May 2009, Volume 51 Issue 5, Pages 433-528.

Cover Caption: Proteome map of Arabidopsis pollen
Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry are key components of current proteomics technology. Using this technology, 189 distinct proteins were identified from Arabidopsis mature pollen or pollen tubes. Among these proteins, 21 showed differential expression during the transition from mature pollen to pollen tube growth. See pages 438C455 for details. The cover picture shows the 2-dimensional protein gel (background, provided by Weihua Wu) and pollen grain (foreground, kindly provided by Dr. Shanjin Huang, Institute of Botany, CAS) of Arabidopsis, observed through scanning electron microscopy (cover design: Ying Wang).


          Editorial, Commentary and Prospectives
Kinematic Analysis of Leaf Growth in Grasses: A Comment on Spatial and Temporal Quantitative Analysis of Cell Division and Elongation Rate in Growing Wheat Leaves under Saline Conditions
Author: Hans Schnyder, Monika Kavanova and C. Jerry Nelson
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 433-436
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00815.x
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Reply to Schnyder, Kavanova and Nelson
Author: Yuncai Hu and Urs Schmidhalter
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 437-437
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00826.x
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          Cell and Developmental Biology
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen  
Author: Junjie Zou Lianfen Song Wenzheng Zhang, Yi Wang, Songlin Ruan and Wei-Hua Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 438-455
Published Online: March 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00823.x

Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

Zou J, Song L, Zhang W, Wang Y, Ruan S, Wu WH (2009). Comparative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis mature pollen and germinated pollen. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 438-455.

Abstract (Browse 2227)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Histological and Ultrastructural Observation Reveals Significant Cellular Differences between Agrobacterium Transformed Embryogenic and Non-embryogenic Calli of Cotton
Author: Hai-Hong Shang, Chuan-Liang Liu, Chao-Jun Zhang, Feng-Lian Li, Wei-Dong Hong and Fu-Guang Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 456-465
Published Online: April 28, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00824.x

Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

Shang HH, Liu CL, Zhang CJ, Li FL, Hong WD, Li FG (2009). Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 456–465.

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          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice
Author: Yawen Zeng, Luxiang Wang, Juan Du, Jiafu Liu, Shuming Yang, Xiaoying Pu and Fenghui Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 466-475
Published Online: April 28, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00820.x

The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

Zeng Y, Wang L, Du J, Liu J, Yang S, Pu X, Xiao F (2009). Elemental content in brown rice by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy reveals the evolution of Asian cultivated rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 466–475.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
The Role of Viral Infection in Inducing Variability in Virus-Free Progeny in Tomato  
Author: Liliana Marii and Gheorghe Chiriac
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 476-488
Published Online: March 17, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00817.x

The effect of virus-host interactions on subsequent generations is poorly understood. The evaluation of the effects of viral infection on inheritance of quantitative traits in the progeny of infected plants and elucidation of a possible relationship between chiasma frequency in the infected plants and variability of traits in the progeny were investigated. The current study involved genotypes of four intraspecific hybrids of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), their parental forms and two additional cultivars. Used as infection were the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX). The consequences of the effect of viral infection were evaluated based on chromosome pairing in diakinesis and/or by examining quantitative and qualitative traits in the progeny of the infected tomato plants. Tomato plants infected with TMV + PVX were found to differ in chiasma frequency per pollen mother cell or per bivalent. Deviations have been observed for genotypes of both F1 hybrids and cultivars. At the same time, differences in mean values of the traits under study have only been found for progeny populations (F2-F4) derived from virus-infected F1 hybrids, but not in the case of progeny of the infected cultivars. The rate of recombinants combining traits of both parents increased significantly (2.22–8.24 times) in progeny populations of hybrids infected with TMV + PVX. The above suggests that the observed effects could be the result of modification of recombination frequencies that can be manifested in heterozygous hybrids and make small contributions to variability in cases of ‘homozygous’ tomato genotypes (i.e. cultivars).

Marii L, Chiriac G (2009). The role of viral infection in inducing variability in virus-free progeny in tomato. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 476-488.

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Polyamine Accumulation in Transgenic Tomato Enhances the Tolerance to High Temperature Stress
Author: Lin Cheng, Yijing Zou, Shuli Ding, Jiajing Zhang, Xiaolin Yu, Jiashu Cao and Gang Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 489-499
Published Online: February 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00816.x

Polyamines play an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC ) one of the key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyamines. In order to better understand the effect of gulation of polyamine biosynthesis on the tolerance of high-temperature stress in tomato, SAMDC cDNA isolated from accharomyces cerevisiae was introduced into tomato genome by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens through leaf disc transformation. Transgene and expression was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Transgenic plants expressing yeast SAMDC produced 1.7- to 2.4-fold higher levels of spermidine and spermine than wildtype plants under high temperature stress, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and the protection of membrane lipid peroxidation was also observed. This subsequently improved the efficiency of CO2 assimilation and protected the plants from high temperature stress, which indicated that the transgenic tomato presented an enhanced tolerance to high temperature stress (38 ◦C) compared with wild-type plants. Our results demonstrated clearly that increasing polyamine biosynthesis in plants may be a means of creating high temperature-tolerant germplasm.

Cheng L, Zou Y, Ding S, Zhang J, Yu X, Cao J, Lu G (2009). Polyamine accumulation in transgenic tomato enhances the tolerance to high temperature stress. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 489-499.

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          Molecular Physiology
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rice Quality in a Population of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines
Author: Wei Hao, Mei-Zhen Zhu, Ji-Ping Gao, Shi-Yong Sun and Hong-Xuan Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 500-512
Published Online: March 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00822.x

The demand for high quality rice represents a major issue in rice production. The primary components of rice grain quality include appearance, eating, cooking, physico-chemical, milling and nutritional qualities. Most of these traits are complex and controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), so the genetic characterization of these traits is more difficult than that of traits controlled by a single gene. The detection and genetic identification of QTLs can provide insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying quality traits. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are effective tools used in mapping QTLs. In this study, we constructed 154 CSSLs from backcross progeny (BC3F2) derived from a cross between ‘Koshihikari’ (an Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica variety) as the recurrent parent and ‘Nona Bokra’ (an O. sativa L. ssp. indica variety) as the donor parent. In this process, we carried out marker-assisted selection by using 102 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence and simple sequence repeat markers covering most of the rice genome. Finally, this set of CSSLs was used to identify QTLs for rice quality traits. Ten QTLs for rice appearance quality traits were detected and eight QTLs concerned physico-chemical traits. These results supply the foundation for further genetic studies and breeding for the improvement of grain quality.

Hao W, Zhu MZ, Gao JP, Sun SY, Lin HX (2009). Identification of quantitative trait loci for rice quality in a population of chromosome segment substitution lines. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 500-512.

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AKIN1 is Involved in the Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism and Sugar Signaling in Arabidopsis
Author: Xiao-Fang Li, Yu-Ju Li, Ying-Hui An, Li-Jun Xiong, Xing-Hua Shao, Yang Wang and Yue Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 513-520
Published Online: March 10, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00811.x

Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) has been located at the heart of the control of metabolism and development in plants. The active SnRK1 form is usually a heterotrimeric complex. Subcellular localization and specific target of the SnRK1 kinase are regulated by specific beta subunits. In Arabidopsis, there are at least seven genes encoding beta subunits, of which the regulatory functions are not yet clear. Here, we tried to study the function of one beta subunit, AKINβ1. It showed that AKINβ1 expression was dramatically induced by ammonia nitrate but not potassium nitrate, and the investigation of AKINβ1 transgenic Arabidopsis and T-DNA insertion lines showed that AKINβ1 negatively regulated the activity of nitrate ruductase and was positively involved in sugar repression in early seedling development. Meanwhile AKINβ1 expression was reduced upon sugar treatment (including mannitol) and did not affect the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase. The results indicate that AKINβ1 is involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism and sugar signaling.

Li XF, Li YJ, An YH, Xiong LJ, Shao XH, Wang Y, Sun Y (2009). AKINβ1 is involved in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism and sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 513–520.

Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Carbon Balance in an Alpine Steppe in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Author: Zhi-Yong Pei, Hua Ouyang, Cai-Ping Zhou and Xing-Liang Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(5): 521-526
Published Online: March 5, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00813.x

Carbon fluxes were measured using a static chamber technique in an alpine steppe in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from July 2000 to July 2001. It was shown that carbon emissions decreased in autumn and increased in spring of the next year, with higher values in growth seasons than in winters. An exponential correlation (Ecarbon = 0.22(exp(0.09T) + ln(0.31P + 1)), R2 = 0.77, P < 0.001) was shown between carbon emissions and environmental factors such as temperature (T) and precipitation (P). Using the daily temperature ((T) and total precipitation (R), annual carbon emission from soil to the atmosphere was estimated to be 79.6 g C/m2, 46% of which was emitted by microbial respiration. Considering an average net primary production of 92.5 g C/m2 per year within the 2 year experiment, alpine steppes can take up 55.9 g CO2-C/m2 per year. This indicates that alpine steppes are a distinct carbon sink, although this carbon reservoir was quite small.

Pei ZY, Ouyang H, Zhou CP, Xu XL (2009). Carbon balance in an alpine steppe in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(5), 521-526.

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