December 2009, Volume 51 Issue 12, Pages 1061C1156.


Cover Caption: MicroRNAs in Wild Soybean
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. As pleiotropic regulators, they function posttranscriptionally and involve in many basic physiologic processes, such as plant development and stress response. Through direct cloning, 24 new miRNA have been discovered in wild soybean (Glycine soja) and two putative target genes were experimentally verified. These results will facilitate our understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. See pages 1069C1077 for details.

 

          Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Author: JIPB Board
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1062-1063
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00908.x
Abstract (Browse 896)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Invited Expert Reviews
Gibberellin and Jasmonate Crosstalk during Stamen Development  
Author: Jinrong Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1064-1070
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00881.x
      
    

Gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) are two types of phytohormones that play important roles during stamen development. For example, Arabidopsis plants deficient in either of GA or JA develop short stamens. An apparent question to ask is whether GA action and JA action during stamen filament development are independent of each other or are in a hierarchy. Recent studies showed that GA modulates the expression of genes essential for JA biosynthesis to promote JA production and high levels of JA will induce the expression of three MYB genes MYB21, MYB24 and MYB57. These three MYB genes are crucial factors for the normal development of stamen filament in Arabidopsis.
 

Peng J (2009). GA and JA crosstalk during stamen development. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1064–1070.

Abstract (Browse 2056)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Cell and Developmental Biology
Identification of MicroRNAs in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)  
Author: Rui Chen, Zheng Hu and Hui Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1071-1079
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00887.x
      
    

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19–24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.
 

Chen R, Hu Z, Zhang H (2009). Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja). J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1071–1079.

Abstract (Browse 1987)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Metabolism and Biochemistry
Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Author: Ghulam Raza, Aquil Siddique, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan, Muhammed Yasin Ashraf and Abdullah Khatri
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1080-1085
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00880.x
      
    

The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17) of B. napus cv. ‘Rainbow’ (P) and three mutants (W97-95/16, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. ‘Westar’ (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3–41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1–28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.
 

Raza G, Siddique A, Khan IA, Ashraf MY, Khatri A (2009). Determination of essential fatty acid composition among mutant lines of canola (Brassica napus L.), through high pressure liquid chromatography. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1080–1085.

Abstract (Browse 1179)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Plant-environmental Interactions
Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Root Organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max
Author: Hua Zhang, Jun Tang, Xiao-Ping Liu, Yun Wang, Wei Yu, Wei-Yan Peng, Fang Fang, Dai-Fu Ma, Zhao-Jun Wei and Lan-Ying Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1086-1094
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00885.x
      
    

In this report, we demonstrate that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, promoted adventitious root formation mediated by auxin and nitric oxide (NO). Application of the H2S donor to seedling cuttings of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) promoted the number and length of adventitious roots in a dose-dependent manner. It was also verified that H2S or HS rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS could be attributed to the stimulation of adventitious root formation. A rapid increase in endogenous H2S, indole acetic acid (IAA) and NO were sequentially observed in shoot tips of sweet potato seedlings treated with HaHS. Further investigation showed that H2S-mediated root formation was alleviated by N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an IAA transport inhibitor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), an NO scavenger. Similar phenomena in H2S donor-dependent root
organogenesis were observed in both excised willow (Salix matsudana var. tortuosa Vilm) shoots and soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. These results indicated that the process of H2S-induced adventitious root formation was likely mediated by IAA and NO, and that H2S acts upstream of IAA and NO signal transduction pathways.
 

Zhang H, Tang J, Liu XP, Wang Y, Yu W, Peng WY, Fang F, Ma DF, Wei ZJ, Hu LY (2009). Hydrogen sulfide promotes root organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1086–1094.

Abstract (Browse 2146)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Potato Responds to Salt Stress by Increased Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes
Author: Keyvan Aghaei, Ali Akber Ehsanpour and Setsuko Komatsu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1095-1103
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00886.x
      
    

To understand the response of potato to salt stress, antioxidant enzyme activities and ion content were analyzed for a sensitive and a tolerant cultivar. Nodal cuttings of the tolerant cultivar, Kennebec, and the sensitive cultivar, Concord, were exposed to media without or with 30, 60, 90 or 120 mmol/L NaCl for 4 weeks. On exposure to NaCl, the length and fresh and dry weight of both shoots and roots of Concord showed greater decrease than those of Kennebec. The decrease in shoot growth was more severe than that of the root for both cultivars. The K+ content of shoots and roots of both cultivars was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure to NaCl; the Na+ content increased. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in NaCl-exposed shoots of Kennebec; the corresponding activities in NaCl-exposed shoots of Concord were decreased. Roots of both cultivars showed similar changes in the activities of these enzymes on exposure to NaCl. These studies established that enzyme activities in Concord shoots are inversely related to the NaCl concentration, whereas those in Kennebec do not show a dose dependency, which is also the case for the roots of both cultivars. Our findings suggest that an increase in activity of antioxidant enzymes, such asascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, can contribute to salt tolerance in Kennebec, a salt resistant cultivar of potato.
 

Aghaei K, Ehsanpour AA, Komatsu S (2009). Potato responds to salt stress by increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1095–1103.

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Drought-stimulated Activity of Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and its Catalytic Properties in Rice
Author: Zhuang-Qin Duan, Lei Bai, Zhi-Guang Zhao, Guo-Ping Zhang, Fang-Min Cheng, Li-Xi Jiang and Kun-Ming Chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1104-1115
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00879.x
      
    

The activity of plasma membrane (PM) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and its catalytic properties in rice was investigated under drought stress conditions. Drought stress led to decreased leaf relative water content (RWC) and, as a result of drought-induced oxidative stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes increased significantly. More interestingly, the intensity of applied water stress was correlated with increased production of H2O2 and O2 and elevated activity of PM NADPH oxidase, a key enzyme of reactive oxygen species generation in plants. Histochemical analyses also revealed increased H2O2 and O2 production in drought-stressed leaves. Application of diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PM NADPH oxidase, did not alleviate drought-induced production of H2O2 and O2. Catalysis experiments indicated that the rice PM NADPH oxidase was partially flavin dependent. The pH and temperature optima for this enzyme were 9.8 and 40 , respectively. In addition, drought stress enhanced the activity under alkaline pH and high temperature conditions. These results suggest that a complex regulatory mechanism, associated with the NADPH oxidase-H2O2 system, is involved in the response of rice to drought stress.
 

Duan ZQ, Bai L, Zhao ZG, Zhang GP, Cheng FM, Jiang LX, Chen KM (2009). Drought-stimulated activity of plasma membrane nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and its catalytic properties in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1104–1115.

Abstract (Browse 1902)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Physiology
Development of a Core Set from a Large Rice Collection using a Modified Heuristic Algorithm to Retain Maximum Diversity
Author: Hun-Ki Chung, Kyu-Won Kim, Jong-Wook Chung, Jung-Ro Lee, Sok-Young Lee, Anupam Dixit, Hee-Kyoung Kang, Weiguo Zhao, Kenneth L. McNally, Ruraidh S. Hamilton, Jae-Gyun Gwag and Yong-Jin Park
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1116-1125
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00882.x
      
    

A new heuristic approach was undertaken for the establishment of a core set for the diversity research of rice. As a result, 107 entries were selected from the 10 368 characterized accessions. The core set derived using this new approach provided a good representation of the characterized accessions present in the entire collection. No significant differences for the mean, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of each trait were observed between the core and existing collections. We also compared the diversity of core sets established using this Heuristic Core Collection (HCC) approach with those of core sets established using the conventional clustering methods. This modified heuristic algorithm can also be used to select genotype data with allelic richness and reduced redundancy, and to facilitate management and use of large collections of plant genetic resources in a more efficient way.
 

Chung HK, Kim KW, Chung JW, Lee JR, Lee SY, Dixit A, Kang HK, ZhaoW, McNally KL, Hamilton NRS, Gwag JG, Park YJ (2009). Development of a core set from a large rice collection using a modified heuristic algorithm to retain maximum diversity. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1116–1125.

Abstract (Browse 1362)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Association Analysis of the Amino Acid Contents in Rice
Author: Weiguo Zhao, Eun-Jin Park, Jong-Wook Chung, Yong-Jin Park, Ill-Min Chung, Joung-Kuk Ahn and Gwang-Ho Kim
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1126-1137
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00883.x
      
    

The main objective of the present study was to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with the amino acid content of rice (Oryza sativa L.). SSR markers were selected by prescreening for the relationship to amino acid content. Eighty-four rice landrace accessions from Korea were evaluated for 16 kinds of amino acids in brown rice and genotyped with 25 SSR markers. Analysis of population structure revealed four subgroups in the population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and distributions are of fundamental importance for genome-wide mapping associations. The mean r2 value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.033. LD between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker–trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). A total of 42 marker-trait associations with amino acids (P < 0.05) were identified using 15 different SSR markers covering three chromosomes and explaining more than 40% of the total variation. These results suggest that association analysis in rice is a viable alternative to quantitative trait loci mapping and should help rice breeders develop strategies for improving rice quality.
 

Zhao W, Park EJ, Chung JW, Park YJ, Chung IM, Ahn JK, Kim GH (2009). Association analysis of the amino acid contents in rice. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1126–1137.

Abstract (Browse 1358)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Performance of Hybrids between Weedy Rice and Insect-resistant Transgenic Rice under Field Experiments: Implication for Environmental Biosafety Assessment
Author: Qian-Jin Cao, Hui Xia, Xiao Yang and Bao-Rong Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1138-1148
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00877.x
      
    

Transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) rice into weedy rice via gene flow may cause undesired environmental consequences. Estimating the field performance of crop-weed hybrids will facilitate our understanding of potential introgression of crop genes (including transgenes) into weedy rice populations, allowing for effective biosafety assessment. Comparative studies of three weedy rice strains and their hybrids with two GM rice lines containing different insectresistance transgenes (CpTI or Bt/CpTI) indicated an enhanced relative performance of the crop-weed hybrids, with taller plants, more tillers, panicles, and spikelets per plant, as well as higher 1 000-seed weight, compared with the weedy rice parents, although the hybrids produced less filled seeds per plant than their weedy parents. Seeds from the F1 hybrids had higher germination rates and produced more seedlings than the weedy parents, which correlated positively with 1 000-seed weight. The crop-weed hybrids demonstrated a generally enhanced relative performance than their weedy rice parents in our field experiments. These findings indicate that transgenes from GM rice can persist to and introgress into weedy rice
populations through recurrent crop-to-weed gene flow with the aid of slightly increased relative fitness in F1 hybrids.
 

Cao QJ, Xia H, Yang X, Lu B-R (2009). Performance of hybrids between weedy rice and insect-resistant transgenic rice under field experiments: Implication for environmental biosafety assessment. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 51(12), 1138–1148.

Abstract (Browse 1620)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
          Obituary
Zhengli Li (Cheng-Lee Lee) 1918C2009
Author: JIPB Board
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1149-1150
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00894.x
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          Erratum
Erratum
Author: JIPB Board
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2009 51(12): 1151-1151
Published Online: November 26, 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2009.00897.x
Abstract (Browse 946)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
 

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