August 2009, Volume 51 Issue 9, Pages 818ĘC905.

Cover Caption: B chromosome in wheat-rye hybrid
B chromosomes differ from A chromosomes in morphology, dispensability for normal plant growth, and their non-Mendelian inheritance mode. Variation in the numbers of B chromosomes in different generations might arise from nondisjunction during gametogenesis. Similar variation was also observed during plant tissue culture. In this issue, Bohong Tian et al. (pp 834ĘC839) showed that, during tissue culture of a wheat-rye hybrid, higher numbers of B chromosomes were observed in cells with polyploidy genomes. B chromosome was highlighted in circle (cover design: Ying Wang).


          Cell and Developmental Biology
Quantitative Trait Loci for Panicle Layer Uniformity Identified in Doubled Haploid Lines of Rice in Two Environments
Author: Liangyong Ma, Jinsong Bao, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng, Ximing Li, Zhijuan Ji, Yingwu Xia, Changdeng Yang and Qian Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 818-824
Published Online: August 3, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00854.x

Uniformity of stem height in rice directly affects crop yield potential and appearance, and has become a vital index for rice improvement. In the present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population, derived from a cross between japonica rice Chunjiang 06 and indica rice TN1 was used to analyze the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for three related traits of paniclelayer- uniformity; that is, the tallest panicle height, the lowest panicle height and panicle layer disuniformity in two locations: Hangzhou (HZ) and Hainan (HN). A total of 16 QTLs for three traits distributed on eight chromosomes were detected in two different environments. Two QTLs, qTPH-4 and qTPH-8 were co located with the QTLs for qLPH-4 and qLPH-8, which were only significant in the HZ environment, whereas the qTPH-6 and qLPH-6 located at the same interval were only significant in the HN environment. Two QTLs, qPLD-10-1 and qPLD-10-2, were closely linked to qTPH-10, and they might have been at the same locus. One QTL, qPLD-3, was detected in both environments, explaining more than 23% of the phenotypic variations. The CJ06 allele of qPLD-3 could increase the panicle layer disuniformity by 9.23 and 4.74 cm in the HZ and HN environments. Except for qPLD-3, almost all other QTLs for the same trait were detected only in one environment, indicating that these three traits were dramatically affected by environmental factors. The results may be useful for elucidation of the molecular mechanism of panicle-layer-uniformity and marker assisted breeding for super-rice.

Ma L, Bao J, Guo L, Zeng D, Li X, Ji Z, Xia Y, Yang C, Qian Q (2009). Quantitative trait loci for panicle layer uniformity identified in doubled haploid lines of rice in two environments. J. Integr. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00854.x.

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The OsDHODH1 Gene is Involved in Salt and Drought Tolerance in Rice  
Author: Wen-Ying Liu, Mei-Mei Wang, Ji Huang, Hai-Juan Tang, Hong-Xia Lan and Hong-Sheng Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 825-833
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00853.x

In the present paper, we identified and cloned OsDHODH1 encoding a putative cytosolic dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) in rice. Expression analysis indicated that OsDHODH1 is upregulated by salt, drought and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), but not by cold. By prokaryotic expression, we determined the enzymatic activity of OsDHODH1 and found that overproduction of OsDHODH1 significantly improved the tolerance of Escherichia coli cells to salt and osmotic stresses. Overexpression of the OsDHODH1 gene in rice increased the DHODH activity and enhanced plant tolerance to salt and drought stresses as compared with wild type and OsDHODH1-antisense transgenic plants. Our findings reveal, for the first time, that cytosolic dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is involved in plant stress response and that OsDHODH1 could be used in engineering crop plants with enhanced tolerance to salt and drought. Liu WY, Wang MM, Huang J, Tang HJ, Lan HX, Zhang HS (2009). The OsDHODH1 gene is involved in salt and drought tolerance in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 825–833.

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Variation of B Chromosome Associated with Tissue Culture in Wheat-rye Cross
Author: Bohong Tian and Hongjie Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 834-839
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00864.x

In vitro variation of B chromosomes was studied by examining the callus cells derived from the immature embryos from a cross of Chinese Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Fin 7416 rye (Secale cereale L.) carrying two B chromosomes. In 40-d-old callus cells, the numbers of B chromosomes ranged from one to four in 65.6% of the cells observed. The distribution of B chromosome numbers was associated with the ploidy levels of the normal chromosomes (A chromosomes). The frequency of the cells with high numbers of B chromosomes (i.e., three or four B chromosomes) in the amphiploid cells with 56 A chromosomes was greater than those in the haploid cells with 28 A chromosomes. Although structural changes in the rye A chromosomes were observed, cytological observation and genomic in situ hybridization demonstrated that the rye B chromosomes were conserved in morphological appearance following tissue culture.

Tian B, Li H (2009). Variation of B chromosome associated with tissue culture in wheat-rye cross. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 834–839.

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A Comparative Study on the Role of Cytokinins in Caryopsis Development in the Maize miniature1 Seed Mutant and its Wild Type  
Author: Tomaž Rijavec, Maja Kovač, Aleš Kladnik, Prem S. Chourey and Marina Dermastia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 840-849
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00863.x

We report here on a comparative developmental profile of plant hormone cytokinins in relation to cell size, cell number and endoreduplication in developing maize caryopsis of a cell wall invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and its wild type, Mn1, genotype. Both genotypes showed extremely high levels of total cytokinins during the very early stages of development, followed by a marked and genotype specific reduction. While the decrease of cytokinins in Mn1 was associated with their deactivation by 9-glucosylation, the absolute and the relative part of active cytokinin forms was higher in the mutant. During the exponential growth phase of endosperm between 6 d after pollination and 9 d after pollination, the mean cell doubling time, the absolute growth rate and the level of endoreduplication were similar in the two genotypes. However, the entire duration of growth was longer in Mn1 compared with mn1, resulting in a significantly higher cell number in the Mn1 endosperm. These data correlate with the previously reported peak levels of the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase-2 (INCW2) at 12 d after pollination in the Mn1 endosperm. A model showing possible crosstalk among cytokinins, cell cycle and cell wall invertase as causal to increased cell number and sink strength of the Mn1 developing endosperm is discussed.

Rijavec T, Kova?M, Kladnik A, Chourey PS, Dermastia M (2009). A comparative study on the role of cytokinins in caryopsis development in the maize miniature1 seed mutant and its wild type. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 840–849.

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          Metabolism and Biochemistry
A Comparative Analysis of Embryo and Endosperm Proteome from Seeds of Jatropha curcas
Author: Hui Liu, Yu-Jun Liu, Ming-Feng Yang and Shi-Hua Shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 850-857
Published Online: July 3, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00839.x

Jatropha curcas is an important economic plant for biodiesel, which is extracted mainly from the endosperm of its mature seeds. Despite the morphological and functional differences between the embryo and endosperm, proteomic characteristics of the two tissues are not yet known. Similar proteomic profiles were observed in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps from the two tissues. There were 380 and 533 major protein spots in the embryo and endosperm, respectively. Fourteen identical spots, showing a notable change, were selected and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (spot 27) participates in tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is an amphibolic pathway. The two parts both included proteins related to stress (spots 8, 115, 118, 125, 130) and signal transduction (spots 7, 100, 108). According to the volume percentage of proteins in embryo and endosperm, the proteins in endosper (spots 54, 61, 73) were catabolism-related enzymes and reserves to provide the nutrition for seed germination; the proteins in embryo (spots 27, 62, 122) were inclined to anabolism and utilized the nutrition from the endosperm to generate a new life.

Liu H, Liu YJ, Yang MF, Shen SH (2009). A comparative analysis of embryo and endosperm proteome from seeds of Jatropha curcas. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 850-857.

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          Plant-environmental Interactions
Osmopriming-Regulated Changes of Plasma Membrane Composition and Function were Inhibited by Phenylarsine Oxide in Soybean Seeds
Author: Jiajin Zhuo, Weixiang Wang, Yun Lu, Wu Senand Xiaofeng Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 858-867
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00861.x

The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of osmoconditioning on chilling injury in chilling-sensitive soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. Zhonghuang No. 22) seeds during imbibition. Low temperatures reduced the germination rate and no seed germinated at 1 ◦C. Osmoconditioning of seeds at 20 C with a polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG8000) solution at 1.5 MPa for 72 h followed by drying back to their initial moisture content (MC) reduced their chilling sensitivity. The phenylarsine oxide (PAO), an inhibitor of protein tyrosinephosphatases, was used to investigate the possible involvement of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of Tyr residues in the plasma membrane composition and function when seeds were osmoconditioned. The results showed the germination of osmoconditioned seeds decreased significantly when PAO was added in PEG solution after chilling treatment. PAO inhibited changes in composition of plasmamembrane phospholipids and fatty acid induced by osmocondition, indicated that tyrosine protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulatory mechanisms of osmocondition-responsive chilling in soybean seeds. Western blot result further indicated that osmocondition treatment improved the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPase after chilling treatment, but this effect was abolished by PAO. The possible regulation mechanism by Tyr protein phosphorylation is discussed.

Zhuo JJ, Wang WX, Lu Y, Wu S, Wang XF (2009). Osmopriming-regulated changes of plasma membrane composition and function were inhibited by phenylarsine oxide in soybean seeds. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 858–867.

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          Molecular Physiology
Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Drought Tolerance Traits in Soybean Using a Recombinant Inbred Line Population
Author: Weijun Du, Deyue Yu and Sanxiong Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 868-878
Published Online: August 21, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00855.x

To investigate the genetic basis of drought tolerance in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) a recombinant inbred population with 184 F2:7:11 lines developed from a cross between Kefeng1 (drought tolerant) and Nannong1138-2 (drought sensitive) were tested under water-stressed and well watered conditions in field and greenhouse trials. Traits measured included leaf wilting coefficient, excised leaf water loss and relative water content as indicators of plant water status and seed yield. A total of 40 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified: 17 for leaf water status traits under drought stress and 23 for seed yield under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions in both field and greenhouse trials. Two seed yield QTLs were detected under both well-watered and drought-stressed conditions in the field on molecular linkage group H and D1b, while two seed yield QTLs on molecular linkage group C2 were found under greenhouse conditions. Several QTLs for traits associated with plant water status were identified in both field and greenhouse trials, including two leaf wilting coefficient QTLs on molecular linkage group A2 and one excised leaf water loss QTL on molecular linkage group H. Phenotypic correlations of traits suggested several QTLs had pleiotropic or location-linked associations. These results will help to elucidate the genetic basis of drought tolerance in soybean, and could be incorporated into a marker-assisted selection breeding program to develop high yielding soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to drought stress.

Du W, Yu D, Fu S (2009). Detection of quantitative trait loci for yield and drought tolerance traits in soybean using a recombinant inbred line population. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 868–878.

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Correlation and Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses of Total Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthetic Rate of Rice (Oryza sativa) under Water Stress and Well-watered Conditions
Author: Song-Ping Hu,Ying Zhou, Lin Zhang, Xiu-Dong Zhu, Lin Li, Li-Jun Luo, Guo-Lan Liu and Qing-Ming Zhou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 879-888
Published Online: July 3, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00846.x

In order to explore the relevant molecular genetic mechanisms of photosynthetic rate (PR) and chlorophyll content (CC) in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we conducted a series of related experiments using a population of recombinant inbred lines (Zhenshan97B × IRAT109). We found a significant correlation between CC and PR (R = 0.19**) in well-watered conditions, but no significant correlation during water stress (r = 0.08). We detected 13 main quantitative trait loci (QTLs) located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10, which were associated with CC, including six QTLs located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 during water stress, and seven QTLs located on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 in well-watered conditions. These QTLs explained 47.39% of phenotypic variation during water stress and 56.19% in well-watered conditions. We detected four main QTLs associated with PR; three of them (qPR2, qPR10, qPR11) were located on chromosomes 2, 10, and 11 during water stress, and one (qPR10) was located on chromosome 10 in well-watered conditions. These QTLs explained 34.37% and 18.41% of the phenotypic variation in water stress and well-watered conditions, respectively. In total, CC was largely controlled by main QTLs, and PR was mainly controlled by epistatic QTL pairs.

Hu SP, Zhou Y, Zhang L, Zhu XD, Li L, Luo LJ, Liu GL, ZhouQM (2009). Correlation and quantitative trait loci analyses of total chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of rice (Oryza sativa) under water stress and well-watered conditions. J. Integr. Plant Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1744 7909.2009.00846.x

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          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Phylogenetic Origin of Phyllolobium with a Further Implication for Diversifiction of Astragalus in China
Author: Mingli Zhang, Yun Kang, Lihua Zhou and Dietrich Podlech
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 889-899
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00856.x

Astragalus is a species-rich genus occurring in the western arid habitats in China and its diversification and infrageneric relationships in this region remain unclear. In the present study, based on molecular data, we aim to (i) test whether Phyllolobium (previously treated as a subgenus Pogonophace in Astragalus) should be warranted; and (ii) date the origin of Phyllolobium and probable diversification of Astragalus sensu stricto (s.s.). We sequenced five species from Phyllolobium first and collected all related sequences from the genus, Astragalus s.s and their close relatives (Oxytropis and Caragana etc.). Our phylogenetic analyses suggested that all species of Phyllolobium comprise amonophyletic sister-group to genera of the subtribe Coluteinae. Molecular dating suggested that Phyllolobium and Astragalus s.s. originated around 8 and 10 million years ago. These two estimates are highly consistent with the intense uplifts of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau inferred from geological evidence. In addition, one section of Pogonophace (Sect. Robusti) was estimated to originate 2.5 million years ago and this section with a tendency for dry habitats seems to be evidence of Asian intensified aridity resulting from the intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Zhang M, Kang Y, Zhou L, Podlech D (2009). Phylogenetic origin of Phyllolobium with a further implication for diversification of Astragalus in China. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 889–899.

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Carbon Sequestration in Two Alpine Soils on the Tibetan Plateau
Author: Yu-Qiang Tian, Xing-Liang Xu, Ming-Hua Song, Cai-Ping Zhou, Qiong Gao and Hua Ouyang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(9): 900-905
Published Online: August 27, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00852.x

Soil carbon sequestration was estimated in a conifer forest and an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau using a carbon- 14 radioactive label provided by thermonuclear weapon tests (known as bomb-14C). Soil organic matter was physically separated into light and heavy fractions. The concentration spike of bomb-14C occurred at a soil depth of 4 cm in both the forest soil and the alpine meadow soil. Based on the depth of the bomb-14C spike, the carbon sequestration rate was determined to be 38.5 g C/m2 per year for the forest soil and 27.1 g C/m2 per year for the alpine meadow soil. Considering that more than 60% of soil organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the heavy fraction and the large area of alpine forests and meadows on the Tibetan Plateau, these alpine ecosystems might partially contribute to “the missing carbon sink”.

Tian YQ, Xu XL, Song MH, Zhou CP, Gao Q, Ouyang H (2009). Carbon sequestration in two alpine soils on the Tibetan Plateau. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(9), 900–905.

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