March 2009, Volume 51 Issue 3, Pages 225-336.


Cover Caption:
SB401 Bundles Microtubules
Potato pollen extract can phosphorylate microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaulti in vitro. The phosphorylated SB401 has no microtubule-bunding activity, suggesting that phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating SB401function. The cover picture shows how SB401 binds to and bundles microtubules. See pages 253每242 for details (cover design: Ying Wang).

 

          Cell and Developmental Biology
Involvement of Polyamine Oxidase in Abscisic Acid-induced Cytosolic Antioxidant Defense in Leaves of Maize
Author: Beibei Xue, Aying Zhang and Mingyi Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 225-234
Published Online: November 12, 2008
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00766.x
      
    

Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product. Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product.

Xue B, Zhang A, Jiang M (2009) Involvement of polyamine oxidase in abscisic acid-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense in leaves of maize. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51, 225–234.

Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Phosphorylation of Microtubule-associated Protein SB401 from Solanum Berthaultii Regulates Its Effect on Microtubules  
Author: Bao-Quan Liu, Lifeng Jin, Lei Zhu, Jiejie Li, Shuli Huang and Ming Yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 235-242
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00797.x
      
    We reported previously that the protein SB401 from Solanum berthaulti binds to and bundles both microtubules and F-actin. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of SB401 activity by its phosphorylation. Our experimental results showed that the phosphorylation of SB401 by casein kinase II (CKII) down-regulates the activities of SB401, namely the bundling of microtubules and enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin. However, phosphorylation of SB401 had no observable effect on its bundling of F-actin. Further investigation using extract of potato pollen indicated that a CKII-like kinase may exist in potato pollen. Antibodies against CKII alpha recognized specifically a major band from the pollen extract and the pollen extract was able to phosphorylate the SB401 protein in vitro. The CKII-like kinase showed a similar ability to down-regulate the bundling of microtubules. Our experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of SB401 activity. We propose that this phosphorylation may regulate the effects of SB401 on microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Liu BQ, Jin L, Zhu L, Li J, Huang S, Yuan M (2009). Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii regulates its effect on microtubules. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 235每242.
Abstract (Browse 2153)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Ultrastructure of the Mature Egg and Fertilization in the Fern Ceratopteris thalictroides
Author: Jian-Guo Cao, Nai-Ying Yang and Quan-Xi Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 243-250
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00780.x
      
    The ultrastructure of the mature egg and fertilization in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that the mature egg possesses an obvious egg membrane at the periphery of the egg. Furthermore, a fertilization pore was identified in the upper egg membrane of the mature egg. The structure of the pore is described for the first time. The fertilization experiment indicated that spermatozoids crowd into the cavity above the egg through the neck canal of the archegonium; however, only one of these can penetrate into the egg through the fertilization pore. Immediately on penetration of the spermatozoid, the egg begins to shrink. The volume of the fertilized egg decreases to almost one-half that of the unfertilized egg. As a result, the protoplasm of the fertilized egg becomes dense and opaque, which may lead to a situation where the organelles of both the egg and the fertilizing spermatozoid become indistinguishable. Simultaneously, abundant vesicles containing concentric membranes or opaque materials appear near the fertilization pore in the cytoplasm of the fertilized egg. These vesicles are considered to act as a barrier that prevents polyspermy. The present study provides a new insight into the ultrastructure of the mature egg and the cytological mechanism of fertilization in ferns. Cao JG, Yang NY, Wang QX (2009). Ultrastructure of the mature egg and fertilization in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 243每250.
Abstract (Browse 1758)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)
Author: Ahmadreza Mehrabian, Alireza Naqinezhad, Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny, Hossein Mostafavi, Homan Liaghati and Mohsen Kouchekzadeh
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 251-260
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00712.x
      
    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth*s surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value,monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced. Mehrabian A, Naqinezhad A, Mahiny AS, Mostafavi H, Liaghati H, Kouchelzadeh M (2009). Vegetation mapping of the Mond protected area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 251每260.
Abstract (Browse 1415)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1, Involved in Pre-mRNA Splicing, Is Essential for Megagametogenesis and Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis  
Author: Man Liu, Li Yuan, Nai-You Liu, Dong-Qiao Shi, Jie Liu and Wei-Cai Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 261-271
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00783.x
      
    RNA biogenesis is essential and vital for accurate expression of genes. It is obvious that cell can not proceed normal metabolism when RNA splicing is interfered. sgt13018 is such a mutant,with partial loss of function of GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1 (GFA1), a gene likely involved in RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. The mutant is featured with phenotype of slow-downed female gametophyte development at stage FG5 and arrest of early embryo development in Arabidopsis. Bioinformatics data showed that homologues of gene GFA1 in yeast and human encode putative U5 snRNP-specific proteins required for pre-mRNA splicing. Furthermore, result of yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that GFA1 physically interacted with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8, the putative U5 snRNP components, of Arabidopsis. This investigation suggests that GFA1 is involved in mRNA biogenesis through interaction with AtBrr2 and AtPrp8 and functions in megagametogenesis and embryogenesis in plant. Liu M, Yuan L, Liu NY, Shi DQ, Liu J, Yang WC (2009). GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 1, involved in pre-mRNA splicing, is essential for megagametogenesis and embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 261-271.
Abstract (Browse 1989)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Effects of Glycerol on the Fluorescence Spectra and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, (Bacillariophyta)
Author: Xiao-Juan Liu, Shun-Shan Duan, Ai-Fen Li and Kai-Feng Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 272-278
Published Online: November 12, 2008
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00767.x
      
    Responses of the photosynthetic activity of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta) to organic carbon glycerol were investigated. The growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, 77 K fluorescence spectra, and chloroplast ultrastructure of P. tricornutum were examined under photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic conditions. The results showed that the specific growth rate was the fastest under mixotrophic conditions. The cell photosynthetic pigment content and values of Chl a/Chl c were reduced under mixotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions. The value of carotenoid/Chl a was enhanced under mixotrophic conditions, but was decreased under photoheterotrophic conditions. In comparison with photoautotrophic conditions, the fluorescence emission peaks and fluorescence excitation peaks were not shifted. The relative fluorescence of photosystem (PS) I and PS II and the values of F685/F710 and F685/F738 were decreased. Chloroplast thylakoid pairs were less packed under mixotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions. There was a strong correlation between degree of chloroplast thylakoid packing and the excitation energy kept in PS II. These results suggested that the PS II activity was reduced by glycerol under mixotrophic conditions, thereby leading to repression of the photosynthetic activity. Liu XJ, Duan SS, Li AF, Sun KF (2009). Effects of glycerol on the fluorescence spectra and chloroplast ultrastructure of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyta). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 272每278.
Abstract (Browse 1461)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
The Expression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene from Nelumbo nucifera, Responds Strongly to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses
Author: Wen Li, Lin Qi, Xiaodong Lin, Huhui Chen, Zhanqi Ma, Keqiang Wu and Shangzhi Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 279-286
Published Online: December 18, 2008
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00790.x
      
    A manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene, NnMSD1, was identified from embryonic axes of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). The NnMSD1 gene has an open reading frame of 699 bp, and encodes a deduced polypeptide of 233 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass 25.9 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.6. The protein contains all conserved residues of the Mn-SOD protein family, including four consensus metal binding domains and a signal peptide for mitochondrial targeting. Southern blot analysis suggests the existence of two Mn-SOD genes in sacred lotus. NnMSD1 was highly expressed in developing embryonic axes during seed development, but appeared in cotyledons only at the early stage of development and became undetectable in the cotyledons during late embryogenesis. The expression of NnMSD1 gene in germinating embryonic axes, in response to various stresses, such as heat shock, chilling, and exposure to stress-related chemicals, was also studied. Heat shock strongly inhibited the expression of the NnMSD1 gene whereas the NnMSD1 transcript level decreased at the early stage of chilling stress treatment, but was strongly expressed at the later stage. An increase in expression was also highly induced by H2O2 in germinating embryonic axes. The results suggest that the expression pattern of NnMSD1 gene differed between developing axes and cotyledons, and that NnMSD1 gene expression responds strongly to chilling and oxidative stress. Li W, Qi L, Lin X, Chen H, Ma Z,Wu K, Huang S (2009). The expression of manganese superoxide dismutase gene from Nelumbo nucifera responds strongly to chilling and oxidative stresses. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 279每286.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Alternative Splicing and Differential Expression of Two Transcripts of Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase B Gene from Zea mays,
Author: Fan Lin, Yun Zhang and Ming-Yi Jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 287-298
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00808.x
      
    

With the exception of rice, little is known about the existence of respiratory burst oxidase homolog (rboh) gene in cereals. The present study reports the cloning and analysis of a novel rboh gene, termed ZmrbohB, from maize (Zea mays L.). The full-length cDNA of ZmrbohB encodes a 942 amino acid protein containing all of the respiratory burst oxidase homolog catalytically critical motifs. Alternative splicing of ZmrbohB has generated two transcript isoforms, ZmrbohB-α and -β. Spliced transcript ZmrbohB-β retains an unspliced intron 11 that carries a premature termination codon and probably leads to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Expression analysis showed that two splice isoforms were differentially expressed in various tissues and at different developmental stages, and the major product was ZmrbohB-α. The transcripts of ZmrbohB-α accumulated markedly when the maize seedlings were subjected to various abiotic stimuli, such as wounding, cold (4 °C), heat (40 °C), UV and salinity stress. In addition, several abiotic stimuli also affected the alternative splicing pattern of ZmrbohB except wounding. These results provide new insight into roles in the expression regulation of plant rboh genes and suggest that ZmrbohB gene may play a role in response to environmental stresses.

Lin F, Zhang Y, Jiang MY (2009). Alternative splicing and differential expression of two transcripts of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase B gene from Zea mays. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 287–298.

Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Variation in Floral Sex Allocation and Reproductive Success in Sequentially Flowering Inflorescence of Corydalis remota var. lineariloba (Fumariaceae)
Author: Yan-Fei Zeng, Wei-Ning Bai, Yu Zhou and Da-Yong Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 299-307
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00724.x
      
    In hermaphroditic plants, female reproductive success often varies among different positions within an inflorescence. However, few studies have evaluated the relative importance of underlying causes such as pollen limitation, resource limitation or architectural effect, and few have compared male allocation. During a 2-year investigation, we found that female reproductive success of an acropetally flowering species, Corydalis remota Fisch. ex Maxim. var. lineariloba Maxim. was significantly lower in the upper late developing flowers when compared with the lower early flowers. Supplementation with outcross pollen did not improve female reproductive success of the upper flowers, while removal of the lower developing fruits significantly increased female reproductive success of the upper flowers in both years, evidencing resource limitation of the upper flowers. Female production in upper flowers was greatly improved by simultaneous pollen supplementation of the upper flowers and removal of the lower fruits, suggesting that, when resources are abundant, pollenmay limit the female reproductive success of the upper flowers. The less seed mass in the upper flowers didn*t increase in all treatments due to architecture. In the upper flowers, ovule production was significantly lower and the pollen : ovule ratio was significantly higher. These results suggest that male-biased sex allocation in the upper flowers may lead to increased male reproductive success, whereas the lower flowers have higher female reproductive success. Zeng YF, Bai WN, Zhou Y, Zhang DY (2009). Variation in floral sex allocation and reproductive success in sequentially flowering inflorescence of Corydalis remota var. lineariloba (Fumariaceae). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 299每307.
Abstract (Browse 2306)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Fragment Propagation and Colonization Ability Enhanced and Varied at Node Level after Escaping from Apical Dominance in Submerged Macrophytes
Author: Jinhui Jiang, Shuqing An, Changfang Zhou, Baohua Guan, Zhiyi Sun, Ying Cai and Fude Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 308-315
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00732.x
      
    Aquatic plants develop strong fragment propagation and colonization ability to endure the natural disturbances. However, detailed research of ability to endure the natural disturbances has been lacking to date. Therefore, reproduction (shoot) and colonization (root) of shoot fragments of Potamogeton crispus L. with or without apices were investigated for the effect of apical dominance, and the growth of decapitated shoot fragments at three lengths (2, 4, 6 cm) was compared. Meanwhile, fragment propagation at levels of bud position was studied for bud position effect after escaping from apical dominance. The results showed significant increases occurred in the outgrowth of lateral branches on fragments decapitated compared with the fragments with apices, implying that apical dominance exists. Different lengths of fragments showed little difference in biomass allocations, but significant differences were noted in their propagation. Meanwhile, the effect of bud position was verified, due to the significant difference of average reproduction per node among the three length groups. Thus, the present study has made progress in the current understanding of aquatic plant dispersion among natural systems and contributes to improve methods of in vitro propagation for re-implantation purposes. Jiang J, An S, Zhou C, Guan B, Sun Z, Cai Y, Liu F (2009). Fragment propagation and colonization ability enhanced and varied at node level after escaping from apical dominance in submerged macrophytes. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 308每315.
Abstract (Browse 1388)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa
Author: Tao Zhang and Dun-Yan Tan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 316-324
Published Online: January 21, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00800.x
      
    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators and as pollen donors. Zhang T, Tan DY (2009). An examination of the function of male flowers in an andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 316每324.
Abstract (Browse 1266)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Growth and Contaminant Removal Effect of Several Plants in Constructed Wetlands
Author: Xiu-Yun Cheng, Ming-Qiu Liang, Wen-Yin Chen, Xu-Cheng Liu and Zhang-He Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(3): 325-335
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00804.x
      
    The aim of the present study is to probe the relation between plant growth and its decontamination effect in constructed wetlands. Four species were studied in the small-scale mono-cultured constructed wetlands, which were fed with domestic wastewater. Plant rowth indexes were correlated with contaminant removal performance of the constructed wetlands. Wetlands planted with Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb. showed the highest growth indexes such as shoot growth, biomass, root activity, root biomass increment, and the highest contaminant removal rates, whereas wetlands planted with Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash had the lowest growth indexes and the lowest removal rates. Above-ground biomass and total biomass were significantly correlated with ammonia nitrogen removal, and below-ground biomass with soluble reactive phosphorus removal. Photosynthetic rate had higher correlation with nitrogen removal in these species. Root activity and root biomass increment was more correlated with 5 d biochemical oxygen demand removal. Chemical oxygen demand removal had lower correlations with plant growth indexes. All four species had higher removal rates in summer and autumn. The results suggest that the effect of plant growth on contaminant removal in constructed wetlands were different specifically in plants and contaminants. Cheng XY, Liang MQ, Chen WY, Liu XC, Chen ZH (2009). Growth and contaminant removal effect of several plants in constructed wetlands. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(3), 325每335.
Abstract (Browse 1685)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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