January 1963, Volume 11 Issue 1


          Research Articles
Monilia sitophila (Mont.) Sacc. As an Agent in Converting Paddy-Straw into Paper-Pulp
Author: C. Teng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    Monilia sitophila (Mont.) Sacc. was found to be able, by the action of its pectolytic enzymes, to render paddy straw suitable for making paper pulp. As a result of studies of the various factors influencing the growth, the formation of enzymes and the enzymatic activity of the fungus, a simple, economical and practicable procedure for converting paddy straw into paper pulp was formulated.
Abstract (Browse 2324)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Gibberellin on the Growth and Development of Paddy Rice and Winter Wheat
Author: K. L. Ling and Y. R. Chow
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    A series of experiments was carried out on the effect of gibberellin on paddy rice and winter wheat. Since 1958, 15 different experiments with more than 50 separate treatments including various concentrations and doses of gibberellins, and all the main developmental stages of the plants, besides, several varieties of rice and wheat and also, potted plants and field test in varies districts were employed in these work during the five successive years (from 1958 to 1962). The following conclusions may be made from the results of the present studies: 1. Gibberellin has a profound effect on the growth of the vegetative organs of both rice and wheat plants. At a certain developmental stage, the treatment promoted the growth of stems as well as the leaves of the plants. 2. Treatment with this hormone does not significantly affect the development of both plants the tillering time, seed weight and the total yield are not affected. As a whole, the yield of both crop plants treated with gibberellin was neither increased nor decreased under our experimental conditions. We hope that the results of our four years work may be helpful to those who are working with gibberellins, especially those dealing with the grain crops.
Abstract (Browse 2081)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Gibberellin on the Phosphorus Metabolism in Plants
Author: Chao Ke-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    1. The materials used in this experiment are seedlings of winter cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum M.). Some of the winter cabbage seedlings are raised from vernalized seeds, others from unvernalized seeds. Young branches and detached leaves of tomato plant are also tested. The concentrations of gibberellin are 0 (control), 40 and 80 ppm. Radioactive phosphorus (p32) are supplied as KH2PO4 in 485c per litre. 2. The results of this experiment indicate that the dry weight of shoots of the winter cabbage, maize and tomato are increased by treatment of 40 or 80 ppm gibberelin. The effect of gibberellin on the winter cabbage, maize and tomato last 10, 7 and 11 days respectively. 3. In all cases the absorption of phosphorus is conspicuously promoted by gibberellin. At the same time, the gibberellin treatments have also a stimulation effect on the conversion of organic phosphorus. Both acid-soluble organic phosphorus, and the phosphorus in the phospholipid and protein fraction (nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein) are higher in the treated plants than in the controls. 4. There is a close parallelism between the dry weight increase and the increased phosphorus uptake, suggesting that the effect of dry weight increase is related to the phosphorus metabolism. 5. The sensitivity of the vernalized cabbage toward gibberellin treatment differs from that of the unvernalized. This difference is shown both in the absorption of inorganic phosphorus and its conversion into organic phosphorus. There seems to be some reason to believe that the well known fact that low-temperature requirement of the winter cabbage can be substituted by gibberellin treatment may be related to the promotion of the phosphorus metabolism. It is suggested that the sequence of the effects of gibberellin is as follows: first it promotes the phosphorus metabolism by increasing the growth of plants and then it influences plant development through its effect on growth.
Abstract (Browse 2347)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Microelements on the Growth and Respiration of Rice with Special Reference to the Respiratory Inhibitors
Author: Chao, S. W. and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa var. Yinfang) were treated with different concentrations of CuSO45H2OMnSO44H2OZnSO47H20H3BO3H2O and MoO3 for 24 hours, then they were germinated at 25 in an incubator. After 10 days, the seedlings were deseeded and the dry weight of shoots and roots was determined as usual. Warburgs manometric method was used to determine the rate of respiration and the activity of succinic oxidase. The antagonism between microelements and respiratory inhibitors was studied by the use of potassium cyanide, malonic acid, sodium fluroide and others. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The optimum concentrations of copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and boron for growth and respiration are 2, 100, 100, 50, 50 ppm, respectively. 2. Copper, manganese, molybdenum and boron stimulated the growth both of shoots and roots, however, zinc stimulated only the growth of roots. 3. In general, the concentration which stimulates growth was also to accelerate the rate of respiration, the rate of growth and respiration was retarded when the concentration was increase. 4. Antagonism had been observed between microelements such as copper, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and potassium cyanide. 5. The inhibition of malonic acid was increased by the treatment of various microelements. 6. The activity of succinic oxidase was stimulated by manganese, but did not by copper.
Abstract (Browse 2174)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in the Spore Morphology of Loxogramme Presl
Author: Chang Yu-lung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    The spore morphology of 20 species of Loxogramme Presl has been studied. The following conclusions may be drawn from the present investigation: 1. In Loxogramme there are two predominating spore types, the trilete and the monolete. 11 species of the material studied belong to the former, and 9 other species to the latter. The trilete spore is circular, subcircular or round triangular in polar view, and ellipsoidal in equatorial view. The polar axis ranges from 26 to 65 , and the equatorial axis from 33.8 to 80.6 . The monolete spore is long ellipsoidal or ellipsoidal in polar view, and bean-shaped in equatorial view. The polar axis tangs from 26 to 62.4 , and the equatorial axis rangs from 40.3 to 94.4 . The structure of exine of all species studied in this genus is fairly uniform. The outline of spore is slightly undulate or crenate. The exine, about 1.3C3.9 in thickness and ornamented with small, irregularly shaped verrucae, is usually two-layered, but sometimes its stratification is indistinct. 2. According to the two predominating spore types in Loxogramme, we may divide this genus into two groups: the one belongs to trilete spore, and the other to monolete spore. 3. A few monolete spores were found among the predominating trilete spores of L. assimilis Ching and L. grammitoides (Bak.) C. Chr., while a few trilete spres were found also among the predominating monolete spores of L. parallela Copel, Some spores with varying fissures were observed as well in these three species. According to the degree of variation, two possible transitional ways from the trilete type to the monolete type are here suggested. These facts as mentioned above may be significant to the toxonomy of Loxogramma, and may indicate that the trilete type and monolete type are related each other in the evolution of ferns. 4. According to the morphology and anatomy in Loxogramme, Prof. R. C. Ching (1940) separated Loxogramme from Polypodiaceae as a new family Loxogrammaceae. It has been known that only one spore type i.e. the monolete type is found in Polypodiaceae, while in Loxogramme both the monolete and trilete types are found. It is generally accepted that the trilete is the primitive type, and the monolete is more advanced type. Thus Loxogramme occupies a phylogenetical position more primitive than Polypodiaceae. We agree with Prof. R. C. Ching's viewpoint. 5. The morphology of trilete spore of Loxogramme is very similar to Grammitis Sw. However, Loxogramme is more advanced than the latter from the point of view of palynology, because the monolete type is, as mentioned above, also found in Loxogramme. Thus Loxogramme may be derived from Grammitis as E. B. Copeland (1948) pointed out. It must be noticed, however, that Copeland (1948) put Grammitis in Polypodiaceae, and therefore actually he recognized Loxogramme as a member of Polypodiaceae. R. C. Ching (1940) first separated Grammitis from Polypodiaceae as a new family of Grammitaceae, and only later did Copeland (1951) accept Ching's viewpoint. From the point of view of palynology, it seems that the taxonomic and phylogenetical position of Loxogramme is more closely related to Grammitaceae than to Polypodiaceae.
Abstract (Browse 2288)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies of the Leaf Structure of Chinese Pines
Author: Y. L. Kwei and C. L. Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    The comparative anatomy of the leaves of 23 species, 4 varieties and 4 forms of the genus Pinus has been investigated with special reference to their transverse sections and epidermal structures. Following a brief description of each species, a key to such is proposed. The stomata of these species can be classified into two types, each represented by P. koraiensis (Haploxylon) and P. tabulaeformis (Diploxylon) respectively. Based on the fact that the epidermal character is intimately correlated with the arrangement of the connecting cells in the stomata, it is reasonable to subdivide the genus Pinus into two subgenera. Likewise, the characteristics of the hypodermis, the position and number of the resin ducts, and the nature of endodermis are important criteria for the identification of these two subgenera. The systematic position of P. bungeana Zucc., P. yunnanensis Franch. var. tenuifolia Cheng et Y. W. Law, and P. kwangtungensis Chun has also been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2197)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies in the Polyembryony of Hosta caerulea Tratt. . Observations on the Development of Adventive Embryo under Hormone-Treatments
Author: S. Y. Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    The present paper deals with experiments on the development of adventive embryos of Hosta caerulea by the application of 0.1% IAA, and 0.01% IAA, and 0.01% 2,4-D to the pistils of emasculated flowers. The results are summarized below. 1. When IAA or 2,4-D was employed to substitute pollination, 80%C90% of ovaries remained attached to the plant and continued to grow for a time. All the controls withered and fell off within 3 days. 2. In hormone-treated ovules, the unfertilized egg and secondary nucleus failed to develope, so that there was neither zygote embryo nor endosperm, but the initiating cells of adventive embryos divided to form young adventive embryos. 3. In the hormone-treated ovules, in the early stages, the growth condition and growth rate of adventive embryos were similar to those of pollinated plants. In later stages the former were characterized by the formation of callus-like cell groups and lack of cell differentiation. About 24 days later the ovules showed progressive shrinkage accompanied by a cessation of growth of the adventive embryos. 4. According to the facts observed the conclusion may be drawn that there is no direct relationship between pollination and the origination of adventive embryo, but in further differentiation of the embryo the presence of endosperm or growth-promoting and growth-regulating substances produced by it are necessary.
Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oxidative Metabolism of Glucose in Leaf Tissues Infected with Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Author: P. Tien and P. S. Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
    The respiratory metabolism of labelled glucose by leaf tissues of Nicotiana tabacum (var. Huangmiaoy) was studied. Discs from TMV inoculated and control leaves were cultured under sterile conditions in Hoagland solution under weak light. At stated intervals after inoculation, tissues were harvested for respiration experiments in Warburg vessels using glucose-l-C14 or glucose-R-C14 as substrates. The C1/Cr ratios as well as Qo2 were followed as function of time. The following results were obtained: 1. Rates of respiration for the TMV infected as well as for the control tissues rose to a maximum up to the 4th day of incubation. It was followed by a drop on the 6th day. The rates rose again on the 8th followed by a marked drop on the 10th day. Since this trend occurred in both types of tissues it was not related to virus infection. 2. The rates of respiration in both types of tissues are about equal up to the second day of incubation. After this period, the rates in the TMV infected tissues are lower than those in the controls. This period of lowered respiration corresponded with the onset of maximum virus multiplication in the infected tissues and was maintained up to the 10th day. 3. There is a marked and consistent decline in the C1/Cr ratios with time of incubation in both types of tissues. This is interpreted as being due to changes in physiological state of host tissues upon aging similar to those observed in potato tuber slices. 4. While the relatively small and irregular changes in the values of C1/Cr ratios at the initial and final periods of incubation are not easily analysed, the consistent though small rise in the C1/Cr ratios in the infected tissues between the second and the 8th days of incubation, at the period of maximum virus multiplication is indicative of a relative shift of the pathway of glucose dissimilation towards the HMP route upon TMV infection. 5. The phenomenon of wound respiration with its accompanying metabolic changes which has hitherto been reported only in tuberous tissues, appear to be present also in tobacco leaf tissues. The need to take into consideration of this effect in studies on host-parasite metabolic relationship is stressed.
Abstract (Browse 2155)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1963 11(1)
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
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