January 1900, Volume 待分类 Issue 待分类

 

          Letters to the Editor
Jasmonate signaling makes flowers attractive to pollinators and repellant to florivores in nature
Author: Ran Li, Meredith C. Schuman, Yang Wang, Lucas Cortés Llorca, Julia Bing, Anne Bennion, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 23, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12607
      
    

Flowers are required for the Darwinian fitness of flowering plants, but flowers' advertisements for pollination services can attract florivores. Previous glasshouse work with Nicotiana attenuata revealed the role of jasmonate (JA) signaling in flower development, advertisement and defense. However, whether JA signaling mediates flowers' filtering of floral visitors in nature remained unknown. This field study revealed that silencing JA signaling resulted in flowers that produce less nectar and benzyl acetone, two pollinator-attractive traits. Meanwhile, flowers of defenseless plants were highly attacked by a suite of native herbivores, and damage to buds in native plants correlated negatively with their JA-Ile levels.

 

 

Abstract (Browse 16)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
NaMYB8 regulates distinct, optimally distributed herbivore defense traits
Author: Martin Schäfer, Christoph Brütting, Shuqing Xu, Zhihao Ling, Anke Steppuhn, Ian T. Baldwin and Meredith C. Schuman
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: August 26, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12593
      
    

When herbivores attack, plants specifically reconfigure their metabolism. Herbivory on the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata strongly induces the R2/R3 MYB transcriptional activator MYB8, which was reported to specifically regulate the accumulation of phenolamides (PAs). We discovered that transcriptional regulation of trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs) and a threonine deaminase (TD) also depend on MYB8 expression. Induced distributions of PAs, TD and TPIs all meet predictions of optimal defense theory: their leaf concentrations increase with the fitness value and the probability of attack of the tissue. Therefore, we suggest that these defensive compounds have evolved to be co-regulated by MYB8.

Abstract (Browse 69)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Cell and Developmental Biology
Defective Kernel 6 encodes a PPR protein required for seed development in maize  
Author: Xiaojie Li, Wei Gu, Silong Sun, Zongliang Chen, Jing Chen, Weibin Song, Haiming Zhao and Jinsheng Lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 5, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12602
      
    

RNA editing is a posttranscriptional process that is important in mitochondria and plastids of higher plants. All RNA editing specific trans-factors reported so far belong to PLS-class of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins. Here, we report the map-based cloning and molecular characterization of a defective kernel mutant dek6 in maize. Loss of Dek6 function leads to delayed embryogenesis and endosperm development, reduced kernel size, and seedling lethality. Dek6 encodes an E sub-class PPR protein that targets to both mitochondria and chloroplasts, and is involved in RNA editing in mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase3 (nad3) at nad3-247 and nad3-275. C to U editing of nad3-275 is not conserved and even lost in Arabidopsis, consisting with the idea that no close DEK6 homologs present in Arabidopsis. However, the amino acids generated by editing nad3-247 and nad3-275 are highly conserved in many other plant species, and the reductions of editing at these two sites decreased the activity of mitochondria NADH dehydrogenase complex I, indicating that the alteration of amino acid sequence is necessary for Nad3 function. Our results indicate that Dek6 encodes an E sub-class PPR protein that is involved in RNA editing of multiple sites and is necessary for seed development of maize.

Abstract (Browse 18)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
AGO18b negatively regulates determinacy of spikelet meristems on the tassel central spike in maize
Author: Wei Sun, Xiaoli Xiang, Lihong Zhai, Dan Zhang, Zheng Cao, Lei Liu and Zuxin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: September 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12596
      
    

The maize tassel represents an indeterminate male inflorescence. The number of primordia that a given inflorescence meristem produces is related to its determinacy, i.e., capacity for continued meristem activity. Transcription factors (TFs) controlling determinacy in tassel axillary meristems are well studied in maize, and small RNAs are known to influence tassel development by repressing targets including tassel-related TFs. As core components of the RNA-inducible silence complex (RISC), Argonaute (AGO) proteins are required for small RNA-mediated repression. Here, we characterized the biological function of AGO18b, a tassel-enriched AGO. The abundance of AGO18b transcripts gradually increased during tassel development from inception to gametogenesis and were enriched in the inflorescence meristem and axillary meristems of the tassel. Repressing AGO18b expression resulted in more spikelets, which contributed to a longer central spike of the tassel. Additionally, the transcripts of several HD-ZIP III transcription factors that were canonical targets of microRNA166 (miR166) accumulated in the AGO18b-repressed lines. We propose that AGO18b is a negative regulator of the determinacy of inflorescence and axillary meristems, and that it acts by interacting with the miR166-HD-ZIP III TF regulatory pathway.

Abstract (Browse 49)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant Reproduction Biology
          Functional Omics and Systems Biology
Whole genome re-sequencing reveals evolutionary patterns of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
Author: Longyu Huang, Mei Yang, Ling Li, Hui Li, Dong Yang, Tao Shi and Pingfang Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 20, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12606
      
    

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera or lotus) is an important aquatic plant in horticulture and ecosystem. As a foundation for exploring genomic variationand evolution among different germplasms, we re-sequenced 19 individuals from three cultivated temperate lotus subgroups (rhizome lotus, seed lotus and flower lotus),one wild temperate lotus subgroup (wild lotus), one tropical lotus group (Thai lotus) and outgroup (Nelumbo lutea). Through genetic diversity and polymorphism analysis by non-missing SNP sites widely distributed in the whole genome, weconfirmed that wild lotus and Thai lotus exhibited greater differentiation with a higher genomic diversity compared to cultivated lotus. Rhizome lotus hadthe lowest genomic diversity and a closer relationship to wild lotus, whereas the genomes of seed lotus and flower lotus were admixed.Genes in energy metabolism process and plant immunity evolved rapidly in lotus, reflecting local adaptation. We find that candidate genes in genomic regions with significant differentiation associated with temperate and tropical lotus divergence always exhibited highly divergent expression pattern.Together, this study comprehensive and credible interpretation important patterns of genetic diversity and relationships, gene evolution, and genomic signature from ecotypic differentiation of sacred lotus.

Abstract (Browse 14)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Graft-accelerated virus-induced gene silencing facilitates functional genomics in rose flowers
Author: Huijun Yan, Shaochuan Shi, Nan Ma, Xiaoqian Cao, Hao Zhang, Xianqin Qiu, Qigang Wang, Hongying Jian, Ningning Zhou, Zhao Zhang and Kaixue Tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: September 12, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12599
      
    

Rose has emerged as a model ornamental plant for studies of flower development, senescence, and morphology, as well as the metabolism of floral fragrances and colors. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has long since been used in functional genomics studies of rose by vacuum infiltration of cuttings or seedlings with an Agrobacterium suspension carrying TRV-derived vectors. However, VIGS in rose flowers remains a challenge because of its low efficiency and long time to silencing. Here we present a novel and rapid VIGS method that can be used to analyze gene function in rose, called ‘graft-accelerated VIGS’, where axillary sprouts are cut off the rose plant and vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium. The inoculated scions are then grafted back onto the plants to flower and silencing phenotypes can be observed within five weeks post infiltration. Using this new method, we successfully silenced the expression of the RhDFR1, RhAG, and RhNUDX1 in rose flowers, and affected their color, petal number, as well as fragrance, respectively. This grafting method will facilitate high-throughput functional analysis of genes in rose flowers. Importantly, it may also be applied to other woody species that are not currently amenable to VIGS by conventional leaf or plantlet/seedling infiltration methods.

Abstract (Browse 33)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          New Resources
Establishment and evaluation of a peanut association panel and analysis of key nutritional traits
Author: Xiurong Zhang, Suqing Zhu, Kun Zhang, Yongshan Wan, Fengzhen Liu, Qingfang Sun and Yingjie Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 4, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12601
      
    

Breeding programs aim to improve the yield and quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.); using association mapping to identify genetic markers linked to these quantitative traits could facilitate selection efficiency. Here, we established a peanut association panel consisting of 268 lines with extensive phenotypic and genetic variation, meeting the requirements for association analysis. We grew these lines over three years and examined key agronomic traits, including protein and oil content. Population structure (Q) analysis showed two subpopulations and clustering analysis was consistent with Q-based membership assignment and closely related to botanical type. Relative Kinship (K) indicated that most of the panel members have no or weak familial relatedness, with 52.78% of lines showing K=0. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed a high level of LD occurs in the panel. Considering Q and K controlled false positives and K generated more false positives than Q. A preliminary association analysis using a Q+K model found markers significantly associated with oil, protein, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, and identified a set of alleles with positive and negative effects. These results show that this panel is suitable for association analysis, providing a resource for marker-assisted selection for peanut improvement.

Abstract (Browse 14)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Chromatin-remodeling factor OsINO80 is involved in regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis and is crucial for rice plant growth and development
Author: Chao Li, Yuhao Liu, Wen-Hui Shen, Yu Yu and Aiwu Dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 17, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12603
      
    

The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays essential roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that OsINO80, a conserved ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor in rice (Oryza sativa), functions in diverse biological processes and GA biosynthesis. OsINO80-knockdown mutants, derived from either T-DNA insertion or RNA interference, display typical GA-deficient phenotypes, including dwarfism, reduced cell length, late flowering, retarded seed germination and impaired reproductive development. Consistently, transcriptome analyses reveal that OsINO80 knockdown results in down-regulation by more than two-fold of over 1000 genes, including the GA biosynthesis genes CPS1 and GA3ox2, and the dwarf phenotype of OsINO80-knockdown mutants can be rescued by the application of exogenous GA3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments show that OsINO80 directly binds to the chromatin of CPS1 and GA3ox2 loci. Biochemical assays prove that OsINO80 specially interacts with histone variant H2A.Z and the H2A.Z enrichments at CPS1 and GA3ox2 is decreased in OsINO80-knockdown mutants. Thus, our study identified a new rice chromatin-remodeling factor, OsINO80, and demonstrated that OsINO80 is involved in regulation of the GA biosynthesis pathway and plays critical functions at many aspects of rice plant growth and development.

Abstract (Browse 14)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-abiotic Interactions
Nicotiana attenuata's capacity to interact with arbuscular mycorrhiza alters its competitive ability and elicits major changes in the leaf transcriptome
Author: Ming Wang, Julia Wilde, Ian T. Baldwin and Karin Groten
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 31, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12609
      
    

To study the local and systemic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization, Nicotiana attenuata plants impaired in their interactions with AMF due to silencing of a calcium- and calmodulin dependent protein kinase (inverted repreat (ir)CCaMK) were grown competitively in pairs with empty vector (EV) plants, with and without two different types of inoculum. When inoculated, EV plants strongly outperformed irCCaMK plants. Foliar transcript profiling revealed that AMF colonization significantly changed gene expression of P-starvation and -transporter genes in irCCaMK plants. The Pht1 family phosphate transporter NaPT5 was not only specifically induced in roots after AMF colonization, but also in leaves of AMF-colonized irCCaMK plants, and in plants grown under low Pi conditions in the absence of AMF. The P-starvation signature of inoculated irCCaMK plants corresponded with increases in selected amino acids and phenolic compounds in leaves. We also found a strong AMF induced increase in amino acids and phenolic metabolites in roots. Plants impaired in their interactions with AMF clearly have a fitness disadvantage when competing for limited soil nutrients with a fully functional isogenic line. The additional role of the AMF-induced Pht1 family transporter NaPT5 in leaves under P-starvation conditions will require further experiments to fully resolve.

Abstract (Browse 12)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Long-distance ABA transport can mediate distal tissue responses by affecting local ABA concentrations
Author: Wenrao Li, Carlos de Ollas and Ian C Dodd
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 20, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12605
      
    

Environmental stresses that perturb plant water relations influence abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations, but it is unclear whether long-distance ABA transport contributes to changes in local ABA levels. To determine the physiological relevance of ABA transport, we made reciprocal- and self-grafts of ABA-deficient flacca mutant and wild-type (WT) tomato plants, in which low phosphorus (P) conditions decreased ABA concentrations while salinity increased ABA concentrations. Whereas foliar ABA concentrations in the WT scions were rootstock independent under normal conditions, salinity resulted in long-distance transport of ABA: flacca scions had approximately twice as much ABA when grafted on WT rootstocks compared to flacca rootstocks. Root ABA concentrations were scion dependent: both WT and flacca rootstocks had less ABA with the flacca mutant scion than with the WT scion under normal conditions. In WT scions, whereas rootstock genotype had limited effects on stomatal conductance under normal conditions, a flacca rootstock resulted in decreased leaf area in stressed plants, presumably due to attenuated root-to-shoot ABA transport. In flacca scions, a WT rootstock decreased stomatal conductance but increased leaf area of stressed plants, likely due to enhanced root-to-shoot ABA transport. Thus, long-distance ABA transport can affect responses in distal tissues by changing local ABA concentrations.

Abstract (Browse 14)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Characterization of the soybean GmALMT family genes and the function of GmALMT5 in response to phosphate starvation
Author: Wenting Peng, Weiwei Wu, Junchu Peng, Jiaojiao Li, Yan Lin, Yanan Wang, Jiang Tian, Lili Sun, Cuiyue Liang and Hong Liao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1900 待分类(待分类)
Published Online: October 17, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12604
      
    

A potential mechanism to enhance utilization of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) is the root secretion of malate, which is mainly mediated by the ALMT gene family in plants. In this study, a total of 34 GmALMT genes were identified in the soybean genome. Expression patterns diverged considerably among GmALMTs in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in leaves, roots and flowers, with expression altered by P availability in 26 of the 34 GmALMTs. One root-specific GmALMT whose expression was significantly enhanced by Pi-starvation, GmALMT5, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in soybean P nutrition. Analysis of GmALMT5 tissue expression patterns, subcellular localization, and malate exudation from transgenic soybean hairy roots overexpressing GmALMT5, demonstrated that GmALMT5 is plasma membrane protein that mediates malate efflux from roots. Furthermore, both growth and P content of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GmALMT5 were significantly increased when sparingly soluble Ca-P was used as the external P source. Taken together, these results indicate that members of the soybean GmALMT gene family exhibit diverse responses to Pi starvation. One member of this family, GmALMT5, might contribute to soybean P efficiency by enhancing utilization of sparingly soluble P sources under P limited conditions.

Abstract (Browse 10)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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