google and Google Scholar.

2) Three special issues were organized to highlight the latest research development in abiotic stress (issue 10: co-edited by Drs. Zhizhong Gong and Qi Xie) and global climate changes (issue 11: co-edited by Drs. Jiquan Chen and Scott Heckathorn), and to celebrate the 75-year anniversary of the Botanical Society of China (issue 7: edited by Drs. Dong Liu and Chun-Ming Liu).

3) A “JIPB Club” excursion was organized in August 2008, to the Inner Mongolia Grassland Research Station (one of the ecological research stations associated with the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences), with some of the editors, authors, and the editorial staff (see photos on the right). Strategic discussions were held during the trip, and new editors were proposed.

Word of Thanks

Using this opportunity, I, on behalf of the Editorial Board, would like to express our sincere thanks to those who have made some great contributions to the journal. First, I owe greatly to my predecessors, Prof. Xingguo Han (now the Director General of Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang) and Prof. Hong Ma (now the Dean of the Faculty of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai), who have worked very hard to set up the basic infrastructure and a focused scope of the journal, and to establish the enthusiastic international editorial and reviewing team.

Many thanks go to the following handling editors who have finished their tasks and retired from the Editorial Board at the end of 2008. They are the people who have worked behind the curtain, to follow every step of the manuscript processing under a particular scientific area. They are Drs. Lizhe An, Song Ge, De-An Guo, Hon-Ming Lam, Cheng-Sen Li, Guang-Hui Lin, Ben-Ye Liu, Bo Liu, Cong-Ming Lu, Ying-Tang Lü, Hua Ouyang, Jianxin Sun, Su-Hua Shi, and Jian-Min Yue. Without their critical comments and excellent services, the journal would go nowhere. The thanks also go to the current handling editor, the reviewers (see the December issue for the list), the authors, and editorial staff, who have been contributed greatly to make JIPB visible to the scientific community.

The New Editors

Following the enthusiastic engagement of Prof. William Lucas in 2007 as an Associate Editor, several prominent plant biologists have joined the JIPB board in 2008, to be in charge of individual themes (see brief introduction below): Prof. Roberto Bassi from Verona University, Italy; Prof. Clive Lloyd from John Innes Center, UK; Prof. Klaus Palme, from Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Germany; Prof. Li-Jia Qu from Peking University, China; Prof. Rowan Sage from University of Toronto, Canada; and Prof. Weicai Yang from Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Six prestigious scientists have joined the JIPB board as handling editors. They are: Dr. Toru Fujiwara, Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan; Dr. John Harada, California University, Davis, USA; Dr. Dong Liu, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; Dr. Yaoguang Liu, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China; Dr. Chuanqing Sun, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China; Dr. Zhongnan Yang, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China. Additional new HEs will be recruited in the near future.

Our Ambitions

A frequently asked question is how JIPB could become an internationally visible journal. I think two things are important. The first is constructive, responsible and critical reviews made by the peers, to ensure good papers are treated properly by real experts. I strongly believe this is the only way to build trust among the Journal, the readers, and its authors. The second is the speed of publication; to make sure every step of the manuscript handling is as short as possible. With JIPB’s rapid channel for publication, PubExp, it has been possible for a well-written paper to be processed, accepted, and available online in 2-3 days, and printed in hard copy in 3-4 weeks.

The goalf integrative plant biology is to, by using multi disciplinary approaches, understand the growth, development, and evolution of plants, and the interaction between plants and their environment. In the coming year, I look forward to see more papers studying biological questions using an integrative approach - to perform comprehensive studies to allow a scientific question to be answered in a clear manner. This will be the focus point of JIPB in the future.

Finally, let us all work together to make JIPB a great journal.

Chun-Ming Liu, Ph.D. Editor-in-Chief

The Associate Editor (AE) Team:

Prof. Roberto Bassi (Area of Responsibility: Metabolic Biology & Biochemistry) Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona, Italy. Email: Roberto.Bassi@univr.it. Received his Ph.D. from University of Padua (1977), now Professor at University of Verona. Research focus: light reaction of photosynthesis, structure and function of light harvesting proteins, and mechanisms of photoprotection.

Prof. Clive Lloyd (Area of Responsibility: Cell & Developmental Biology) Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK. Email: clive.lloyd@bbsrc.ac.uk. Received his Ph.D. from Wales University (1971) and is now Professor at JIC, Visiting Professor in Royal Holloway University of London and Honorary Professor, University of East Anglia. Research focus: cytoskeleton and its influence on the shape of plant cells, cell growth axis establishment and reorientation and division, and characterization of the microtubules involved in these processes.

Prof. William J. Lucas (Area of Responsibility: Signal Transduction & Stress Response) Department of Plant Biology, California University, Davis, USA. Email: wjlucas@ucdavis.edu; Received his Ph.D. from University of Adelaide (1975), now Distinguished Professor at California University, Davis. Research focus: cell-to-cell signaling, gene silencing, long-distance signaling, phloem, plasmodesmata, and viral movement proteins.

Prof. Klaus Palme (Area of Responsibility: Systems Biology & Molecular Physiology) Institut für Biologie II/Botanik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany. Email: klaus.palme@biologie.unifreiburg.de; Received his Ph.D. from University of Ulm (1981), now Professor at the Institute for Biology II, University of Freiburg. Research focus: plant signal transduction, dealing with plant hormones and other aspects of molecular mechanisms of plant physiology.

Prof. Li-Jia Qu (Area of Responsibility: Invited Review, Commentary, and Special Issue) Peking-Yale Joint Center for Plant Molecular Genetics and AgroBiotechnology, Peking University, Beijing, China. Email: qulj@pku.edu.cn; Received his Ph.D. from Peking University (1995), now Professor at Peking University. Research focus: methylation of phytohormones, transcriptional factors, organ shape and size control, and cell cycle regulation in gametogenesis in plants.

Prof. Rowan Sage (Area of Responsibility: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology) Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Canada. Email: r.sage@utoronto.ca; Received his Ph.D. from University of California, Davis (1986), now Professor at University of Toronto. Research focus: plant physiological ecology, whole plant and stress physiology with an emphasis on C3 and C4 photosynthesis, temperature, global change biology, and bioenergy.

Prof. Wei-Cai Yang (Area of Responsibility: Sexual Reproduction) Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Email: wcyang@genetics.ac.cn; Received his Ph.D. from Wageningen University (1994), now a Group Leader at the Institute of Genetics & Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Research focus: gametogenesis, embryogenesis, plant developmental genetics, and cell biology.

Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Cell and Developmental Biology
Abnormalities Occurring during Female Gametophyte Development Result in the Diversity of Abnormal Embryo Sacs and Leads to Abnormal Fertilization in indica/japonica Hybrids in Rice  
Author: Yu-Xiang Zeng, Chao-Yue Hu, Yong-Gen Lu, Jin-Quan Li and Xiang-Dong Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 3-12
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00733.x
    Embryo sac abortion is one of the major reasons for sterility in indica/japonica hybrids in rice. To clarify the causal mechanism of embryo sac abortion, we studied the female gametophyte development in two indica/japonica hybrids via an eosin B staining procedure for embryo sac scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. Different types of abnormalities occurred during megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis were demonstrated. The earliest abnormality was observed in the megasporocyte. A lot of the chalazal-most megaspores were degenerated before the mono-nucleate embryo sac stage. Disordered positioning of nucleus and abnormal nucellus tissue were characteristics of the abnormal female gametes from the mono-nucleate to four-nucleate embryo sac stages. The abnormalities that occurred from the early stage of the eight-nucleate embryo sac development to the mature embryo sac stage were characterized by smaller sizes and wrinkled antipodals. Asynchronous nuclear migration, abnormal positioning of nucleus, and degeneration of egg apparatus were also found at the eight-nucleate embryo sac stage. The abnormalities that occurred during female gametophyte development resulted in five major types of abnormal embryo sacs. These abnormal embryo sacs led to abnormal fertilization. Hand pollination using normal pollens on the spikelets during anthesis showed that normal pollens could not exclude the effect of abnormal embryo sac on seed setting.
Abstract (Browse 3185)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Occurrence of the transition of apical architecture and expression patterns of related genes during conversion of apical meristem identity in G2 pea  
Author: Da-Yong Wang, Qing Li, Ke-Ming Cui and Yu-Xian Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 13-20
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00788.x
    G2 pea exhibits an apical senescence delaying phenotype under short-day (SD) conditions; however, the structural basis for its apical development is still largely unknown. In the present study, the apical meristem of SD-grown G2 pea plants underwent a transition from vegetative to indeterminate inflorescence meristem, but the apical meristem of long-day (LD)-grown G2 pea plants would be further converted to determinate floral meristem. Both SD signal and GA3 treatment enhanced expression of the putative calcium transporter PPF1, and pea homologs of TFL1 (LF, and DET), whereas LD signal suppressed their expression at 60 days post-flowering compared to those at 40 days post-flowering. Both PPF1 and LF expressed at the vegetative and reproductive phases in SD-grown apical buds, but floral initiation obviously increased the expression level of PPF1 compared to the unchanged expression level of LF from 40 to 60 days post-flowering. In addition, although the floral initiation significantly enhanced the expression levels of PPF1 and DET, DET was mainly expressed after floral initiation in SD-grown apical buds. Therefore, the main structural difference between LD- and SD-grown apical meristem in G2 pea lies in whether their apical indeterminate inflorescence meristem could be converted to the determinate structure.
Abstract (Browse 1605)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Crossability Barriers in the Interspecific Hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. meyeriana  
Author: Xue-Lin Fu, Yong-Gen Lu, Xiang-Dong Liu and Jin-Quan Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 21-28
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00728.x
    Oryza meyeriana Baill (GG genome) is a precious germplasm in the tertiary gene pool of cultivated rice (AA genome), and possesses important traits such as resistance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, interspecific crossability barrier, a critical bottleneck restricting genes transfer from O. meyeriana to cultivars has led to no hybrids through conventional reproduction. Therefore, the reasons underlying incrossability were investigated in the present report. The results showed that: (i) at 3C7 d after pollination (DAP), many hybrid embryos degenerated at the earlier globular-shaped stage, and could not develop into the later pear-shaped stage. Meanwhile, free endosperm nuclei started to degenerate at 1 DAP, and cellular endosperm could not form at 3 DAP, leading to nutrition starvation for young embryo development; (ii) at 11C13 DAP, almost all hybrid ovaries aborted. Even though 72.22% of hybrid young embryos were produced in the interspecific hybridization between O. sativa and O. meyeriana, young embryos were not able to further develop into hybrid plantlets via culturing in vitro. The main reason for the incrossability was hybrid embryo inviability, presenting as embryo development stagnation and degeneration since 3 DAP. Some possible approaches to overcome the crossability barriers in the interspecific hybridization between O. sativa and O. meyeriana are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 3702)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Determination of n+1 Gamete Transmission Rate of Trisomics and Location of Gene Controlling 2n Gamete Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa)  
Author: Cheng-He Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Shu-Xing Shen, He Yuan and Shu-Xin Xuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 29-34
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00765.x
    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosome in different trisomics varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the 9 F2 populations derived from the hybridizations between each trisomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4Bp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38 :1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. And in other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3: 1 segregation ratio of the bisomics (Aa). These results suggested the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on the chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.
Abstract (Browse 2101)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Ectopic overexpression of wheat ADP-ribosylation factor, TaARF, increases growth rate in Arabidopsis  
Author: Yingyin Yao, Zhongfu Ni, Jinkun Du, Zongfu Han, Yan Chen, Qingbo Zhang and Qixin Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 35-44
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00792.x
    Differential gene expression between hybrids and their parents is considered to be associated with heterosis. However, the physiological functions and possible contribution to heterosis of these differentially expressed genes are unknown. We have isolated one hybrid-upregulated gene encoding putative wheat ADP-ribosylation factor, designated TaARF. In this study, realtime quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that TaARF transcript was preferentially expressed in root, node and crown, and the accumulation of TaARF mRNA in hybrid was more than 1.5 fold higher than that in two parents. In order to understand possible roles of putative wheat ARF gene, TaARF was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants were characterized. We shown that ectopic overexpression of TaARF in Arabidopsis leaded to the increased leaf area, increased growth rate and earlier transition to flowering, suggesting that TaARF plays significant roles in growth and development. This study provides the evidence demonstrating that TaARF plays important roles in growth and development and we speculated that the upregulated expression of this gene might contribute to the heterosis observed in wheat root and leaf growth.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genetic analysis and fine mapping of two genes for grain shape and weight in rice  
Author: Longbiao Guo, Lilian Ma, Hua Jiang, Dali Zeng, Jiang Hu, Liwen Wu, Zhenyu Gao, Guangheng Zhang and Qian Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 45-51
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00793.x
    To identify genetic loci controlling grain weight, F2, F3 and BC2F2 derived from a cross between indica rice variety Baodali with large grains and japonica rice variety Zhonghua11 with normal grains were used as mapping populations. Linkage analyses demonstrated that two genes controlling grain weight, designated as GW3 and GW6, were mapped to chromosome 3 and chromosome 6, respectively. Fine mapping delimited GW3 to a 122kb physical distance between two STS markers (WGW16 and WGW19) containing 16 ORFs annotated by TIGR (http://www.tigr.org). GW6 was further mapped between two SSR markers (RM7179 and RM3187). These results are useful for both marker assisted selection (MAS) of grain weight, and for further cloning of GW genes, which will contribute to the dissection of the molecular mechanism underlying grain weight in rice.
Abstract (Browse 2287)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Characters of cysteine endopeptidases in wheat endosperms during seed germination and subsequent seedling growth  
Author: Chao Shi and Lang-Lai Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 52-57
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00778.x
    The endopeptidases (EPs) in wheat endosperms during seed germination and subsequent seedling growth were characterized by gradient-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with gelatin copolymerized into the gel. Four cysteine EPs (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4) were detected in wheat endosperm during the 7d growth after seed imbibition. The results also showed that the activities of all these EPs increased continuously, and EP2 first appeared and had the highest proteolytic activity among the four EPs in this experimental process. The optimum pHs of all the four EPs were at pH 4.0; the optimum temperatures of all these EPs were at 40C. All the four EPs were completely inhibited by 25M E-64 and hadnt good thermal stabilities, especially EP1. In addition, all these EPs had different substrate specificities to albumins, globulins, gliadins and glutenins, the main storage proteins of mature wheat endosperms; among them, EP2 had the highest proteolytic activities on globulins, gliadins and glutenins, and might be the most important and specific EP which could be tightly correlated with seedling development.
Abstract (Browse 1654)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
W55a Encodes a Novel Protein Kinase That Is Involved in Multiple Stress Responses  
Author: Zhao-Shi Xu, Li Liu, Zhi-Yong Ni, Pei Liu, Ming Chen, Lian-Cheng Li, Yao-Feng Chen and You-Zhi Ma
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 58-66
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00776.x
    Protein kinases play crucial roles in response to external environment stress signals. A putative protein kinase, W55a, belonging to SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) subfamily, was isolated from a cDNA library of drought-treated wheat seedlings. The entire length of W55a was obtained using rapid amplification of 5 cDNA ends (5-RACE) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). It contains a 1,029 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 342 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of W55a had eleven conserved catalytic subdomains and one Ser/Thr protein kinase active-site that characterize Ser/Thr protein kinases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that W55a was 90.38% homologous with rice SAPK1, a member of the SnRK2 family. Using nullisomic-tetrasomic and ditelocentric lines of Chinese Spring, W55a was located on chromosome 2BS. Expression pattern analysis revealed that W55a was upregulated by drought and salt, exogenous abscisic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate, but was not responsive to cold stress. In addition, W55a transcripts were abundant in leaves, but not in roots or stems, under environmental stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing W55a exhibited higher tolerance to drought. Based on these findings, W55a encodes a novel dehydration-responsive protein kinase that is involved in multiple stress signal transduction.
Abstract (Browse 2124)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Response of Chinese Wampee Axes and Maize Embryos to Dehydration at Different Rates  
Author: Hui Huang, Song-Quan Song and Xian-Jin Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 67-74
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00772.x
    Survival of wampee (Clausena lansium Skeels) axes and maize (Zea mays L.) embryos decreased with rapid and slow dehydration. Damage of wampee axes by rapid dehydration was much less than by slow dehydration, and that was contrary to maize embryos. The malondialdehyde contents of wampee axes and maize embryos rapidly increased with dehydration, those of wampee axes were lower during rapid dehydration than during slow dehydration, and those of maize embryos were higher during rapid dehydration than during slow dehydration. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) of wampee axes markedly increased during the early phase of dehydration, and then rapidly decreased, and those of rapidly dehydrated axes were higher than those of slow dehydrated axes when they were dehydrated to low water contents. Activities of SOD and APX of maize embryos notable decreased with dehydration. There were higher SOD activities and lower APX activities of slowly dehydrated maize embryos compared with rapidly dehydrated maize embryos. CAT activities of maize embryos markedly increased during the early phase of dehydration, and then decreased, and those of slowly dehydrated embryos were higher than those of rapidly dehydrated embryos during the late phase of dehydration.
Abstract (Browse 1641)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass  
Author: An-Zhi Ren, Yu-Bao Gao, Wei Wang, Jin-Long Wang and Nian-Xi Zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 75-83
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00721.x
    An experimentwas designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulatedmore soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.
Abstract (Browse 1618)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Genetic Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Contents of Mineral Nutrients in Rice Grain  
Author: Ana Luisa Garcia-Oliveira, Lubin Tan, Yongcai Fu and Chuanqing Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 84-92
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00730.x
    In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%C19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.
Abstract (Browse 1762)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Molecular Characterization of Two Silenced y-type Genes for Glu-B1 in Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese and ssp. tibetanum  
Author: Zhong-Wei Yuan, Qi-Jiao Chen, Lian-Quan Zhang, Ze-Hong Yan,You-Liang Zheng and Deng-Cai Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 93-99
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00775.x
    The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are a major class of common wheat storage proteins. The bread-making quality of common wheat flour is influenced by the composition of HMW-GSs. In the present study, two unexpressed 1By genes from Triticum aesitvum ssp.yunnanese AS332 and T. aesitvum ssp.tibetanum AS908 were respectively cloned and characterized. The results indicated that both of the silenced 1By genes in AS332 and AS908 were 1By9. Different from previously reported mechanisms for silenced genes 1Ax and 1Ay, which was due to the insertion of transposon elements or presence of premature stop codon via base substitution of CT transition in trinucleotides CAA or CAG, the silence of 1By9 genes were caused by premature stop codons via the deletion of base A in trinucleotide CAA, which leaded to frameshift mutation and indirectly produced several premature stop codons (TAG) at the downstream of the coding sequence.
Abstract (Browse 1772)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Strategic Conservation of Orchard Germplasm Based on Indigenous Knowledge and Genetic Diversity: a Case Study of Sour Orange Populations in China  
Author: Feng Ming, Qi-Kun Liu, Jin-Lei Shi, Wei Wang and Bao-Rong Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 100-106
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00768.x
    To effectively conserve sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) germplasm on two islands at the estuary of Yangtze River in China, we estimated genetic variation and relationships of the known parental trees and their proposed descendents (young trees) using the fingerprints of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Results based on RAPD analyses showed considerable genetic diversity in the parental populations (He=0.202). The overall populations including the parental and young trees showed slightly higher genetic diversity (He=0.298) than the parents, with about 10% variation between populations. An UPGMA dendrogram based on cluster analysis of the Jaccard similarity among individuals demonstrated a more complicated relationship of the parental and young trees from the two islands, although the young trees showed a clear association with parental trees. This indicates a significant contribution of parental trees in establishing the sour orange populations on the two islands. According to farmers knowledge, conservation of only one or two parental trees would be sufficient because they believed that the whole populations were generated from a single mother tree. However, this study suggests that preserving most parental trees and some selected young trees with distant genetic relationships should be an effective conservation strategy for sour orange germplasm on the two islands.
Abstract (Browse 2124)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          New Technology
Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton  
Author: Yan Hu, Wang-Zhen Guo and Tian-Zhen Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(1): 107-112
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00773.x
    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, a genetic and genomic standard line for Upland cotton. The library consists of 147 456 clones with an average insert size of 122.8 kb ranging from 97 to 240 kb. About 96.0% of the clones have inserts over 100 kb. Therefore, this library represents theoretically 7.4 haploid genome equivalents based on an AD genome size of 2 425 Mb. Clones were stored in 384 384-well plates and arrayed into multiplex pools for rapid and reliable library screening. BAC screening was performed by four-round PCR reactions using 23 SSR markers, three SRAP markers and one pair of primers for a gene associated with fiber development to test the quality of the library. Correspondingly, in total 92 positive BAC clones were identified with averagely four positive clones per SSR marker, ranging from one to eight hits. Additionally, since these SSR markers have been localized to chromosome 12 (A12) and 26 (D12) according to the genetic map, these BAC clones are expected to serve as seeds for the physical mapping of these two homeologous chromosomes, sequentially map-based cloning of QTLs or genes associated with important agronomic traits.
Abstract (Browse 1612)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
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