September 2009, Volume 51 Issue 10, Pages 910ĘC980.


Cover Caption: The Ripening of Kiwifruit
Textural changes during the ripening determine the shelf life of fruits. Kiwifruit softens during ripening, which is accompanied by cell-wall swelling. Xyloglucan (XG) is one of the cell-wall polymers, and its depolymerization is implicated as an early process in ripening-associated cell wall disassembly. After extensive removal of symplastic starch, the XG is partially purified from hemicellulosic II fractions. XG is strongly associated with glucomannan and arabinoxylan. See pp. 933ĘC941 for more details. Photo taken by Dr. Zhong-Hui Zhang (Wuhan Botanical Garden, CAS) shows the variation of kiwifruits (cover design: Ying Wang).

 

          Editorial
JIPB's Editorial Board Meeting 2009: A New Face in 2010  
Author: Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 910-911
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00878.x
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          Cell and Developmental Biology
Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane
Author: Wei Zhang and Liu-Min Fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 912-921
Published Online: August 21, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00859.x
      
    

Free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca2+] cyt elevation is associated with Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca2+ channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltagedependent Ca2+ permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba2+ and Ca2+, and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd3+. The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca2+ or Ba2+ gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca2+ (Ba2+) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NPo of the single Ca2+ channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NPo of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

Zhang W, Fan LM (2009). Actin dynamics regulates voltage-dependent calcium-permeable channels of the Vicia faba guard cell plasma membrane. J. Integr. Plant Biol.51(10), 912-921.

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The Distribution of Japonica Rice Cultivars in the Lower Region of the Yangtze River Valley is Determined by Its Photoperiod-sensitivity and Heading Date Genotypes
Author: Xiang-Jin Wei, Ling Jiang, Jun-Feng Xu, Xi Liu, Shi-Jia Liu, Hu-Qu Zhai and Jian-Min Wan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 922-932
Published Online: August 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00866.x
      
    

There are generally four recognized classes of japonica rice cultivars grown in the lower region of the Yangtze River valley. The geographical distribution of the four classes is latitude-dependent. Variation for heading date (HD) among 29 japonica rice cultivars grown in the lower region of the Yangtze River valley and belonging to the four classes was characterized, and their sensitivity to variations in photoperiod and temperature was analyzed. All of the cultivars were sensitive to both photoperiod and temperature. A regression analysis showed that HD is closely correlated with photoperiod sensitivity (PS). The PS of the four classes increased gradually from the medium maturing middle (MMM) types, through the late maturing middle (LMM) and early maturing late (EML) types to the medium maturing late (MML) types. Crosses with tester lines established that almost all of the cultivars carry the dominant early-heading allele at Ef-1, the photoperiod insensitive allele e2 and the PS alleles E1 or E1t . Most of the MMM, LMM and MML types carry the insensitive allele e3, while EML types have either E3 or E3t. At Se-1, MMM and LMM types have Se-1e, some EML types have Se-1e and others Se-1n, while the MML types are mostly Se-1n. The PS of some MMM, LMM and EML types is reduced by the presence of hd2. These results show that the distribution of the four rice cultivar classes from high latitude to low latitude regions depended on a gradual increase in PS, which is mainly determined by its HD genotypes.

Wei XJ, Jiang L, Xu JF, Liu X, Liu SJ, Zhai HQ, Wan JM (2009). The distribution of Japonica rice cultivars in the lower region of the Yangtze River valley is determined by its photoperiod-sensitivity and heading date genotypes. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(10), 922-932.

 

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          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Characterization of Kiwifruit Xyloglucan  
Author: Xingjun Li, Naoki Sakurai and Donald J. Nevins
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 933-941
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00862.x
      
    

Structural characteristics of xyloglucan are constant in the pericarp cell walls of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) throughout fruit enlargement andmaturation. Most of the xyloglucan (XG) persists in the cell walls of ripe kiwifruit. XG from the pericarp tissues of 36-h ethylene-treated kiwifruit was extracted as hemicellulose II (HC-II) with 4.28 M KOH containing 0.02% NaBH4, and purified using iodine precipitation and subsequent anion-exchange chromatography. This purifying protocol increased XG purity from 50mol% in HC-II fraction to 62 mol% in the purified XG powder. The molar ratio of glucose: xylose: galactose: fucose in the purified XG was 10: 6.9: 2.1: 0.3. Gel permeation chromatography indicated that purified XG had an average molecular-mass of 161 KDa, a value that exceeds the 95 KDa Mr determined for total polymeric sugars. Sugar linkage analysis confirmed the lack of fucose in the kiwifruit XG, but a small amount of arabinoxylan and low Mr glucomannan remained associated with this fraction.

Li X, Sakurai N, Nevins DJ (2009). Characterization of kiwifruit xyloglucan. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(10), 933 941.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
Different Responses of Plant Growth and Antioxidant System to the Combination of Cadmium and Heat Stress in Transgenic and Non-transgenic Rice
Author: Feng-Yun Zhao, Wen Liu and Shi-Yong Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 942-950
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00865.x
      
    

A comparative study of just cadmium (Cd) or heat and their combination treatments on some physiological parameters and the antioxidant systems in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua No.11) carrying glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC. 2.5.1.18) and catalase1 (CAT1, EC. 1.11.1.6) and non-transgenics was conducted. The results revealed improved resistance in the transgenics to Cd and the combined Cd and heat stress than non-transgenics. Data showed that the activities of CAT, GST, superoxide dismutase (EC.1.15.1.1) and all components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle measured in the stressed transgenics shoots are significantly different from those of non-transgenics. Results indicated that co-expression of GST and CAT1 had an important effect on the antioxidant system, in particular, the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle. The less oxidative damage induced by Cd and the stress combination in the transgenics resulted not only from the GST and CAT1 transgene but also from the coordination of the whole ascorbate-glutathione cycle.
Zhao FY, Liu W, Zhang SY (2009). Different responses of plant growth and antioxidant system to the combination of cadmium and heat stress in transgenic and non-transgenic rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(10), 942–950.

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Endogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Plays a Positive Role in the Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase and Acclimation to Oxidative Stress in Wheat Seedling Leaves  
Author: Xiao-Yue Chen, Xiao Ding, Sheng Xu, Ren Wang, Wei Xuan, Ze-Yu Cao, Jian Chen, Hong-Hong Wu, Mao-Bing Ye and Wen-Biao Shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 951-960
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00869.x
      
    

Pretreatment of lower H2O2 doses (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) for 24 h was able to dose-dependently attenuate lipid peroxidation in wheat seedling leaves mediated by further oxidative damage elicited by higher dose of H2O2 (150 mM for 6 h, with 0.5 mM H2O2 being the most effective concentrations. Further results illustrated that 0.5 mM H2O2 pretreatment triggered the biphasic production of H2O2 during a 24 h period. We also noticed that only peak I (0.25 h) rather than peak II (4 h) was approximately consistent with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity, HO-1 gene expression. Meanwhile, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Mn-SOD and Cu, Zn-SOD transcripts might be a potential source of peak I of endogenous H2O2. Further results confirmed that 0.5 mM H2O2 treatment for 0.5 h was able to upregulate HO gene expression, which was detected by enzyme activity determination, semi quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Meanwhile, the application of N,N’ dimethylthiourea, a trap for endogenous H2O2, not only blocked the upregulation of HO, but also reversed the corresponding oxidation attenuation. Together, the above results suggest that endogenous H2O2 production (peak I) plays a positive role in the induction of HO by enhancing its mRNA level and protein expression, thus leading to the acclimation to oxidative stress.
 

Chen XY, Ding X, Xu S, Wang R, Xuan W, Cao ZY, Chen J, Wu HH, Ye MB, Shen WB (2009). Endogenous hydrogen peroxide plays a positive role in the upregulation of heme oxygenase and acclimation to oxidative stress in wheat seedling leaves. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(10), 951–960.

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          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Induction of Protection against Paraquat-induced Oxidative Damage by Abscisic Acid in Maize Leaves is Mediated through Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase
Author: Hai-Dong Ding, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Shu-Cheng Xu, Li-Li Sun, Ming-Yi Jiang, A-Ying Zhang and Yin-Gen Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 961-972
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00868.x
      
    

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been shown to be important components in stress signal transduction pathway. In the present study, protection of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) against paraquat generated oxidative toxicity by abscisic acid (ABA), its association withMAPK and ZmMPK5, a candidate forMAPK were investigated. Treatment of maize leaves with exogenous ABA led to significant decreases in the content of malondialdehyde, the percentage of ion leakage and the level of protein oxidation (in terms of carbonyl groups) under paraquat (PQ) stress. However, such decreases were blocked by the pretreatment with two MAPK kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. The damage caused by PQ was further aggravated by inhibitors. Two inhibitors also suppressed the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2). Besides, treatment with PQ stimulated the activation of a 46 kDa MAPK, which was identified as ZmMPK5 by in-gel kinase assay with immunoprecipitation. These results reveal that ABA-induced protection against PQ-generated oxidative damage is mediated through MAPK cascade inmaize leaves, in which ZmMPK5, a candidate for MAPK, is demonstrated to be involved.

Ding HD, Zhang XH, Xu SC, Sun LL, Jiang MY, Zhang AY, Jin YG (2009). Induction of protection against paraquat-induced oxidative damage by abscisic acid in maize leaves is mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(10), 961–972.

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Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy
Author: Xin-Sheng Chen, Silvana Martʎn-Rodrʬguez, Qing-Jun Li and Charles B. Fenster
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 973-978
Published Online: August 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00867.x
      
    

Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate variable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation in levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) in a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands).

Chen XS, Martén-Rodríguez S, Li QJ, Fenster CB (2009). Potential autonomous selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a specialized hummingbird pollinated species with variable expression of herkogamy. J. Integr. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00867.x.

Available online at www.jipb.net

 

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          Recruitment Notice
Recruitment Notice
Author:
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(10): 980-980
Published Online: September 23, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00884.x
      
    

Senior Managing Editor, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology

Journal of Integrative Plant Biology (JIPB) is a monthly plant biological journal that reports scientific discoveries by using integrative genetic, chemical, cell and molecular biological approaches. As one of Wiley-Blackwell's leadingjournals, JIPB is available in over 7,800 libraries worldwide and indexed by 45 databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, SCI, CA, BA and BIOSIS (www.jipb.net). We are looking for a Senior Managing Editor to be fully in-charge of the Editorial Office, to work under the supervision of the chief editor and the board members to promote the journal in the plant science community, to bridge the communication between the editorial board, the reviewers, the authors and the publisher.
The ideal candidate should be creative in increasing the journal’s visibility through organizing special issues, setting up a user-friendly public access system, and ensuring an efficient publication cycle. The annual salary range will be 100,000 RMB to 180,000 RMB, depending on the qualification. This position opens opens for application from 1 September, 2009, till the position is filled.

Qualifications:
1. PhD degree in plant molecular biology-related area;
2. Over three-year-working experience in scientific publishing or three or more years research experience in an English-speaking laboratory, with good publication record;
3. Experienced in writing, editing and marketing scientific journals.
To apply, please send your application, including your CV and the names of three referee, to
cmliu@ibcas.ac.cn.

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