June 2009, Volume 51 Issue 6, Pages 529-624.


Cover Caption: Amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid
Jasmonates and related compounds such as their amino acid conjugates regulate plant development and stress responses. Quantitative structure-property relationship studies on amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid (JA) provide valuable information and may contribute to further understanding of the functions of JA in their signaling pathway and to the designing of pesticides. See pages 581 592 for details (cover design: Ying Wang).

 

          Cell and Developmental Biology
Localization and Dynamic Change of Saponin in Vegetative Organs of Polygala tenuifolia
Author: Hong-Mei Teng, Min-Feng Fang, Xia Cai and Zheng-Hai Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 529-536
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00830.x
      
    

Anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical methods were used to investigate the structure, localization and dynamic changes of total saponin and senegenin of vegetative organs in Polygala tenuifolia Willd. Histochemical localization results showed that saponin accumulated mainly in parenchyma cells of vegetative organs. The phytochemical results also showed that the saponin accumulated in the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia, with higher content in roots and lower content in the aerial parts that included stems and leaves. The saponin content and dry weight of the vegetative organs of P. tenuifolia had dynamic variance at the developmental stages and all reached the highest level in the post-fruit period. Hence, the roots and aerial parts should be gathered in August to make full use of the plant. As the root is the main medicinal organ of P. tenuifolia, the content of total saponin and senegenin of different aged and different parts of the root were determined. The content of total saponin and senegenin exhibited a sustained decreasing trend with increasing root age; therefore, the annual roots had high quality. The content of total saponin and senegenin in different parts of the root showed obvious variation. The content in the "skin areas" was much higher than that of xylem. The results offer a theoretical basis for determining the appropriate harvesting stage and a reasonable harvest of P. tenuifolia.

Teng HM, Fang MF, Cai X, Hu ZH (2009). Localization and dynamic change of saponin in vegetative organs of Polygala tenuifolia. J. Integr. Plant,/em> Biol. 51(6), 529–536.

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          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Fingerprinting Analysis of Rhizoma Chuanxiong of Commercial Types using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method
Author: Hai-Lin Qin, An-Jun Deng, Guan-Hua Du, Peng Wang, Jin-Lan Zhang and Zhi-Hong Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 537-544
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00831.x
      
    

The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) fingerprints of fractionated non-polar extracts (control substance for a plant drug (CSPD) A) from Rhizoma chuanxiong, the rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., of seven specimens from different sources were measured on Fourier Transform (FT)-NMR spectrometer and assigned by comparing them with the 1H NMR spectra of the isolated pure compounds. The 1H NMR fingerprints showed exclusively characteristic resonance signals of the major special constituents of the plant. Although the differences in the relative intensity of the 1H NMR signals due to a discrepancy in the ratio of the major constituents among these samples could be confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, the general features of the 1H NMR fingerprint established for an authentic sample of the rhizomes of L. chuanxiong exhibited exclusive data from those special compounds and can be used for authenticating L. Chuanxiong species.

Qin HL, Deng AJ, Du GH, Wang P, Zhang JL, Li ZH (2009). Fingerprinting analysis of Rhizoma chuanxiong of commercial types using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography method. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 537–544.

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A New Acylated Anthocyanin from the Red Flowers of Camellia hongkongensis and Characterization of Anthocyanins in the Section Camellia Species
Author: Jian-Bin Li, Fumio Hashimoto, Keiichi Shimizu and Yusuke Sakata
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 545-552
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00828.x
      
    

Twelve anthocyanins (1–12) were isolated from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis Seem. by chromatography using open columns. Their tructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, that is, proton-nuclear magnetic resonance, carbon 13-nuclear magnetic resonance, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, high resolution electrospray ionization mass and ultraviolet visible spectroscopies. Out of these anthocyanins, a novel acylated anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(Z)-p-coumaroyl)-β-galactopyranoside (6), two known acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β galactopyranoside (7) and cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-(E)-caffeoyl)-β- galactopyranoside (8), and three known delphinidin glycosides (10–12) were for the first time isolated from the genus Camellia. Furthermore, pigment components in C. japonica L., C. chekiangoleosa Hu and C. semiserrata Chi were studied. The results indicated that the distribution of anthocyanins was differed among these species. Delphinidin glycoside was only detected in the flowers of C. hongkongensis, which is a special and important species in the section Camellia. Based on the characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species, there is a close relationship among these species, and C. hongkongensis might be an important parent for creating new cultivars with bluish flower color.

Li JB, Hashimoto F, Shimizu K, Sakata Y (2009). A new acylated anthocyanin from the red flowers of Camellia hongkongensis and characterization of anthocyanins in the section Camellia species. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 545–552.

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Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Primary Terpenoids and жд9 Tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at Flowering Stage
Author: Hakimeh Mansouri, Zahra Asrar and Mitra Mehrabani
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 553-561
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00833.x
      
    

Plants synthesize an astonishing diversity of isoprenoids, some of which play essential roles in photosynthesis, respiration, and the regulation of growth and development. Two independent pathways for the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors coexist within the plant cell: the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and the plastidialmethylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, little is known about the effects of plant hormones on the regulation of these pathways. In the present study we investigated the effect of gibberellic acid GA3) on changes in the amounts of many produced terpenoids and the activity of the key enzymes, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), in these pathways. Our results showed GA3 caused a decrease in DXS activity in both sexes that it was accompanied by a decrease in chlorophylls, carotenoids and Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents and an increase in α-tocopherol content. The treated plants with GA3 showed an increase in HMGR activity. This increase in HMGR activity was followed by accumulation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in male and female plants and campestrol in male plants. The pattern of the changes in the amounts of sterols was exactly similar to the changes in the HMGR activity. These data suggest that GA3 can probably influence the MEP and MVA pathways oppositely, with stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the produced primary terpenoids in MVA and DXS pathways, respectively.

Mansouri H, Asrar Z, Mehrabani M (2009). Effects of gibberellic acid on primary terpenoids and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Cannabis sativa at flowering stage. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 553–561.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
Jasmonic Acid is Induced in a Biphasic Manner in Response of Pea Seedlings to Wounding  
Author: Hao-Ru Yang, Ke Tang, Hong-Tao Liu, Qiu-Hong Pan and Wei-Dong Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 562-573
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00832.x
      
    

The role of jasmonic acid (JA) in plant wounding response has beendemonstrated. However, the source of JA in wound signaling remains unclear. In the present study, pea seedlings were used as material to investigate the systemic induction of JA and the activation of lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent octadecanoid pathway upon wounding. The results showed that endogenous JA could induce two peaks in the wounded leaves and the stalks, while only one peak in the systemic leaves. LOX activity and its protein amount were also induced and the stimulation mainly occurred in the late phase, while one peak of induction was present after pretreatment with JA. Applied nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), an inhibitor of LOX activity, only inhibited the induction of JA in the late phase, and the resistance of pea was impaired. Furthermore, 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9(Z), 11(E)-octadecadienoic acid (13 (S)-H(P)ODE) was confirmed to be the main product of LOX throughout the experimental time. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis also revealed the occurrence of JA biosynthesis and transport upon wounding. These results demonstrated that wound-induced JA in wounded leaves resulted from its biosynthesis and conversion from its conjugates, while in systemic leaves resulted from its transport and biosynthesis; and proved that the LOX pathway was vital to the wound-induced defense response involved in JA biosynthesis.

Yang HR, Tang K, Liu HT, Pan QH, Huang WD (2009). Jasmonic acid is induced in a biphasic manner in response of pea seedlings to wounding. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 562–573.

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Protecting Cell Walls from Binding Aluminum by Organic Acids Cntributes to Aluminum Resistance
Author: Ya-Ying Li, Yue-Jiao Zhang, Yuan Zhou, Jian-Li Yang and Shao-Jian Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 574-580
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00825.x
      
    

Aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids from the root apex has been demonstrated to be one major Al resistance mechanism in plants. However, whether the organic acid concentration is high enough to detoxify Al in the growth medium is frequently questioned. The genotypes of Al-resistant wheat, Cassia tora L. and buckwheat secrete malate, citrate and oxalate, respectively. In the present study we found that at a 35% inhibition of root elongation, the Al activities in the solution were 10, 20, and 50 μM with the corresponding malate, citrate, and oxalate exudation at the rates of 15, 20 and 21 nmol/cm2 per 12 h, respectively, for the above three plant species. When exogenous organic acids were added to ameliorate Al toxicity, twofold and eightfold higher oxalate and malate concentrations were required to produce the equal effect by citrate. After the root apical cell walls were isolated and preincubated in 1 mM malate, oxalate or citrate solution overnight, the total amount of Al adsorbed to the cell walls all decreased significantly to a similar level, implying that these organic acids own an equal ability to protect the cell walls from binding Al. These findings suggest that protection of cell walls from binding Al by organic acids may contribute significantly to Al resistance.

Li YY, Zhang YJ, Zhou Y, Yang JL, Zheng SJ (2009). Protecting cell walls from binding aluminum by organic acids contributes to aluminum resistance. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 574–580.

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Quantitative Structure-property Relationship Studies on Amino Acid Conjugates of Jasmonic Acid as Defense Signalling Molecules  
Author: Zu-Guang Li, Ke-Xian Chen, Hai-Ying Xie and Jian-Rong Gao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 581-592
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00829.x
      
    

Jasmonates and related compounds, including amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid, have regulatory functions in the signaling pathway for plant developmental processes and responses to the complex equilibrium of biotic and abiotic stress. But the molecular details of the signaling mechanism are still poorly understood. Statistically significant quantitative structure-property relationship models (r2 > 0.990) constructed by genetic function approximation and molecular field analysis were generated for the purpose of deriving structural requirements for lipophilicity of amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid. The best models derived in the present study provide some valuable academic information in terms of the 2/3D-descriptors influencing the lipophilicity, which may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of exogenous application of jasmonates in their signaling pathway and designing novel analogs of jasmonic acid as ecological pesticides.

Li ZG, Chen KX, Xie HY, Gao JR (2009). Quantitative structure-property relationship studies on amino acid conjugates of jasmonic acid as defense signaling molecules. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 581–592.

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          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) Exhibits a Lower Photosynthetic Plasticity than Antarctic Hairgrass (D. antarctica)
Author: Grazyna Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska and Pawel L. Urban
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 593-603
Published Online: January 21, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00802.x
      
    

The aim of our work was to assess photosynthetic plasticity of two hairgrass species with different ecological origins (a temperate zone species, Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. and an Antarctic species, D. antarctica) and to consider how the anticipated climate change may affect vitality of these plants. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency of D. caespitosa decreased during 4 d of incubation at 4 ◦C but it remained stable in D. antarctica. The fluorescence half-rise times were almost always lower in D. caespitosa than in D. antarctica, irrespective of the incubation temperature. These results indicate that the photosynthetic apparatus of D. caespitosa has poorer performance in these conditions. D. caespitosa reached the maximum photosynthesis rate at a higher temperature than D. antarctica although the values obtained at 8 C were similar in both species. The photosynthetic water-use efficiency (photosynthesis-to-transpiration ratio, P/E) emerges as an important factor demonstrating presence of mechanisms which facilitate functioning of a plant in non-optimal conditions. Comparison of the P/Evalues, which were higher in D. antarctica than in D. caespitosa at low and medium temperatures, confirms a high degree of adjustability of the photosynthetic apparatus in D. antarctica and unveils the lack of such a feature in D. caespitosa.
 

Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska G, Urban PL (2009). Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) exhibits a lower photosynthetic plasticity than Antarctic hairgrass (D. antarctica). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 593-603

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Neither Biased Sex Ratio nor Spatial Segregation of the Sexes in the Subtropical Dioecious Tree Eurycorymbus cavaleriei (Sapindaceae)
Author: Puxin Gao, Ming Kang, Jing Wang, Qigang Ye and Hongwen Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 604-613
Published Online: June 8, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00827.x
      
    

Knowledge of sex ratio and spatial distribution of males and females of dioecious species is both of evolutionary interest and of crucial importance for biological conservation. Eurycorymbus cavaleriei, the only species in the genus Eurycorymbus (Sapindaceae), is a dioecious tree endemic to subtropical montane forest in South China. Sex ratios were investigated in 15 natural populations for the two defined ages (young and old). Spatial distribution of males and females was further studied in six large populations occurring in different habitats (fragmented and continuous). The study revealed a slight trend of male-biased sex ratio in both ages of E. cavaleriei, but sex ratio of most populations (13 out of 15) did not display statistically significant deviation from equality. All of the four significantly male-biased populations in the young class shifted to equality or even female-biased. The Ripley's K analysis of the distribution of males with respect to females suggested that individuals of the opposite sexes were more randomly distributed rather than spatially structured. These results suggest that the male-biased sex ratio in E. cavaleriei may result from the precocity of males and habitat heterogeneity. The sex ratio and the sex spatial distribution pattern are unlikely to constitute a serious threat to the survival of the species.

Gao P, Kang M, Wang J, Ye Q, Huang H (2009). Neither biased sex ratio nor spatial segregation of the sexes in the subtropical dioecious tree Eurycorymbus cavaleriei (Sapindaceae). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 604–613.

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          New Technology
Development of a Low-cost Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for Studying Differentially Expressed Genes in Developing Rice Leaves
Author: Yin-Wan Wendy Fung, Hoi Yee Chow, Tik Wan Law, Biao Dong and Hoi Shan Kwan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(6): 614-621
Published Online: January 31, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00801.x
      
    

Gene expression studies are important for revealing gene functions putatively involved in biological processes. We were interested in identifying differentially expressed genes during leaf development in rice. We combined the RNA arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and dot blot hybridization methods to screen a rice leaf primordium cDNA library. Three developmental stages during vegetative growth were examined. The cDNA clones showing different hybridization patterns were further analyzed and verified. Here we demonstrate that the combination of RAP-PCR and dot blot hybridization could provide an efficient and relatively low-cost cDNA library screening approach to discover genes not previously known to be associated with leaf development in rice. We believe that the findings described here will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the developmental processes of rice leaf.

Fung YWW, Chow HY, Law TW, Dong B, Kwan HS (2009). Development of a low-cost polymerase chain reaction-based method for studying differentially expressed genes in developing rice leaves. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(6), 614-621.

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